Many people believe that earthy fleas penetrate the house to pets. So, if you spend antiparasitic treatment of a pet, then the problem will be solved. Nevertheless, these biting insects appear even in apartments, where there are no cats and dogs. Parasites feed on any blood - both animal and human. We will try to highlight the types of struggle with these uninvited guests.
What are fleas? Bloodsucker parasites about 5 millimeters in size. The little body, flattened on the sides with multiple spikes, allows you to keep in the folds of clothing and animal fur. Fleas have three pairs of legs. The back gives them the opportunity to jump very far.
How dangerous are flea bites for humans?
Due to flea bites, an allergic reaction develops and itching is very severe, which leads to scratching. In addition, the bites themselves are very painful. These insects are carriers of malaria, plague, hepatitis, salmonellosis and typhoid. The fight against these parasites should begin immediately after their discovery, because their bites are dangerous to humans.
Pictured: flea bites on a person
Why do fleas appear in the house?
Often these guests are found indoors in the fall and summer. Their active invasion is especially familiar to the owners of the private sector and the inhabitants of the first floors. Fleas love to settle in abandoned and dirty rooms. But where do fleas come from in the apartment and how to get rid of them?
Ways of penetration of parasites into the dwelling:
- on pet hair,
- from the house entrance,
- from neighbors
- from the basement
- with rodents that carry them on themselves.
Mass reproduction of fleas is usually associated with a source of moisture in the basement: fleas like dampness and heat. A favorable environment for these insects exists in rooms that do not meet sanitary and hygienic standards, cluttered, unventilated, dirty.
Since the size of the parasites is negligible, they enter the room through narrow gaps. In addition, they do not need a permanent stay on a person or animal. These insects can wait for a long time under linoleum, in pieces of furniture, in carpets, clothes, between baseboards and in soft toys.
Dampness as the cause of insects
Untidiness and high humidity in the apartment and basement often lead to the multiplication of fleas. For their destruction, a set of measures should be implemented:
- inspect the basement of the house for leakage and pipes,
- check communications within the apartment,
- check the operation of the ventilation system.
Features of bloodsucking parasites
Earthen or sandy fleas like to settle in the sand / soil, hence the name of the parasite. This type of flea prefers to settle in basements that do not shine with cleanliness. In search of food, parasites penetrate into the apartments, feed on human blood, do not hesitate to bite a pet.
What does an earthen flea look like? This species is not particularly different from the relatives. The insect has a round body, flattened on both sides, there are several pairs of legs that contribute to high jumps. Smooth and durable shell protects the flea from mechanical stress. The size of the parasite does not exceed five millimeters. The shell consists of scutes, the body is covered with hairs, which helps the flea to move quickly in the victim's fur.
Earthen fleas rarely rise above the second floor, parasites lay larvae that feed on the remains of dead skin. Pests settle in secluded corners: behind a plinth, bedding of animals. Often there are pests in garages, outbuildings, waiting for the arrival of another victim.
Adult insects feed exclusively on the blood of warm-blooded creatures, often humans. Parasites do not like to live on their victims; after a bite, they safely hide in secluded corners of the room. Females are able to lay eggs only after complete saturation of the body.
The name ground fleas combines two dissimilar pest groups. The first feeds on human blood, the other is similar to the Colorado potato beetle, destroys the crop.
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On the effect of pets on infection with earthen fleas
Of course, the most common cause of uninvited guests in the home - their transfer pets. Parasites are found in large numbers around the ears, neck and tail. An animal infected with fleas urgently needs treatment. There are various ways of getting rid of fleas: shampoos, drops, tablets, collars. The last assigned a preventive role. However, after processing, pets will be spared from parasites, but the whole room is not. After all, fleas also accumulate on the surface and inside the bed of the animal, as well as in aviaries, pile carpets and so on.
Danger to humans
In addition to anxiety from bites that begin to itch, cause allergic reactions, fleas can bring small or weakened animals to death. The wounds after the bites of an earthen flea begin to fester, eczema forms in their place. Itchy places are an excellent entry for various bacteria, fungi. People can control their actions, but animals often comb bites, which leads to sad consequences.
Some people lose sleep because of bites, become irritable, they have to constantly take antihistamines, which is bad for health. In addition, bloodsuckers can tolerate dangerous ailments: plague, encephalitis, typhoid, helminth, hepatitis. It is not surprising that the question of how best to overcome earth fleas is relevant today.
How to deal with fleas?
It is important to use anti-flea agents in the complex, one thing will not give the desired result. To quickly get rid of fleas at home, follow these rules.
- Entering the premises after visiting the basements, wet rooms, it is necessary to inspect the shoes and clothes.
- If the fleas started in the apartment, you need a quality cleaning: they do not tolerate cleanliness. Be sure to vacuum the carpets, bring them to the sun or frost, and bedding - wash and iron carefully.
- Before using special tools, you need to make sure that they are effective. Insecticidal agents buy in specialized stores and carefully study the instructions and composition. It is important when processing the premises do not forget to clean the place under the bathroom.
- Pets need to wear a flea collar and wash them with a special shampoo. Do not forget about the regular cleaning of all bedding and rugs in the housing.
- Cellars should be given special attention. If the problem lies in them, then personal forces can not do - contact the experts.
The reasons for the appearance in the house
The influx of earthen fleas in the apartment is observed in the summer-autumn period. The accumulation of parasites is very familiar to residents of private houses, lower floors. The main sources of infection of the apartment experts include:
- fleas in apartments are often transported by animals, it is easy for the parasite to attach to wool rather than cling to clothes, shoes,
- from the basement. If a pipe leaked into it, unfavorable conditions appeared, do not hesitate, the bloodsuckers will begin to climb higher in search of food. Also an impetus to the infection of your apartment can serve as repair work in the basement,
- rats carry many parasites, earthen fleas are no exception.
Due to the presence of a source of moisture in the basement, the parasites multiply actively, the temperature conditions are quite satisfactory for bloodsuckers. The lack of regular cleaning in the basement, the presence of constant moisture - an ideal habitat for pests. Due to the presence of cracks, cracks in the walls of such small parasites is not difficult to enter the apartment. Having noticed at least one individual, begin to fight with it. After processing the room adhere to preventive recommendations.
Effective methods of combating parasites
How to get rid of earthy fleas in the apartment? Recommendations:
- Put a white cloth on the floor, periodically look at the material, if you see black dots on them that are actively moving, immediately hunt for fleas,
- look at your pet. The presence of fleas indicates a constant concern of the animal. Spread the fur, inspect the area of the ears, neck, if parasites are present, they can be seen,
- the presence of red spots on the body (especially on the legs) indicates proximity to parasites. Do not brush the wounds, try to quickly get rid of insects, returning the joy of life.
Preparing for home treatment
Preparation of the premises for processing includes several steps:
- clean the apartment. First, vacuum, mechanically remove most of the parasites. Pay particular attention to baseboards, crevices in the floor, other nooks and corners. Then do a wet cleaning with soapy water. Wipe all surfaces in the room, do not rinse,
- shake out all removable products (pillows, curtains, carpets), wash as much as possible more than 60 degrees in hot water,
- disassemble all the furniture, carefully treat with soapy water, then with special means. Parasites are able to settle on the lower shelves of cabinets, cabinets, fleeing from cleaning, insecticides,
- send all households for a walk, take even indoor plants to the street,
- Protect your respiratory system, skin from chemicals by wearing rubber gloves and a gauze bandage.
Only after carrying out the above recommendations, engage in the destruction of ground fleas. Failing to follow useful recommendations, the effectiveness of the effort invested in harassing bloodsuckers will leave much to be desired.
How to remove earthen fleas from the house? With parasites, experts recommend to fight with the help of professional insecticides, which show the best results against earth fleas. Preparations:
All drugs can be purchased at specialized hardware stores. Before buying, carefully read the instructions, follow these recommendations. Get specialized tools, they give almost 100% guarantee, unlike the usual Diclofos. Professional products are sold in large packages, which is enough for processing a rather big room, while the spray will last only 10 square meters.
If you re-infect the room with earthen fleas, change the drug, otherwise you will not achieve the desired result. Parasites can develop immunity to poison, calmly endure “attacks” by an already familiar means.
After processing the room, do not forget about pets. A lot of parasites can settle on animal hair, then reinfection can be avoided at home. Use the drug according to the instructions, a week after swimming, put a special collar on the animal.
Modern products are impregnated with a special substance that frightens bloodsuckers. Be alert, potent substances can harm your pet. A safer option is the use of sprays, foams, which include insecticides, they are allowed to be used regularly for preventive purposes.
Folk methods of destruction
Folk remedies that are absolutely safe for animals, do not emit pungent odors, but do an excellent job with the task, are very popular.
- Build a simple trap: Pour water into a small bowl, drip five milliliters of detergent, put it under the lamp. In the morning, collect the dead individuals, repeat the manipulations until the parasites are completely destroyed,
- in a warm period of time bring all the pillows, blankets in the open sun. Such conditions are not to the liking of fleas; in a few hours not a single individual will remain on things
- place dried grass of tansy, wormwood, sage, eucalyptus throughout the apartment. These smells frighten away a lot of insects, do not forget to change the bags with a natural remedy against bloodsuckers,
- the esters of these plants act in a similar way. Combine a tablespoon of the product with a liter of water, spray it all over the apartment, a week later repeat the manipulations. During this time, most individuals leave the house, no longer want to return.
Earthen flea bites: symptoms and treatment
Useful recommendations will help to cope with unpleasant sensations, to sanitize the wound:
- wash the damaged skin under running water, treat with soap,
- lubricate the bite with any antiseptic, iodine, green, hydrogen peroxide,
- dilute in a ratio of 1: 1 water and vinegar, the resulting solution lubricate the sore spot,
- to remove puffiness, itching will help some medicines: Panthenol, Psilo-Balsam, Rescuer,
- local allergic reactions suppress effective ointments: Fenistil Gel, hydrocortisone ointment, Soventol,
- in case of extensive allergic reactions, take one pill of Diazolin or Suprastin. Then go to the doctor, in serious situations, call an ambulance to the house.
A set of healing recommendations quickly get rid of unpleasant sensations, symptoms. Having adjusted your health, engage in the destruction of bloodsuckers, otherwise such manipulations will have to be done every day.
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Prevention of appearance
To prevent the attack of fleas in several ways:
- regular general cleaning of the apartment, disassemble old things, do not collect trash. Feel free to throw away unnecessary things, such manipulations will help protect against many insects who love the mess, the presence of secluded places,
- do wet cleaning with fragrant substances (esters of tansy, tea tree). These smells will give comfort to the house, scare away uninvited guests,
- Take care of pets in the house. Pay attention to the behavior of the animal, if the cat or dog itch often, check for fleas, if necessary engage in the extermination of bloodsuckers.
More ways to deal with earthen fleas in the house, see the following video:
What are earthy fleas and what do they look like?
So, before you rush to destroy "jumping something" in your apartment, make sure that these are really fleas. There are quite a few varieties of them, which in many cases leads to confusion. Earthen fleas can be called beetles belonging to the leaf beetle family. Externally, these insects will easily go for the blood-sucking, because they have the same large hind legs, created by nature for the convenience of the high jump. Immediately notice them quite difficult because of their tiny size - no more than 5 mm.
The following is a variety of ground flea colors:
The habitat of small parasites in the house, like bedbugs, is bed, carpets and baseboards. Can also settle in the sink. They choose places that a person often visits, because they feed on his blood. People are also excellent vehicles for the movement of flea eggs.The adult flea is usually brown in color, but the hatched just from the egg has a black color.
Tips for killing indoor insects
To fully seize the house and bring great inconvenience to human comfort, the flea will need a month. Many people think that for a person fleas are safe, but no matter how. Bites are not only itchy for a long time, but they cause inflammation. Children, combing wounds, bring various infections there, which can cause the formation of pus.
There are proven ways to exterminate nasty parasites:
- eliminate the possibility of insects coming to the apartment, including ventilation,
- process pets with special means
- destroy bloodsuckers with larvae with aerosol means. After that, it is not recommended to wash the floor for about a week, otherwise the larvae can “give” new unexpected inhabitants of the dwelling. In some cases, re-processing is mandatory,
- Things should be carefully washed and ironed with a hot iron; pillows and blankets should be held outside in the sun.
You can try and folk methods:
- sharp smelling herbal infusions. Mix the wormwood (2), eucalyptus (1) and tansy (1) and pour boiling water over it. Insist in a cold set for about a week, and then irrigate the flat of the splashing devices (can be regarded as a preventive measure),
- pine sawdust. Put them next to pets (you can sew inside a pillow, mattress or soft toys). Fleas will start looking for another refuge,
- salt and soda. They need to be mixed in equal parts and scattered everywhere where fleas live. The next morning, be sure to vacuum
- brewer's yeast with garlic. The mixture should be scattered on the floor, carpets, baseboards and upholstered furniture. After a day, use a vacuum cleaner for cleaning.
Often, it is not possible to get rid of fleas in the contaminated room during one treatment - then a repeated disinsection procedure is necessary.
If you are a skeptic, try several methods of destruction with a distance of a couple of days and then you can come to the conclusion about the effectiveness of each method.
Do I need to deal with earthen fleas in the garden or in the yard?
The question clearly requires the answer "yes." Since these insolent insects can easily migrate back into the house and again deliver a new batch of trouble. And I do not want to start all over again! Everything will be fine if you start extermination in an open area with insecticide treatment of all plants, including seedlings. Suitable drugs and from the Colorado potato beetles. You can protect your site from the invasion of pests by planting hemp, wormwood, tobacco, celandine. It is advisable to do this around the whole territory.
If no method helps, or you do not believe in advance that you will be able to eradicate fleas on your own, you can always contact the health station. Professionals will surely deal with your problem quickly, since they direct the action of highly effective poisons specifically to the habitats of fleas and larvae, carefully treating them. But you should pay more for the service than the usual remedy for annoying insects.
In order not to suffer from "nasty bloodsuckers", be sure to use ways to prevent their appearance in the house.
So follow the simple rules:
- Often sort things in cabinets, closets, storage rooms, etc.
- Watch out for pets, applying the usual measures of care - bathing, extermination of parasites when they appear.
- Remove excess carpets and soft toys - favorite habitats of fleas and their larvae.
- Open windows if possible. In winter - at least 2 times a day.
- Be sure to do a wet cleaning at least once every 3 days.
We hope that this information will be useful in terms of information, and tips on exterminating and preventing earthen fleas will help you to forget about their existence forever.
What fleas can live in the house
The classification of these insects, relative to the habitat in human dwelling, is directly related to the chosen source of parasitism. Considering the issue in this vein, allocate fleas:
Attention! To understand how to get rid of earthen fleas, it is important to know what they eat. And this is precisely the distinguishing feature of parasites of this type - they do not attack a person, but suck the sap of plants. In this regard, it is worth paying attention that sometimes, any fleas jumping on people from the earth are called earthen. This is wrong, as earthen fleas are more like beetles of the leaf beetle family. Simply, they are visually similar to bloodsucking relatives and also move - by jumping. Therefore, we cannot show a photo of human bites.
What is it an earthen flea
To understand how to remove earthen fleas from the house, first of all, you need to make sure that this is the “enemy”.
Possible coloration of the trunk and head
So, the earthen flea:
- Small insect length of 1-5 mm, although individual females can grow up to 10 mm.
- The characteristic color of the body may be different - from yellow to dark brown or black. It all depends on the color of the plant on which the insect is parasitic. There are also subspecies with a bright extravagant color.
- Body shape - slightly flattened at the sides.
- It is able to jump with the help of three pairs of legs, one of which is located on the back of the body and, as a matter of fact, provides the insect with jumping ability over distances many times along the length exceeding the size of the parasite itself. Although she jumps and not as far as they are able to these fleas. "Legs for jumping" thickened in the hips.
- Equipped with a piercing-sucking principle of the mouth.
- It has a rather long life cycle - up to 24 months.
- The female in her life lays up to 500 eggs, which ripening time is from 14 to 30 days.
- Eggs appear from eggs, there they pupate. After 2 weeks they develop into mature individuals. In this form, they winter, so that next year to give birth.
Important! It is the earthen fleas in the house that appear by chance - their favorite habitat is the garden. After all, there is only abundant vegetable juice, due to which they live.
Where does the "enemy" settle in the apartment?
Flea domination in an apartment on the floor above the first is a very rare phenomenon, but in a private house they can choose a place for themselves. Insects settle in the upper layer of the earth - underground or in the basement. They love a humid environment and areas where little or no sunlight enters. At the same time they should have a permanent source of food - indoor plants or seedlings. Search for insects need on the underside of the leaves - there are holes, holes are covered and the stems. After a while the plant fades.
Interesting! Fleas without food can live a month, or even two, although they will always be “on the lookout” and will replenish their reserves as soon as possible. These parasites are even found in Ankartid, so they are adapted for survival under extreme temperature conditions.
The ground flea feeds exclusively on plant sap - it does not bite people.
If possible, it is worth purchasing professional insecticidal products - microgranular preparations such as:
Search for them is in specialized companies involved in the fight against insects. The reason is that they are delivered to the market in bulk packages. In small quantities, these funds can be purchased only in this way. Naturally, they will be more expensive than simple compositions such as dust or the same Dichlorvos. If preference is given to an aerosol product, then it is worth assuming that 1 can will be enough to handle an area of 10 square meters.
Attention! Any insecticidal product should be used using PPE. Chemicals against fleas, as against any domestic insects, are toxic to humans. It is also important to understand that in case of repeated infection of the premises with these parasites, the drug must be changed.
And one more important point: before starting treatment with an insecticide, the room must be very carefully vacuumed - this is a mechanical method of removing parasites. The same procedure must be carried out after the fleas die.
Get rid without chemistry
Flea Control Requires Vacuum Cleaner
Help from fleas to get rid of folk remedies:
- Infusions of herbs - mint, wormwood, eucalyptus, tansy. They have a strong odor that many insects are not tolerated, including earthen fleas.
- In the habitats of parasites spread pine sawdust.
- Baking soda. If the flea lesion is small, then this bulk material can be used.
- Processing the premises with a mixture of chopped garlic and brewer's yeast will help to expel the "uninvited guests."
As an option
Doubt in your abilities or repeated attempts to solve the problem on your own did not lead to the desired result - ask for professional assistance from the pest control company. This way is the easiest and easiest for humans, but not the cheapest. However, it is possible to look at it from the other side - if you have to buy household preparations against such parasites several times, the amount spent will be about the same as the cost of the disinsector services. At the same time, own time and nerves will be spent. In any case, the consumer always has a choice - it's great!
Meet the Earthen Flea
These insects feed mainly on the blood of warm-blooded animals. As carriers of deadly diseases, they have earned a bad reputation. There was some confusion with the very concept of an “earthen flea”. In the people, this is a collective definition of parasites of different species - rat, mouse, dog and others. To a greater extent, it describes their dislocation.
Basement and domestic fleas are also collective concepts.
The true type of ground fleas has nothing to do with bites and self-mutilation: these are the herbivorous bugs of the leaf beetles family. They have similar characteristics - small size and ability to cover the distance in a jump. It is almost impossible to distinguish a herbivore from a predator with the naked eye, especially since leaf beetles can also get into the house.
More earthy called sandy fleas that live exclusively in the tropics. This is an extremely unpleasant and dangerous type, the female individuals of which are embedded in the upper layer of the skin.
Sand fleas are often classified as earthen.
Among the biting home ground fleas include:
Due to their small size, it is impossible for a non-specialist to distinguish between them: almost identical body structure, size and versatility in food (different species can be on the same animal at the same time) also add confusion.
Where earthen fleas live
Parasites are found on all continents. They live near food sources - warm-blooded animals and humans. Habitat - the upper layers of the soil. When they get into the houses, they settle down the litter of pets, settle in carpets, on the floor, under baseboards, in upholstered furniture, in crevices of walls and even soft toys of children. In the larvae, warm and dark corners with high humidity enjoy special love.
The centuries-old parasitic lifestyle has influenced the formation of fleas. Strongly flattened on the sides of the body helps to easily move along the host's coat, and durable chitinous shell reliably protects against mechanical damage. Color mainly patronizing shades - from red and light brown to coffee and almost black. Characterized by the presence of three pairs of legs, each of which ends in sharp forked claws. Diving is ensured by flexible powerful limbs, a breastplate (which, due to contraction before the jump, acts as a catapult) and numerous needle-shaped processes located on the body.
The flea has a piercing-sucking mouth apparatus.
The flea's stomach is able to greatly stretch. It is saturated in 20 minutes, and it digests the blood for 5–6 hours. In the lateral part of the abdomen there is a special organ of touch, the pygidium. Life expectancy depends on environmental conditions - from 1 month to 3 years. Flea mating is a long process (several hours) and difficult, for the implementation of which the factor of satiety of individuals is important. The female lays eggs in portions up to 10 pieces at a time and, under favorable conditions, makes it several times a day.
Causes of earthen fleas in the house
Usually, people understand that their house is infected by the characteristic painful bites and immediately think about where the fleas came from. Neither the cleanliness of the owners, nor living in an apartment building in the metropolis does not guarantee protection from them. Often, parasites penetrate into the home on the shoes or clothing of a person, through an open window or from neighbors. Main sources of appearance:
- dirty basement
- infected pets
- purchased items.
Flea bites: what they look like, what are dangerous, treatment
Unlike other human blood-sucking ectoparasites - ticks or bedbugs - it is impossible not to notice contact with the flea. Each damage to the skin is accompanied by acute burning pain, akin to the injection. Earthen fleas do not care about the comfort of the host. They are not afraid to find themselves, because to catch and destroy an insect with their bare hands is not an easy task.
The only way to mechanically destroy a flea is to press it with a finger to a hard surface and crush it.
Favorite attack areas are feet from feet to knees. With the first portion of saliva, anticoagulants are injected - substances that prevent blood clotting - and a trickle of blood flows into the parasite. In the process of feeding, a bowel movement occurs. At the site of the bite, a small bump with a hole is formed, if it is damaged, inflammation and suppuration occur: therefore, it is recommended to refrain from scratching. With a careful study of the affected area visible blood crusts, perhaps minor bleeding. Another evidence that the bites appeared from earthen fleas is the presence of several punctures in a small area of the skin.
Characteristic flea bites - small red tubercles with blood crusts
The danger of flea bites
The harm to the body is directly proportional to the number of attacks. And if two or three bites deliver only local discomfort, the series of attacks will not pass unnoticed by the body. After all, fleas are carriers of deadly diseases and various helminthic invasions. They themselves call:
- pulicosis - a dermatological disease, characterized by a profound lesion of the skin, lymphatic and nervous systems, the bite area itches, swells and becomes denser, and ulcers appear on the mucous membranes, The name pulikoz comes from the Latin Pulex irritans (human flea)
- tungiosiosis (sarcopesillosis) - its pathogen - sand flea - penetrates under the skin and sticks to the blood vessel, and a large infiltration forms at the attachment site, which becomes a source of painful itching and pain, the affected area begins to peel off, swells strongly, reddens. In Uganda in 2010, an epidemic of sarcopsillosis struck 20 thousand people, 20 of whom died
Because of the bite marks, there are pockets of secondary infection. Insects often become a source of allergic reactions. Fleas are especially dangerous for children who are more susceptible to complications.
Video: flea attack on children
This is an atypical response of the immune system, arising from contact with insect saliva. In people with a reduced sensitivity to flea secretion, there are no signs of a general deterioration in health. Burning and itching appear in the puncture site, a papule (intradermal nodule) is formed. Typical reactions include swelling and slight redness. After 2–3 days, healing begins.
Allergic reaction to flea bites often appears in children
Some people have an atypical response (even anaphylactic shock) to a flea bite. It is extremely important not to ignore the symptoms and react adequately to their appearance - seek medical help in a timely manner.
Symptoms of an allergic reaction:
- high fever, chills,
- painful, almost unbearable itching at the bite,
- significant swelling and redness of the skin,
- active blood supply (hyperemia) of papules, formation of abscesses,
- swollen lymph nodes
In rare cases arises:
- shortness of breath, choking,
- headaches, dizziness, loss of orientation,
- dysfunction of the gastrointestinal tract,
- pressure surges.
The treatment is carried out with antihistamine, antipyretic and sedative drugs.
It appears frequently and is usually a sign of an allergic reaction, the lack of treatment in this case is fraught with serious consequences for the whole organism. The appearance of edema, suppuration and extensive redness indicates the presence of infection in the wound. In any case, immediately seek medical help, as self-medication will aggravate the situation. Symptoms of inflammation are:
- increased puffiness
- the appearance of pus (purulent crusts),
- increasing itching
- redness of a large area around the bite site.
In the Middle Ages, it was these blood-sucking that caused the epidemic of bubonic plague that claimed thousands of lives. Lack of treatment and ignoring bites increase the risk of infection. Fleas - the cause of neurosis and insomnia, carriers of various viruses, bacteria, fungi, worms. The most dangerous diseases:
- Plague. The following forms are distinguished: bubonic (inflammation of the lymph nodes), pulmonary (the last stage of bubonic), septic (penetration of the pathogen into the bloodstream). The primary source is a zoonotic bacterium that lives in small mammals, such as rats. When fed through the blood, the pathogen enters the body of the flea, which makes it infected. From 30 to 60% of infections are fatal; the lack of treatment is a death sentence. Early detection guarantees a favorable prognosis.
- Typhoid is a bacterial infectious disease that affects the organs of the gastrointestinal tract. The course of the disease is usually severe, there are severe headache and intestinal pain, high fever, dermatological rash.
- Tularemia is an infectious disease that affects the lymphatic system. It has a plague-like character, causing headaches and fever.
- Encephalitis is an acute inflammatory lesion of the brain. There are primary (direct neuroinfection) and secondary (a complication due to the detection of toxocariasis or typhoid) forms.
- Toksokaroz. This is a common helminthiasis, affecting mainly young people and children. Transmission path: an infected animal - a flea - a man. The primary sources are infected dogs (up to 76%) and cats. The prognosis for recovery is positive.
- Trypanosomiasis (sleeping sickness). It is acute infectious in nature, affects the lymphatic and central nervous systems. Causes a number of serious complications: drowsiness, mental disorders, coma, swelling, fever. The disease is typical for countries in tropical Africa.
- Listeriosis Zoonotic infection (transmitted from animals), which is rare among humans. It is characterized by a severe course, affects almost all organ systems. In extreme forms it causes sepsis.
- Pasteurellosis. A rare infectious disease for humans, named after the discoverer Louis Pasteur, is characterized by multiple organ failure, high fever, and inflammatory local reactions.
- Brucellosis. Infection that causes persistent allergic alteration of the body and affects the musculoskeletal, nervous and sexual systems. Often is chronic.
The complex of measures boils down to three principles:
- Acceptance of antihistamine drugs.
- Anesthesia, removal of itching.
Immediately after the bite, the affected area is washed with cold water with antiseptic soap and treated with a special gel, a local disinfectant:
After disinfection take an antihistamine:
Due to the individual reaction to the components, it is better to choose the drug after consulting with a specialist. Also take care of removing the painful local symptoms - attach an ice cube or use a medicine. Many modern products have a complex effect: they promote healing, reduce the risk of allergic reactions and relieve a number of discomfort. The most effective include:
On average, healing takes no more than 3 days. During the entire time, carefully monitor the condition of the bites so that when atypical reactions and inflammation appear, consult a doctor promptly.
The principles of most folk remedies are aimed at reducing itching and pain. Use homemade recipes carefully, taking into account the individual sensitivity to the components and weighing the harm and benefits of such treatment.
Measures to combat earthen fleas
Before you begin to clean the home of parasites, identify the source of infection:
- If they migrated from the basement or from the neighbors, then there will be little use from general cleaning in their apartment: in time, the problem will return. In such cases, consult a professional desinsector and completely eliminate the infecting factor.
- If the source of fleas in the house has become a pet, start with it. Use insecticidal sprays, drops, tablets and other means prescribed by a veterinarian. If there are dogs or cats in the house, treat them with special flea products - shampoos, sprays, drops.
- In the private sector, along with the house itself, handle all homestead buildings, check the attic and surrounding areas. It is possible that the attacking jumpers are leaf beetles. In this case, etch the parasites from the plants (as suitable as special insecticides, and funds from the Colorado potato beetles), and only then proceed to cleaning the house. As an additional measure, plant on the territory of a celandine, tobacco, or wormwood, which have scaring properties. If you have livestock and birds, sanitize them.
Preliminary measures to prepare the premises for disinsection include isolation of pregnant and lactating women, children and pets.
The principle of cleaning the premises is the same for a private house and apartment.
- personal protective equipment (rubber gloves, mask, protective clothing),
- vacuum cleaner, steam generator (for processing corners and hard-to-reach surfaces),
- standard cleaning products - sponges, rags, etc.
- Thorough cleaning.
- Use of insecticide.
- Insulation of the room at a time.
- Re-cleaning with the use of disinfecting detergents (for example, Glorix, Alpinol, Alaminol-Plus, Maxi-Des M).
Folk remedies are no less effective than chemical ones, but they require more time and effort. Spend a thorough cleaning and only then treat the premises with folk remedies. This role is performed by:
- concentrated herbal teas with a scaring effect - eucalyptus, wormwood, tansy,
- salt - rubbed on the surface of carpets and upholstered furniture for 2-3 days,
- soda - it is used in the same way as salt, their combination in a 1: 1 ratio is allowed,
- the essential oils — lavender, mint, eucalyptus, lemongrass, basil, cedar, thyme and rosemary — are diluted with water in a ratio of 25 drops to 5 liters,
- boric acid - powder sprinkled the accumulation of parasites.
After processing and re-harvesting, arrange the fresh grass brooms, citrus peels or coniferous branches in rooms.
After the destruction of earthen fleas, arrange indoor dry herbs that repel parasites - lavender, wormwood, mint
This is the most adequate way to deal with earthen fleas. The active substance causes paralysis of the nervous system and subsequent short-term death.
Enhance the effect of pest control thorough pre-cleaning with a vacuum cleaner.
Many drugs are extremely toxic and are not intended for self-use, so before choosing a particular remedy, carefully read the instructions. When processing remove from the premises of children and pets.
Where do they come from in the house?
Many believe that fleas infest only in dirty homes, where no one cleans and does not monitor sanitation. This is only partially true. Flea larvae really live much better in the mud, but adults often get into the homes of clean people. These parasites penetrate the living rooms from the basement, vegetable garden or from the street. With their paws, they cling to people's clothing or animal hair, and thus find a new habitat for themselves.
Sometimes people bring them into the house themselves, using the soil from the street for planting ornamental plants.
It is believed that these insects live only in private buildings, but they can be found even in the apartments of high-rise buildings.
There they go:
- through the leakproof closed passages from the basement,
- with fur pets walking in the street,
- from the infected dwellings of neighbors,
- rodents can bring fleas, almost always infected with such parasites.
For the settlement of the apartment does not necessarily bring a few dozen insects at once. Even 2-3 fleas will lay eggs after some time, and a whole colony of parasites will appear in the house.
It is not pleasant in this, since fleas not only bite people, causing them a lot of trouble, but also suffer various dangerous diseases. Outside the host's body, adults move by jumping, they can only run in the animal's fur. Therefore, they just jump on the person from the floor.
In order to avoid the troubles associated with the penetration of parasites into the house, it is necessary to take urgent measures:
- process the room with special preparations,
- wash all things in hot water or, alternatively, steam it,
- to stretch and dry all the carpets, bedspreads and pillows in the sun,
- bring out fleas from pets
- block the path of entry of insects into the room, filling up all suspicious cracks.
After the removal of fleas it is useful from time to time to use folk remedies as a preventive measure - this will help scare away uninvited visitors.
Insects often settle in secluded places at a height of no more than 1.5 m.
They are hidden in the cracks on the floor, behind baseboards, in soft toys, carpets and furniture, as their flattened body and small size make it possible to hide in the smallest shelters. Therefore, when processing it is necessary to pay special attention to these particular places of their possible habitat.
Sometimes the cause of parasites is excessive moisture. In this case, you need to carefully check the communications system and sanitary facilities. Everything must be well ventilated and leaks must be excluded.
Professional pest control
If you do not want to engage in the breeding of these unpleasant insects, you can simply contact a special service. Calling such a team is expensive, but the apartment owner does not have to waste time on pest control.
Specialists use powerful drugs and know which places these or those parasites prefer.
As a rule, professionals choose effective but safe means of prolonged action, which destroy both adults and insects that have to hatch.
A considerable advantage is the fact that many companies give a guarantee on their services. If parasites reappear in the dwelling after treatment, they propose to repeat the disinsection for free. Also, the services operate confidentially - information that processing was carried out in the house has not been disclosed.
In the fight against fleas, insecticidal agents have proven themselves the best, but still it will not work to get rid of such parasites at once. Adults after treatment will die within an hour, but after a few days a new generation will hatch from the remaining eggs.
Therefore, the processing is desirable to carry out several times.
Aerosol products are well suited to fight fleas. One cylinder is enough to handle 10–12 squares of living space.
The most famous:
They are easy to use and immediately ready for use. Sometimes the aerosol is not enough to get rid of the larvae. For this purpose, powdered products are more suitable (Pyrethrum, Fenaxin). But in any case, in addition to chemicals, you need to prepare a vacuum cleaner, a cleaning kit, a mask and rubber gloves.
List of the most popular:
- Soda with salt. Stir in a 1: 1 ratio. Scatter on the floor, furniture and window sills, leave for 24 hours, then vacuum.
- Infusion of wormwood, tansy and eucalyptus leaves. Take one part of each herb and pour 1.5 tbsp. boiling water. Insist 24 hours. Spray flooring, baseboards and window sills for several days.
- Eucalyptus extract. Dilute in water and spray all the rooms. Fleas do not tolerate the smell of pine needles.
- Pine sawdust. This option is suitable for people who have pets. Pet bed must be filled with pine sawdust. The peculiar smell will scare away insects.
- Garlic and brewer's yeast. Grind the garlic and mix with the yeast. Treat all floors and vacuum after 12 hours.
These funds are safe for human health and help save a considerable amount. Therefore, it is better to try to first remove the fleas folk remedies.
How to get fleas in the house if you have children?
First of all, you need to constantly vacuum everything: carpets, furniture, floors, shelves of books, curtains. Carpets should be dry cleaned. If the invasion of fleas happened in winter, you can fully open all the windows in the house while walking with the child on the street - the fleas do not tolerate the cold. A good effect is the unfolding of the branches of wormwood, mint or geranium.
When there are small children in the house, you need to use sparing means that in no way can harm their health. But if simple methods do not work, it is better to isolate the baby from the apartment for a few days. During this time, you need to carry out high-quality pest control, and after it thoroughly rinse all surfaces.
Fleas - description, characterization, structure. What do fleas look like?
The length of the body of a flea is only 1–5 mm, but females of certain species, after intensive feeding, reach a length of more than 1 cm due to a hypertrophically expanded abdomen. The length of the fertilized female can be 1.5 cm. The largest fleas parasitizing on elks have a body length of up to 1 cm.
The body of a flea consists of a small head and abdomen, covered with a durable chitinous cover. If you look at a flea under a microscope, it becomes apparent how much the body of the insect is flattened from the sides, somewhat resembling a shrimp. But such a body shape is evolutionarily justified and allows the parasite to move freely in feathers, thick host hair, in the substrate of holes and nests or in the folds of clothing.
Image of fleas in artificial colors, made with REM
The color of the flea can be yellowish, reddish, dark brown and even almost black.
A flea does not have wings, and this is not accidental: it is easier to crush the winged parasite, and the presence of devices for flight could impede the motor activity.
Thanks to 3 pairs of long, strong limbs, fleas often move with jumps, which is ensured by powerful pushes of the second and third pair of legs.Some species of fleas have relatively short legs and practically do not leave the body of the host. Each limb consists of 5 segments and ends with sharp forked claws.
The fleas are also easily moved by numerous spines and bristles scattered throughout the body, as well as scalloped scallops and ctenidia located on the head. Such a structure of a flea is a kind of insect protection: all attempts to comb, pull out or bite a flea will end in failure. You can only destroy the parasite with your fingernail, crushing it on a hard surface.
On the head of a flea there are simple eyes, behind them grow antennas, with the help of which males keep females during mating. In a flea in a quiet state, the antennas are immersed in small antennae.
In fleas, the piercing-sucking type of the oral apparatus, which is characterized by the transformation into epifarings stilettos (unpaired stylet) and lacinia (paired stilettos), coupled with maxillary lobes. The parasite bites through the host’s skin, widens the wound and releases saliva, which prevents blood from clotting. The flea then plunges its body into the wound to reach the blood vessel. When feeding, fleas fill their stomach with blood, which is able to swell a lot.
A distinctive feature of the structure of fleas is the presence of pygidium - a special sensory organ located in the back of the abdomen. Tactile hairs covering the pygidium, sensitively catch the slightest fluctuations in the air and signal danger.
The reproductive organs of a female flea are made up of oviducts, ovaries, and a seed receptacle, which resembles a curved flask. Males are endowed with a copulative organ - the sexual claw.
How many fleas live?
On average, fleas live from several months to 3 years. The life expectancy of a flea depends on its type and ambient temperature. At elevated temperatures (when the air is heated to 30-35 degrees), the life cycle of a flea is reduced by almost 40%, and at low temperatures, on the contrary, it increases, as the development of a flea slows down.
The development cycle of a human flea from egg to adult (adult) lasts from about 16 days to one year. Cat fleas live an average of 2 years, dog flea - up to one and a half years.
A flea can go without food for quite a long time (without an animal or without a human): the insect easily endures hunger for 30–40 days, and according to some data, for several months. In this case, the parasite does not fall into anabiosis, but only reduces its activity and ceases to multiply.
Where do fleas live?
Strong, hardy and very tenacious, fleas are spread across all continents, including Antarctica. Most flea species inhabit the temperate and subtropical climatic zones of Europe, Asia and North Africa. Fleas are active at any time of the year, and their habitats are tied to nests and burrows of warm-blooded animals that live underground (gerbils, jerboas, ground squirrels and other rodents) on the ground (wild and domestic animals: cats, dogs, rats, horses, cows , rams, camels, etc.) and above the ground (birds, squirrels). Some fleas live on humans.
The main owners of most species of fleas are mammals, whose life at any time of the year is inextricably linked to the presence of shelter. Animals that periodically live in burrows and nests are less likely to be attacked by fleas. Parasites do not live permanently on the host’s body, but jump up to suck blood, and then descend into the bedding of the nest. Some fleas are associated with artiodactyl and marsupial animals that do not build or use nests and burrows at all. These types of fleas are stationary parasites that do not leave their owners.
The blood is sucked by fleas of both sexes, and the process can last from 1 minute to several hours. Some species of fleas are saturated with blood for reserve, as a result they do not have time to digest everything, and the remnants of blood leave with excrement.
Types of fleas that need frequent feeding live on the animal's body all the time, and in the intervals between meals they wander in the coat of the host. Fleas that do not have the need to often suck blood, the main part of life is in the substrate of the host's nest. In the absence of a food source, insects can go hungry for several months. Most flea species do not have a certain specificity of host choice and can exist on different species of animals, with the exception of flea bats.
Types of fleas, photos and titles.
Currently, there are from 15 to 22 families of fleas, including many species:
- Human flea(lat. Pulex irritans) - One of the most common types of fleas that lives everywhere. A brownish-colored insect, 1.6-3.2 mm long, is capable of jumping 30 cm in height and up to half a meter in length. Unlike most flea species, the human flea does not have pectoral and head teeth. The insect is parasitic on humans, domestic and wild animals, it suffers the causative agent of plague, causes pulikoz (itchy skin lesion). Human fleas can also live on cats, dogs, horses, that is, animals that have constant contact with humans. The total duration of blood digestion in a human flea is 5-6 hours. The duration of bloodsucking can vary from a few seconds to 20 minutes.
Human flea (female on the left, male on the right)
Photo by: Katja ZSM
- Cat flea(lat. Ctenocephalides felis) is found on all continents and is a carrier of plague, brucellosis and other infections. It feeds on the blood of cats, dogs, rodents, many other animals, as well as humans. The development of larvae occurs in animal fur and litter. The average size of a flea is 0.75–5 mm, the length of the female’s body with eggs reaches 1.6 cm. The adults have a short proboscis and a flat forehead. The life span of a cat flea is from 3 months to 3 years.
Photo by: Katja ZSM
- Flea dog(lat. Ctenocephalides canis) - A close-up view of a cat flea, also common in all continents. It parasitizes dogs, cats, wild animals and humans, as a carrier of flatworms, trypanosomes and many other parasites. In a dormant form keeps plague pathogens, leprosy sticks and Marseilles fever. Flea bites can cause ctenocephalosis. The size of a dog flea is identical to that of a cat (from 0.75 to 0.5 mm). The female lays eggs in the litter or animal fur. The life cycle of a dog flea is about 1.5 years.
Photo author: Luis Fernández García
Dog flea (male on the left, female on the right)
Author photo: greenzaku
- Southern Rat flea(lat. Xenopsylla cheopis) - A particularly dangerous type of fleas, a carrier of the plague, mouse and rat chains. It is found throughout the world, but more so in countries with a tropical and subtropical climate. The female flea has a body length of 1.8 to 2.7 mm, the males grow from 1.4 to 2 mm in length. The color of the flea may be light or dark brown. Fertilized females lay in the nests of rats and gerbils - animals whose blood is fed.
Photo by: Rattenfloh
Rat fleas (male on the left, female on the right)
- Flea Tien Shanshe alakurt(lat. Vermipsylla alakurt) inhabits exclusively in the valleys of the Tien Shan and the Baysaur mountains. Translated from the Kyrgyz Alakurt means "variegated worm." Indeed, the fertilized females swell excessively, but not to the sides, but in length, and become similar to worms. At the same time, abdominal segments move away from each other, which is why the “worm” becomes variegated. The length of adult males is about 4 mm, not bloated females - 4.5-5 mm, and the body of fleas differs in black. Alakurta fleas appear only in winter, rising to livestock from frozen grass. Horses, sheep, camels, and cows are attacked. Parasites are rapidly increasing in size, changing from black to white, and sit on the body of animals very tightly, like ticks. In the years, which are particularly abundant in alakurt, a significant part of the livestock depleted by bloodsucking does not survive until spring.
Flea Tien Shan (male above, female below)
- Flea penetratingshe sand flea or Brazilian ground flea(lat. Tunga penetrans) - A parasite from Haiti, Brazil and Guiana, from where it was introduced to Africa, India and Pakistan in the 19th century, where it successfully caught on. Individuals of both sexes have a body length of only 1 mm and can jump to heights of up to 35 mm. The body of an unfertilized female flea is oval and red-brown in color with a white speck in the middle. The fertilized female swells up like a ball and becomes the size of a white pea with a diameter of up to 1 cm. The habitat of a flea of earth is dry grass, from where the parasite jumps on wild and domestic animals, birds and humans. The males bite the victim and drink its blood. Females of the flea penetrate the skin of the animals' legs, and under the nails of the toes and hands, which leads to inflammation, tetanus, and sometimes gangrene, amputation, and even death. Also, sandy fleas cause a disease called sarcopsillosis, or tungiosa.
Author photo: Gilberto M Palma
- Flea Glaciopsyllus antarcticus - an endemic species, whose representatives live exclusively in Antarctica. The body length of females is 4 mm, males - 3 mm. These fleas live in bird nests and parasitize on snow, Antarctic and silver-gray petrels, the Cape pigeon and Wilson's curler.
- Malacopsylla grossiventris - a type of fleas parasitizing on mammals of South America: on dwarf, long-haired, nine-lane armadillos, rodents, as well as other species of wild animals. A distinctive feature of this species and its related Phthiropsylla agenoris are the largest eggs ever studied by scientists. Their size is 719-800 µm, while the size of the eggs of other fleas does not exceed 600 µm.
Domestic fleas are not at all a separate type of blood-sucking parasite: it is customary to consider fleas that live in a person’s dwelling under such a name. But to become such unpleasant and annoying "lodgers" can dog, cat, rat, human and even earthen (sand) fleas. They enter the premises together with their owners, animals, which are parasitic, or attack houses from basements and damp cellars, where they often live.
Once in a private household or apartment apartment building, fleas choose pet litter, pile of carpets and carpets, cracks in plinths, soft toys, furniture upholstery, mattresses and underwear (this fact led to the fact that home fleas are sometimes called bedding or furniture) .
How to detect fleas in the apartment?
Fleas are fairly small insects, so it is not immediately detectable to detect their presence in the house. A good method to confirm the presence of parasites is plain white sheet. It must be spread on the floor, and if the suspicions were solid, then after some time dark insects will be visible on the light fabric. Another fact that signals the presence of fleas in the house or in the apartment will be red, slightly bloated spots on the skin - traces of flea bites: they occur in the morning, often arranged in a chain and unbearably itchy.
Flea bites, photo and description.
Flea bites cause a stabbing pain at the moment of piercing the skin and a keen desire to scratch the affected area. People are usually bitten by a human flea, and at the site of the bite, a characteristic swelling appears, as if from a cigarette burn. After the flea is saturated and detached, the edges of the wound converge, preventing blood flow, and a pinpoint hemorrhage forms under the skin.
Author photo: Clawed
The main method of protection is the destruction of fleas in the house and apartment, as well as prevention from bites when going out into the countryside.
Reaction to flea bites.
The reaction to flea bites is different for each person: for some, itching and swelling disappear within an hour, for others, the skin remains red for a long time, hardens and flakes, which is one of the symptoms of puliosis. With pulicosis, the bite site swells, ulcers may appear in the mouth and throat, and the central nervous system may also be affected. If you are allergic to flea bites, a person may experience fever, chills, and indigestion.
What diseases do fleas suffer?
Flea bites can be very dangerous, as fleas are carriers of disease. In themselves, fleas cause 2 diseases in a person: puliosis and sarcopsillosis (tungiosis), but insects can carry pathogens of other serious diseases, some of which are deadly. Diseases that transmit fleas:
- plague (including bubonic),
- typhus (sypha and return),
- hepatitis B, C,
- intestinal yersiniosis,
- brucellosis and others.
Fleas in the apartment. Where do they come from and how to get rid of fleas?
The causes of the appearance of fleas in an apartment are not only pets (cats, dogs). Parasites can get into the house from a dirty basement or cellar, from neighbors who do not monitor the cleanliness of their own home. Sanitation is the most favorable condition for the successful functioning of the parasites in the apartment. Homemade fleas live well behind baseboards, in cracks in floors, in old carpets and furniture.
A remedy for fleas in the apartment.
Modern insecticidal drugs help get rid of domestic fleas and their larvae, even in the most neglected areas. Due to the fact that fleas are physically unable to eat poisonous bait, means of combating these parasites are available in the form of sprays, powders and suspensions. The principle of action of any means of fleas is to defeat the nervous system of insects, which leads to paralysis.
- Aerosol preparations imply large-scale processing of the premises with a preliminary evacuation of all the inhabitants of the apartment, followed by airing and wet cleaning.
- Contact powder preparations long-acting sprinkle under baseboards, cabinets, behind the beds.
- Liquid microcapsules Fleas are good because they do not wash out even after cleaning.
The best and effective remedies for fleas at home:
- Raptor spray “Against crawling insects”: a safe and effective drug with a pleasant smell of mint. Two cylinders are enough to handle 1-room apartment,
- Kombat spray - the same effective analog of Raptor, with lemon and mint aroma,
- Sinuzan is a professional remedy for fleas, reliably protecting the room, the only shortcoming of which is an unpleasant smell,
- Chlorpirimak is used to fight the Colorado potato beetle and leaf beetles, and also helps to bring domestic fleas,
- Biorin is a professional drug that requires a serious approach to use. Destroys not only fleas, but also any other parasites,
- Pyrethrum is one of the most popular folk remedies for fleas, approved even by professionals. Powder scattered in the corners has a powerful poisoning effect on the parasites.
After the fleas in the house or in the apartment are destroyed, it is recommended to carry out wet cleaning with a few drops of eucalyptus or ammonia added to the water. Under the beds and cabinets you can put dry sprigs of wormwood, lavender, tansy or bags of pine sawdust, the smell of which fleas do not like.