author Lukshin AV, author photo
Most of the flowering plants that have attractive leaves that we grow in the house come from the hot tropics and subtropics of different countries, where the range of plants is very rich and extensive. These plants, living in indoor conditions, retain decorativeness all year round and delight us.
Smolozemyannik comes from the subtropics of Japan and China. In nature, it is a tree or shrub (3–9 m high) with upright branches forming a dense, beautiful crown.
Pittosporum as a home plant I was interested in its attractiveness, combined with unpretentiousness. Smolosemannik grows well in the house, nekaprizen and shade-tolerant. These valuable qualities that help the plant feel good even on short winter days are a great advantage for the houseplant.
I will tell Gardenia.ru site readers about one of my pets - Tobir's Smoloseanic, or in Latin - Pittosporum.
Flowering and fruiting smolosemanika in the house
Pittosporum TobiraOr ordinary or odorous (Pittosporum tobira) is very attractive. It is decorated all year round with its spectacular crown and shiny leathery leaves of dark green color. Regular obovoid leaves are collected in bunches at the ends of the branches.
The plant begins to bloom when it reaches the age of 5-6 years. Pittosporum blooms in early spring, in March.
The flowers at the smallpox are small, white with a cream shade, gathered in shields. Some specimens of pittosporum are attractive because you can see white, cream and pale yellow flowers next to one inflorescence.
Pittosporum flowers exude a strong sweet-citrus scent that resembles a spicy orange scent. These fragrant flowers are used as fragrances, add them in the manufacture of teas and alcoholic beverages.
In the photo: the seeds of the smog
Even when grown in indoor conditions, the Smolosemanika is tied and seeds successfully ripen. They are in three-capsule boxes, are orange in color and covered with a sticky resinous substance. That is why the plant is called the Smolosemanich.
Caring for the pittosporum is simple, even under the beginner florist.
In spite of its shade tolerance, the Smilomander still develops and flourishes better when kept in the light. In addition, the buds he laid and developed only in conditions of sufficient illumination of the crown of the plant.
The smoker does not like high temperature. In summer, it develops well at ordinary room temperature (18-20 degrees). In winter, pittosporum requires about 10–13 degrees, a higher content temperature is undesirable. The above-ground part of this plant can even survive short-term light frosts, but its roots die when exposed to sub-zero temperatures. Therefore, in the winter you need to keep the Smolosemyannik in a bright, cool place, while not allowing the pot to be supercooling.
I water pittosporum as the soil dries out, and the plant does not tolerate over-wetting. But the regular spraying of the crown is a love for a dragon tree. After water procedures - shower or spraying - I wipe the leaves of the plant, and this they literally glow, captivating with their glossy beauty!
I feed a Smolosemanik year-round: in the period of growth - twice a month, and in the winter - once a month. I use for feeding infusion of cow manure, as well as a complex fertilizer for flower crops.
Especially I want to say about the transplant. Pittosporum does not like this procedure: after each transplant, it slows down growth, and then takes a long time to take root. Therefore, it is better to do the transfer of the Smolosomeyanik as rarely as possible.
Transplant the plant in 3-4 years. At the same time, it is better to simply transfer it from the pot to a larger container without destroying the earthy clod and disturbing the roots.
It is imperative that I annually (or even twice a year, in spring and early autumn) replace the top layer of soil in the pot. At the same time, I very carefully remove the old soil, so as not to disturb the roots, and then pour fresh fertile ground from above.
The soil for this plant is made up of turf, leaf soil and humus with the addition of sand.
I did not observe any diseases and pests of the plant on my broomstick, even the false shield does not favor him.
Possible difficulties in growing pittosporum are associated with violations of the rules of care. Then the plant looks painful. Too bright sun leads to the drying and twisting of the leaves of the Smolosemyannika - they grow dull and become yellow. If there is little light, the stems are pulled out, the leaves become smaller, the intensity of their color decreases.
Smolomeannik can be propagated by cuttings and seeds.
Pittosporum's semi-lignified cuttings are cut from a plant in spring, in May. I process sections of the root formation stimulator, then plant cuttings in coarse-grained sand, water and cover with film.
I put a covered pot with cuttings in a warm place, where there is plenty of light, but without the access of bright hot rays of the sun. Rooting cuttings of Smolosyannik occurs on average in a month.
Pittosporum well propagated by seeds. I take fresh seeds that sprout better. I sow them in a light nutrient soil, the composition of the substrate is the same as for the transplant of this plant.
The peculiarity of seed propagation of Smoloseannik is the slow development of seedlings, which grow little in the first year of life.
When the first pair of leaves appears, the pittosporum seedlings dive into boxes (at a distance of 2x3 cm) or into separate pots.
Search and exchange of rare plants
I like to grow rare plants in the house and in the garden, and also to communicate with the same enthusiastic plant growers and exchange plants.
Now (in December 2013) I am looking for: haulia, licorice, terry calistegia, varieties of potatoes with colored pulp, room citrus fruits, etc.
Gardeners site Gardenia.ru in the winter months will send free surplus of seeds of mordovnika, lakonosa, monarda, clematis small-flowered, acacia white.
I wish you success in finding rare plants, in floriculture and gardening.
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Smoolemyannik or pittosporum (Pittosporum) is a genus that unites a large number of species of various plants and is directly related to the family of Smole-lemous (Pittosporaceae). In nature, they are found in subtropical and tropical zones of East Asia, Oceania, Australia, as well as in several areas of Africa.
This genus includes more than 150 species of different plants. The most popular of them is Pittosporum tobira (Pittosporum tobira). At first, these plants grew as a garden crop, but then they began to grow as a home plant.
Pittosporum Tobira is a rather low tree, reaching a height of no more than 6 meters, it is bush-like and strongly floriferous. The internodes on the shoots are rather short, and the crown has a flat shape. Spirally located simple, leathery leaves have rather short scapes.
In length, they reach 10 centimeters, and in width - 4 centimeters. The leaf has an elongated obovate shape, its front side is painted in dark green color, shiny, with a well-distinguishable yellow-lemon vein and petiole. With age from the bottom of the shoots all the leaves fall off, and they remain only on their tips.
As a result, the bush becomes like a fluffy bunch.
In spring, there is abundant bloom. Flowers appear in the leaf axils on the apical parts of the stems. They are painted white, have 5 petals, and reach a diameter of 3 centimeters. Flowers are collected in small inflorescences.
In place of flowers with time appear green fruit, having the form of a ball. They are ripening sufficiently large seeds, which are covered with a resinous, very sticky substance.
When the fruits are fully ripe, the dried boxes crack and open, but the seeds do not fall out, and for a long time they are inside.
This species has several varieties as well as varieties. The variety with variegated leaves “Variegata” was also developed, in which a whitish uneven border runs along the edge of the leaf plate.
This plant in the wild is very fond of light, and when kept at home it should be pruneat from the direct rays of the sun. Choosing a place to place a tree, it should be borne in mind that if there is not enough light, all the foliage may fall off. And if it is too much, the leaves will change their direction to the vertical, and this will destroy the unusual flat shape of the crown.
In winter, the tree should also be fairly well lit, so it was recommended for it to be illuminated with phytolamps. A light day during this period should be approximately 13 hours.
How to water
Can tolerate not very long drought. Watering should be moderate. So, it is produced only after the top layer of the substrate dries to two or three centimeters depth.
When cold wintering should be watered less often. Between watering the substrate must dry to half. The smolomeannik reacts extremely negatively to overflow.
So, on its root system rot quickly develops and the plant dies.
In winter, when the air in the apartments is dried with heating devices, and it is recommended to moisten the foliage on hot summer days using a spray bottle.
For this purpose, tepid and necessarily boiled water is used so that whitish stains do not appear on the surface of dark foliage.
At other times, it is not necessary to spray the plant, but for hygienic purposes it is necessary for it to periodically arrange a warm shower.
In springtime, it is recommended to carry out formative pruning. The rest of the time you need to hold nip young stalks. An adult plant especially needs forming pruning after it begins to fall off the leaves from the lower parts of the stems.
It is also very often for forming crown using a special frame made of wire. The branches of the swine tree are quite flexible, and they can easily set the desired direction.
Suitable land should be slightly acidic and nutrient rich. And also it should pass air and water well.
To create a suitable earth mixture it is necessary to combine sod and leaf earth, as well as sand, taken in equal shares.
Do not forget to make a good drainage layer, which can prevent the stagnation of fluid in the substrate, which is the cause of the development of rot and death of the plant (especially during cold wintering).
To feed the Smolosemyanik should be in the period of its intensive growth 2 times a month. To do this, use both organic and mineral fertilizers, feeding them the plant alternately. You can also use for fertilizing and universal fertilizer intended for indoor plants (using the dose recommended on the package).
Young seedlings should be replanted 1 time per year, changing the flower pot to a larger size. Smolosemyannik does not like this procedure, and his reaction to it becomes slow growth. Since the tree takes root for a very long time, it is recommended to transship it carefully, trying not to damage the earthen room.
Adult specimens are transplanted less frequently, and for very large plants it is only necessary to regularly replace the upper layer of the substrate.
Can be propagated by semi-woody cuttings and seeds. On the cuttings cut off the apical part of the stems, and their length should be about 10 centimeters. Before planting in vermiculite or coarse sand, it is necessary to treat the cutting with a special root growth stimulator. Rooting occurs, as a rule, after 4 weeks. Such plants begin to bloom only after 5 or 6 years.
Propagated by seeds this plant is much more difficult. So, with insufficient experience, you can completely destroy the seedlings. And in the early years, the seedlings barely grow. In this regard, the Smolosemyanik in this way is propagated only if it is necessary to obtain a multitude of young plants.
Pests and diseases
Resistant to pests. When the humidity is too low, a spider mite settles. In this case, the plant must arrange a warm shower, and large specimens should be treated with special insecticides.
As a rule, the tree is sick in case of improper care. In bright light leaves become faded, and then turn yellow. If the light is low, then the leaves become monotonous, and the stems - elongated. Extremely negative reaction to overflow.
Pittosporum - a curly miracle
Among the large indoor pets shrubs or trees, whose appearance at the same time would seem exotic and classic, are not often seen. This is exactly what pittosporum looks like.
From a distance, a dense crown seems to be just neat, but as you approach the plant, the whorling arrangement of leaves becomes obvious, giving it curliness, beauty of shades of green, and delicate flowering.
This is a magnificent and enduring soloist for those who are looking for originality, even in gardening.
Flower tree pittosporum
Smolozemyanniki - one of the most beautiful evergreen plants of our planet. Compact enough: even in nature, they grow only up to 2 m in a bushy form (up to 5 m - in the form of trees).
The density and ornamentation of the crown in these plants is unparalleled, and it does not change not only when grown in open ground in countries with a mild climate, but also in room or greenhouse culture.
Pittosporums are plants of dry subtropics, the conditions for which are easy to recreate. Japan and China are considered to be the birthplace of pittosporum, which is easily guessed from the "eastern" appearance and picturesqueness of the plant.
Under the original name, pittosporums are almost unknown. The Latin name is significantly inferior in popularity to the simple name of the Smolomeannik. Plants are considered the hallmark of the entire Smolosemyannikov family.
Representatives of the genus Smokolemyannik, or Pittosporum (Pittosporum) - evergreen shrubs, at least - trees with a dense crown. Potted smolosemyaniki limited to a maximum two-meter height, and even then they reach such sizes only in the absence of formation. A shrub grows rather slowly; adult Smolemouths grow a few centimeters in length a year.
Strong, flexible pittosporum shoots with smooth bark are combined with a plant with densely arranged, glossy, leathery, obovate leaves. Brilliant leaves at the ends of the branches are collected in bunches, whorls, which gives the plant a special ornamental and elegance.
The tops of the shoots with their “floral” leaf pattern are reminiscent of rhododendrons, as well as the overall effect of crown density and curliness.
Flowers at pittosporum for indoor shrubs are quite large, up to 2.5 cm in diameter. When changing, they change their snow-white color to creamy light yellow. Thanks to the gradual change of color in one inflorescence, you can admire flowers of different shades.
Pittosporum surprises with a pleasant, delicate and delicate aroma, reminiscent of oranges and sweet citrus. Pittosporum flowers are often used to produce natural flavors and make tea, alcoholic beverages. The plant does not let out single flowers, showing off convex, dense shields of inflorescences from April (and sometimes March) until the end of June.
For the first time, flowering can be observed only at the age of five, and sometimes pittosporum blooms later.
After flowering, you can observe the process of gradual maturation of three-nest boxes. Seeds of pittosporum, covered with a sticky resinous secret, are painted in a fairly bright shade of orange.
Description and types of plants
The plant belongs to the Smolemolyan family and migrated to northern gardens and houses from the dry tropics of China, Japan, Africa, Australia and Oceania. It is found in the form of small bushes up to 2 meters and trees, whose height reaches a maximum of 30 meters. One of the advantages of growing in room conditions - the possibility of the formation of the crown to 1,5−2 meters, resulting in the original appearance does not change compared with natural conditions. For the year an adult copy is able to increase only a couple of centimeters of branches.
Pittosporum shoots are distinguished by smooth bark; at the end of the branches, shiny, leathery obovate leaflets are collected in bundles. At first glance, the appearance resembles rhododendron.
Flowering begins in April and continues until the end of June. Flowers of medium size, with a diameter of several centimeters. Color with growth varies from white to beige-yellow. The smell is pleasant, similar to sweet citrus. Therefore, they can be used as a flavoring for tea, tinctures and liquor. The first time the shrub blooms at least 5 years old.
Seed plants are formed in a box with three nests. The seeds in them are surrounded by a resinous sticky substance and are colored in a rich orange color. That is why the tree became known as the Smolomeanik, which literally from Greek means "pitch seed". The family includes up to 150 different types of Smolosemyannikov., but only a few are domesticated:
- Thin-leaved. Has a small, lanceolate foliage with a wavy edge, the height of the tree 6−13 meters.
- Diverse leaf. Shrub reaching 2-4 meters in the wild. Occurs in mountainous and rocky terrain.
- Ilan. Remarkable green leaves, covered with white stains, height - up to 50 centimeters.
- Nigra. This pittosporum is similar to the previous species, grown for decoration and its branches are used in the composition of bouquets.
The most widespread thanks to the elegant foliage and fluffy crown received Tobir Spokolomyannik.
Botanical description and properties of the plant
For lovers of large indoor ornamental and deciduous plants should definitely recommend pittosporum. His appearance is classic and exotic at the same time. From a distance, thick greens look neat and elegant, close you can consider a whorled arrangement of leaves, their original colors and little stars. Even the landscaping can be original, besides the pittosporum is distinguished by its endurance. The plant is not often found in home gardening, so take a note and be one of the pioneers.
Under the official name of the pittosporum (Pittosporum), the plant is little known; flower growers call it a Smole-moth. Pittosporum belongs to the Smolosemyannikovy family and is rightfully considered to be its calling card.
Pittosporum, or Smolosemanik, is an evergreen shrub, at least - a tree. The shrub form even in the natural environment is limited to a height of 2 m, and the trees reach a height of about 5 m. They grow rather slowly, the annual growth is only a few centimeters. The shoots are strong, but flexible, covered with smooth skin-bark.
Leaf plates of obovoid shape, are collected in whorls, giving the bush or tree ornamental and incredible elegance. The surface of the leaves is shiny, green in color, the leaves can have a color pattern - from this the effect of curliness and density only increases. In the wild, the Smooth-Ears can be found in Australia, Asia and the Pacific Islands.
Types of pittosporum
Of the more than fifty species of Smolozemyannik, only two species are grown as a potted plant.
The most popular indoor smolozyannikom rightly called Tobira pittosporum(Pittosporum tobirawhich is also known as gumbler and pittosporum odorous) - compact and strikingly dense evergreen shrub. The plant does not reach the natural multimeter height in room culture, limited to a maximum of 150 cm. Strong and thin shoots form a flat crown. The reverse-ovoid, elongated, with a keeled base and a rounded tip, the leathery leaves of this species of pittosporum flaunts a muted, brilliantly gray-green color, against which the central vein shines through. Flowering at Tobir pittosporum starts in mid-spring and lasts until July. Apical shields attract eyes to the beauty of white or cream, fairly large fragrant flowers with a diameter of about 2.5 cm. In addition to the base plant, variegated unnamed varieties of Tobir pittosporum can be found on the market.
Fine-leaf pittosporum (Pittosporum tenuifolium) resembles Tobira's pittosporum in everything, but its leaves are much smaller and lanceolate, with a wavy edge. The competitors are inferior in size to flowers (up to 1 cm in total), but they are painted in a unique cinnabar shade of red and seem precious against the background of dark green bushes.
It is difficult to call sun-loving smolosemyaniki, but they are definitely light-loving indoor plants. The shading does not affect the attractiveness of the foliage, but at the budding and flowering stage any reduction in light is reflected in the process of budding and development of flower buds and buds. Shrub leaves should be protected from direct sunlight (too intense lighting causes them to twist), but it is better not to set pittosporum away from the window sill.
Eastern and western windows are rightly considered to be the best place for the plant, but pittosporum will feel pretty good on the windowsill of the northern orientation. Light shading doesn’t hurt, but in the middle part of the shade a smolosemyannik will feel uncomfortable.
The Smilomander should be lit evenly. Krona is better to regularly rotate in relation to the light source.
The variegated smolosemniki are more sensitive to stability and intensity of illumination than green leafy forms.
Pittosporums belong to indoor plants, which prefer to grow and develop in coolness. They do not tolerate heat, fluctuations in air temperature. In the living rooms they feel quite well, but only if the temperature does not exceed 23 degrees of heat. Optimum temperatures - from 18 to 21 degrees.
The maximum decorativeness of a plant is achieved only on the condition of ensuring a cold wintering. For the winter period, pittosporums should be moved to rooms with temperatures ranging from 10 to maximum 13 degrees Celsius. Deviation from the recommended parameters leads not only to the absence or deterioration of flowering, but also to slower growth. Lowering the temperature below 10 degrees is detrimental to the root system, but the aerial part can withstand even light frost. Therefore, during the entire rest period for the Smolosemanik, first of all, they control the temperature of the substrate and, if necessary, take measures against the supercooling of the pots, exposing the plant to the stands.
Pittosporum is very sensitive to stagnant air and a lack of fresh air. Rooms in which this shrub is located should be ventilated regularly, protecting the plant from cold drafts.
The flowering of the resin, or pittosporum (Pittosporum).
Watering and humidity
Pittosporums need moderate, moderate watering. They do not tolerate stagnation of water and waterlogging of the soil, too abundant watering. In summer, in usual temperatures, pittosporum is watered frequently, but without excess, and for the winter period, restraint is significantly limited to rest, reducing the moisture content of the substrate by a factor of two compared to summer. It is undesirable to prevent the substrate from drying completely. The estimated frequency of irrigation is 1 time a week in spring and autumn, 2 times a week in summer and 1 time in 1.5-2 weeks in winter.
Smolosemaniki well endure dry air, but the decorative greenery significantly suffers from this. It is best to grow pittosporum at least with average humidity levels. At high temperatures or a drop in these parameters, sprayings are performed. Periodic insight, except for the stage of budding and flowering, has a positive effect on the attractiveness of the leaves. Greens can be cleaned or washed from dust and use special polishes.
Feed for pittosporum
Smolosemanniki need additional feedings throughout the year, even in the rest period, to maintain stable characteristics of the substrate. Pittosporums can be fed only in spring and summer, but rare winter dressings support high decorativeness of the crown throughout the year.
In the active period of growth feeding is made with a frequency of 1 time per 2 weeks. In the autumn and winter feeding is carried out 1 time per month.
For pittosporum you need to pick up complex fertilizers for flowering houseplants. If desired, the usual summer dressings can be alternated with organic fertilizers.
Like many other indoor shrubs, the high decorativeness of the talconeum maintains only on the condition of regular formation supporting both the contours and the density of the crown. Over time, the lower leaves fall, baring the twigs, and pruning also stimulates the renewal of the crown. Plants very well endure almost any haircut, which allows you to expand the possibilities of their use in the interiors of various styles.
There are several types of pruning on the plant:
- pinching or pinching the tops of young twigs,
- a slight shortening of the branches that are out of the crown contours,
- trimming to 1/3 of the length of the shoots to give a more strict silhouette,
- cutting side shoots and forming a central trunk to create standard and woody forms.
If desired, pittosporuma can be grown in the form of bonsai. For the formation and direction of use of the frame of the wire and frequent shearing.
Pittosporum transplantation and substrate
Smolosemanniki transplanted regularly and often. Until the age of four, plants are transplanted annually, in early spring, after 4 years - every two years, changing in a year when no transplantation is performed, the upper layer of the substrate in containers. If the plant does not need transplantation, the roots have not yet fully mastered the entire substrate, then the transplant is best done as rarely as possible. On the procedure for changing the capacity, the Smoloseanniki react painfully, the adaptation lasts a long time.
Pittosporum does not like peat and its content in the substrate should be minimal. For the plant is quite suitable universal dredger. The optimum soil response is pH 5.5 to 6.0. If the substrate is mixed independently, then for pittosporum it is better to use one of the light earth mixtures:
- a mixture of sand, humus, turf, hardwood and peat in a ratio of 1: 1: 4: 2: 1/2,
- a mixture of equal parts of sand, turf and leaf soil.
For pittosporum, only one transfer method is allowed - transshipment with full preservation of the earth coma. Contact with the roots can lead to the death of the plant. At the bottom of the new tank must lay a high layer of drainage. After transplantation, the plant should be placed in mild, controlled conditions with high humidity.
Pittosporum diseases and pests
Pittosporums are one of the most durable indoor plants. Only with a significant violation of care, dust accumulation on the leaves, improper lighting and excessive watering can they suffer from the spread of rot, spider mites or other insects that are actively distributed in dry air. It is better to start the fight against these problems with a simple correction of leaving and removing insects from plants, resorting to treatment with insecticides only when simple measures do not help.
Common problems in growing:
- shallow leaves in low light,
- stretching, painful appearance in full shadow,
- curling and drying leaves in direct sunlight
- loss of variegated color in variegated varieties with an excess of nitrogen or poor lighting,
- natural loss of lower leaves.
Fine-leaf pittosporum (Pittosporum tenuifolium).
Rules for caring for pittosporum at home
- Lighting and location selection. In order to make the smilomane feel comfortable, it is recommended that the level of illumination be high, but the direct rays of the sun do not fall on the leaves. Such a place for a plant can be a window sill facing east or west. It is especially important to find the right location for pittosporum, which has a motley color sheet plates. If the light level is insufficient, then the foliage will acquire a green color, losing all shades of white and cream. However, too bright lighting is harmful - under direct streams of ultraviolet leaves turn yellow and curl. You can put a bush on the southern and northern locations, but in the first case you will have to shading so that direct sunlight will not cause harm, using light curtains, tulles, homemade curtains made of gauze or fixing tracing paper (thin paper) on the window glass. In the 2nd case, do the illumination with special fitolamps. With the arrival of summer, it is possible to take a pot with a smoliemanik to fresh air - to the garden, to a balcony or terrace, but at the same time take care of shading from midday ultraviolet light. If this is not possible, then frequent airing of the room in which the plant is contained is needed.
Growing temperature Pittosporum should be moderate (that is, its indicators are maintained in the range of 20-24 degrees). These requirements relate to the spring-summer period, and with the arrival of autumn the temperature is reduced and better when the jellyfish is kept in a cool and bright room. Indicators of heat adjusted to the level of 10 degrees. This will allow the plant to rest before a new wave of flowering.
Air humidity. Since pittosporum in nature settles mainly in humid and warm forests, it is advisable to spray the deciduous mass with increasing temperature and remove dust from the leaves with the help of a moistened soft cloth or sponge. Despite its love for high humidity, the plant calmly carries dry indoor air. For hygiene purposes, periodically it is recommended to do the shower baths with warm water, this will also wash away the dust from the foliage and raise the humidity. The potted soil is covered with polyethylene.
Watering. Smolosemannik will require abundant watering in the summer months. The frequency of humidification will be approximately once every 7 days. The signal for the next watering becomes slightly dried topsoil - if you take a little pinch, it easily crumbles. When winter comes and heat levels are reduced, watering should be no more than once for 8–12 days. We can not allow the substrate in the pot to dry completely, but the bays threaten the onset of fungal diseases and rotting of the root system. Water used for irrigation is soft, well settled, in which there are no impurities of chlorine. You can pass the tap water through the filter, boil it, and then defend for several days.Then this liquid is drained from the sediment and used for irrigation.
Fertilizers. Since from spring to the very autumn, the Smolosemanik is going on with his growing vegetative growth, it will be necessary to feed. It is recommended to use a balanced fertilizer in liquid form. The frequency of fertilizer is once a month. The plant responds well to the application of organic fertilizers (for example, rotted manure).
Transplant and soil selection guidelines. When pittosporum is still young, its root system develops quite quickly and this process lasts up to three years. Until this time, the transplant is performed once a year, while the volume of the pot increases by one size. When the smooterman crossed the three-year milestone, it is even possible not to change the pot and the soil, but to confine to replacing the top layer of the substrate (about 3-5 cm). But it is necessary to carry out this process carefully so as not to damage the root system of the plant. First of all, a layer of drainage is laid in a new pot; flower growers use medium-sized expanded clay, pebbles or broken clay shards. Since pittosporum reacts very sensitively to a transplant, transshipment should be carried out. In this case, the shrub is removed from the old tank, but the ground is not removed from the root system (only that which falls off by itself), and in this form, the scum thistle is planted in a new pot. Before planting, you need to carefully examine the root system and if there are affected roots, they are cut off with a sharp and disinfected knife, and then powdered with crushed activated charcoal or charcoal. This will contribute to the disinfection of cuts. Substrate for pittosporum is made up of sod soil, leaf soil (it is gathered in a forest or park from under birch trees, with the seizure of rotted foliage), humus soil, and coarse-grained sand (in the ratio 3: 2: 2: 1).
The rules of breeding pittosporum do it yourself
In order to propagate the smokoemyannik need to sow the seeds or conduct cuttings.
When conducting grafting using stem blanks. In spring time (approximately in May), cuttings are cut from semi-lignified shoots. The length of the cutting must be at least 8 cm. The handle is broken off, and the cut is cleaned with a blade. Sections are processed by a root formation stimulator. Planted twigs in a pot filled with coarse sand or peat-sand substrate. Planting depth should not exceed 1-2 cm. Then they irrigate and cover the branches with plastic wrap, you can put them under a glass jar or cut plastic bottle.
Potted with cuttings placed in a warm place where there is enough light, but there is no direct rays of the sun. The temperature during germination should not exceed 23-25 degrees. When you care, it is important not to forget about the daily ventilation of cuttings and soil moisture, if it began to dry. After about a month's time, the blanks will take root. After this, the young rooted smolomeanikas are transplanted in separate containers filled with a more fertile substrate, and nip at the tops. When the formation of lateral shoots, then they need to pinch - this will stimulate further branching. Pittosporums grown in this way will bloom for 2–3 years.
If reproduction occurs through seeds, they should be sown in spring in pots, bowls or seed boxes, in which light soil is poured (sand, turf and peat are connected in equal parts), before planting the substrate should be slightly moistened. The container is covered with a plastic bag or a piece of glass is put up. Conducted daily airing, and if the soil began to dry out, then it is moistened with a spray bottle. Seed development is rather slow. When sprouts form a pair of true leaf plates, they can be dived into pots or boxes (but the distance between seedlings is kept at 2x3 cm), with more fertile soil. Young pittosporums develop very slowly in the first year. Flowering can be expected only after the expiry of the 3-year term of the Smoloseannik
Diseases and pests, difficulties in caring for pittosporum
If the rules of care are regularly violated, then the cultivation of the Smolomeannik is accompanied by
- when the plant is constantly under direct streams of sunlight, this will lead to the fact that the leaf plates begin to shrink, curl along the edge, their color fades and becomes yellow,
with an insufficient level of illumination, the stems will begin to stretch, the size of the leaves will decrease and the coloring will also become not so intense,
When in the room where pittosporum is grown too dry air, it is possible the defeat of harmful insects, among which there are spider mites, mealybugs, occasionally false shield and thrips. It will be necessary to carry out the treatment with insecticidal preparations with a repetition after a week. With increased humidity, the disease occurs with Fusarium and other spots (infectious diseases). If the disease has only been identified, then a Smolomeanik can be cured by treating it with basezol, vitaprost, or using topxin-M, bental, previurus. The solution is prepared by dissolving 2 grams of the product in a liter of water.
Homeland plants - China, is also called odorous or ordinary. It is a low tree up to 6 meters high, with numerous branches, the internodes on the shoots are short, and the crown has a flat appearance. The leaves are arranged in a spiral, they are up to 10 cm long, up to 4 cm wide. The leaves are standard in shape, green in color with a yellow vein and short petiole. Gradually, the leaves remain only on the tops of the shoots. Blooming in spring is always abundant, inflorescences are white, of 5 petals. Green fruits are shaped like a ball. After maturation, they gradually dry out and crack.
Tobira, in turn, has varieties and subspecies, among which Variegata is particularly interesting with motley leaves and a wavy border around the edge. Application in landscape design and received a variety of phytosporum Nanum, with a small round crown and Silver Queen with white and green foliage.
Features of growing indoors
The plant is not considered capricious, therefore, care at home for pittosporum does not cause difficulties even for an inexperienced florist. Naturally, certain parameters for growth are necessary for any representative of the flora. Important regular inspection and compliance with irrigation and temperature.
Squimo is sensitive to direct sunlight., the foliage will curl. It should be placed in a well-lit place with diffused light. The lack of light is particularly acute in the flowering period. It is recommended to identify a place for a pot on the east and west side with a slight shading. Periodically, the container should be rotated 180 degrees so that the crown develops evenly. At the same time, variegated species react more strongly to light than owners of monotonous green foliage.
Selection of soil mixtures and transplantation
Impurity of peat in the substrate should be minimal, suitable universal ready soil. For self-preparation will require sand, humus, Derain, deciduous soil in equal parts. Peat should be present in the amount of not more than half.
A young plant is transplanted regularly, every year until it reaches 4 years, then the period increases to two years. Adult shrubs need only update the top layer of the earth. And if the roots do not fill the entire pot space, then it is recommended to reduce the frequency of movement to a minimum, since adaptation to new conditions is difficult and time consuming. In this case, only one method of transplanting is possible - transshipment with a native earthy clod.
Temperature and watering
Despite its southern origin, the best growth rate occurs at a regular temperature of 18 to 23 degrees. Sudden drops and heat adversely affect the health of the flower. Decorativeness is maintained in conditions of a cold wintering at a temperature of 10−13 degrees Celsius. It is noteworthy that lowering the degree to less than 10 leads to the death of the roots, and the aboveground part, on the contrary, can survive short-term frosts. Therefore, the soil microclimate is important, not just air.
Dry air adversely affects the state of greenery. Humidity indicators should be kept at an average mark. In the hot period, it is useful to spray and wipe the leaves from dust. To increase moisture, moistened moss or pebbles are placed in the pan. Direct contact with the bottom of the pot should not be. And also it is necessary to avoid drafts, the phytosporum is sensitive to such influence.
Watering pittosporum requires moderate, as the drying of the soil. Stagnant water will lead to rotting of the roots and fungal diseases, but it cannot be allowed to completely dry before cracking the earth. On average, in the summer, it is necessary to water the tree several times a week, autumn, and in the spring one-time irrigation is sufficient, and in the winter period it is reduced to every few weeks. Water is recommended to use soft, well separated.
Fertilize the tree should be throughout the year, increasing the frequency of feeding in the growth period to 1 time in 2 weeks. In winter, it is necessary to supply the shrub with nutrients 1 time per month to keep the crown decorative. Fertilizer is needed complex for flowering species, you can alternately use organic products.
Pruning and breeding
To achieve the desired appearance, it is necessary to regularly form the crown. The plant positively experiences the process of cutting, after it the growth and renewal of the branches is stimulated. If desired, you can even recreate the form of bonsai. For creation of the necessary image frameworks and a wire are used. Young shoots are plastic and can be bent without injury in any direction. Methods for proper pruning are:
- pinching the tops and pinching,
- trimming to 1/3 of the length of the branches or a small shortening to the desired size,
- complete cutting of lateral shoots in order to form a stem form.
Particularly needed pruning as the trunk is exposed. Cut cuttings can be used for further rooting. It is preferable to take summer shoots that are semi-woody in the lower part. It is advisable to handle the edge of the growth factor before planting. You need to dig a cutting at an angle in a mixture of sand and earth, or only in sand. To maintain moisture, you can cover the appendage with a can or film. With this method, you need to pinch the tops from the first weeks after rooting, which takes about a month to complete.
Seed propagation takes more time and requires certain skills. Seed can be obtained from the Smolomeanik or purchased at a gardening shop. Sowing should be performed immediately after harvesting, since germination does not last long. Grains are sown in a moistened substrate without penetration, you only need to lightly sprinkle with sand. Before pecking, seedlings are kept under the film. Dive is necessary after the appearance of these leaves. The first year is the expansion of the root system.
Diseases and problems
Despite increased endurance to negative conditions, pittosporum is prone to such diseases as rot and is attacked by parasites. The main causes are usually the wrong care. Processing insecticides against pests and the use of fungicides for fungal diseases will help solve the problem.
Also, when there is a lack of lighting, the leaves become smaller, the tree is drawn out and flowering stops. Under the influence of the direct sun burns, drying and twisting of the leaves are possible. Do not confuse the violation of the regime of content with the natural loss of greenery.
Although talmonemanyan positioned as a decorative leafy plant, but has an interesting flowering. Just blooming white flowers, then the shade becomes creamy light yellow, the diameter of the flower in the shape of a star is about 2.5 cm. The inflorescences are collected in thick convex shields. From the flowers emanates a delicate aroma, reminiscent of oranges or citrus. The flowering period begins in April (sometimes even in March) and lasts until the end of June. When grown in indoor conditions, the first bloom is observed at the age of 3-4 years, and sometimes later.
At the end of the flowering period, three-seed bolls appear. Inside there are seeds of a bright orange shade, they are covered with a resinous sticky substance.
The poisonous and healing properties of the Smolosemannik
Fruits pittosporum photo
This plant contains saponins. Saponins are found in many foods, such as some types of beans, and although they are quite toxic for people, poorly digested, most types of compounds are harmless, have a pharmacological effect.
Saponins are destroyed if the food is thoroughly cooked for a long time. These substances are much more toxic to cold-blooded creatures, such as fish, and hunting tribes traditionally use large amounts of pittosporum fruit in streams, lakes, etc., to stupefy or kill fish.
With greenhouse and indoor cultivation (in the open field, the Smolosemanik is cultivated in the southern regions), the plant does not lose its beauty and does not require any special care. Extreme plant does not tolerate (drafts, direct sunlight), needs a cool winter. The bush perfectly amenable to formative pruning. Some recommend growing pittosporum to quite experienced growers, because the plant must be properly cut. But do not stop in front of difficulties: you will quickly acquire the skill, following the recommendations.
Pittosporum on the summer cottage
The shrub can be planted in a flowerbed: during the summer, the plant will feel great at the dacha, but when it gets cold for the first time and threatened by frost, you need to dig up the bush and reload it into a tub or pot, then send it back to the apartment. The plant can withstand temperatures as low as -5 ° C, but it is not worthwhile to arrange extreme conditions for it.
Watering a smog is required moderate, withstands short-term drought. Feels great in open sunny areas and in partial shading. For winter, the garden can only be left in the southern regions with very mild winters.
Growing pittosporum from seeds
Pittosporum seeds photo
Smole-boy can be grown from seeds.
- Sow freshly harvested seeds, as their germination is lost quickly.
- For sowing, take groundwater mixture consisting of equal proportions of sod, leaf soil and sand.
- Lay the drainage layer on the bottom of the wide tank, fill the substrate to the top, moisten and sow the seeds.
- The seeds are small, therefore, they do not need to be embedded in the soil: spread evenly over the surface and sprinkle with a thin layer of sand.
- To speed up the germination process, you will need shelter - use a clear glass or oilcloth, but do not forget to raise the shelter daily to air the crops.
- Illumination will be required diffuse, provide temperature regime within 22-25 ° C, periodically moisten the surface of the soil.
- Emergence of shoots will have to wait long enough, only then you can remove the shelter.
- Young sprouts need moderate watering, and with the appearance of a pair of true leaves should be seated in separate containers.
Plant development is slow. Do not be alarmed if, in the first year, the above-ground part practically does not grow, at this time the root system is actively developing.
It should be noted that the first flowering, both in plants grown from seeds and obtained vegetatively, occurs almost simultaneously. However, seed propagation allows you to immediately get a greater number of plants.
Propagation of pittosporum by cuttings
How to cutting pittosporum rooted cutting photo
At home, the Smololemyannik multiply mainly vegetatively, namely rooted cuttings. They are not cut in the spring from completely green, but beginning to woody bottom shoots.
- Root the cuttings in the sand-peat mixture or clean sand.
- It is desirable to treat the cutting with a growth stimulant solution, but this measure is not necessary (on average, cuttings root in 3-4 weeks).
- If you want to root several cuttings, take a wide container, deepen the cuttings into the soil at an angle.
- Cover the box with the cuttings from the top with a transparent glass or film; cover each cutting with a cut off plastic bottle or glass jar or glass.
- Lift the shelter daily for airing.
- Air temperature and lighting are the same as for germinating seeds, periodically moisten the soil surface.
- The appearance of young leaves indicates successful rooting, then seedlings of young plants in individual containers.
- Pinching the tops, start from the first weeks of growth, provide care as an adult plant.
Air temperature and humidity
In terms of air temperature, coolness is preferred for the plant. During the spring and summer period, maintain a temperature range of 18-21 ° C. It is possible to raise the mark to 23 ° C, but it should increase the humidity.
Under the condition of ensuring wintering in cool, the plant reaches the maximum decorative effect. Only then pittosporum normally grows and pleases with flowering. During the winter period, keep the plant indoors with an air temperature of 10-13 ° C. The ground part is able to withstand light frost, but for the root system the air temperature below 10 ° C is destructive. Therefore, it is important to control the temperature of the substrate and to avoid overcooling of the root system (if necessary, place a container with a plant on a stand or put foam plastic under the pot).
The plant is sensitive to lack of oxygen. The room in which pittosporum is grown should be aired regularly, but do not allow drafts.
Watering and spraying
Pittosporum needs to be watered moderately, the plant does not tolerate stagnant water and waterlogging of the soil. In the summertime, water is sufficiently abundant, but the surface of the soil should dry out between the waterings. In winter, minimize watering, the soil in the tank should dry by 2/3, but do not allow complete drying of the earthy clod. Roughly in spring and autumn, water 1 time in 7 days, in summer - 2 times a week, in winter - 1 time in 10-14 days.
Smolosemannik tolerates dry air, but to decorative leaves does not deteriorate, air humidity indicators are required at an average level (about 60-70%). In the summer, regularly spray the plant. Bathe periodically under a warm shower (except for budding time and flowering time). Green leaves can be wiped from dust with a soft, damp cloth or sponge, use special polishes if desired.
How to feed a Smolosemyannik
Beautiful luxurious bushes take a lot of nutrients from the soil. Their shortage must be replenished by regular fertilization. During the period of active growth (spring-summer), feed with a frequency of 15 days, and in the fall and winter - 1 time per month. For fertilizing use complex mineral fertilizers, they can be alternated with compositions for decorative flowering crops. In the summer, some growers practice organic dressing.
Pruning and crown formation
It can be said that more than one indoor shrub does not do without pruning. The decorativeness of the resin dad (thickness and shape of the bush) is also maintained by regular pruning. Indeed, over time, the leaves from the bottom of the fall, and pruning stimulates the growth of new shoots. The plant is perfectly amenable to formative pruning, which allows it to be used in maintaining the interior of any style. Often, pittosporum is grown as bonsai, and a wire frame and frequent pruning are used to form.
Standard pruning includes the following components:
- Pinching the tops of young shoots or pinching,
- Sprigs out of the desired contour of the bush are slightly shortened,
- In the spring, all shoots are cut to 1/3 length to create a more strictly silhouette,
- To create the similarity of a tree, it is necessary to form a central trunk by trimming the side shoots.
How to transplant a tar
Repot the smokoemyannik regularly. Before the age of 4 years, the procedure should be carried out every spring, in the future - every 2 years. Focus on the degree of filling of the tank with the root system. Transplantation can be performed less frequently, since adult plants tolerate the procedure painfully. In the year when the transplant is not carried out, the topsoil should be replaced with a new one. Remove old soil very carefully so as not to damage the root system.
The soil for the cultivation of Smolozyannika requires nutritional, in terms of pH from 5.5 to 6.0. You can use a universal substrate. If desired, prepare one of the soil mixtures:
- Take 4 parts of sod land, 2 parts of leaves, 1 part of sand and humus, and add ½ parts of peat,
- A mixture of equal proportions of leaf, sod land and sand will do.
At the bottom of the tank for planting lay the drainage layer, poured on top of the prepared substrate. It is important not to damage the root system, therefore transfer the plant along with the earthy ball. Void fill the substrate around the stem of the plant ground palm, pour. To adapt it is important to maintain high humidity, suitable temperature conditions and the level of illumination.
Pittosporum diseases and pests
Pittosporum are resistant to diseases and pests. Only if the plant is “run” strongly, i.e. significantly violate the rules of maintenance (improper lighting, over-irrigation, dry air, accumulation of dust on the leaves), and negative changes will begin.
So, consider the possible problems:
- With a lack of light, the leaves become shallow,
- In constant full shade the plant is strongly drawn out,
- From exposure to direct sunlight, leaves twist and dry,
- With poor lighting or an excess of nitrogen, variegated forms lose their color,
- Constant waterlogging of the substrate provokes the development of rot. In the neglected case, you will need to transplant the plant. Cut off the affected areas and treat the cut sites with a fungicide, disinfect the container, and replace the substrate with a new one,
- With constant air dryness, a red spider mite may be affected. First, adjust the conditions (increase the level of humidity) and bathe the plant under a warm shower to wash away the pests. In extreme cases, resort to treatment with an insecticidal drug.
Losing lower leaves is a natural process.
Pittosporum thin-leaved Pittosporum tenuifolium
Pittosporum thin-leaf Pittosporum tenuifolium photo
Outwardly, it repeats the previous look. The sheet plates are oblong, smaller, and also have wavy edges. Flowers are also inferior in size - reach 1 cm in diameter, but have a unique cinnabar hue. On the background of dark green leaves, they look like precious stones.
There are varieties with dark purple leaves: Nigra (pittosporum tenuifolium nigra), Tom Thumb, Nutty’s Leprechaun.
Pittosporum or thickromane Pittosporum crassifolium
Pittosporum or smolomeannik thick-leaved Pittosporum crassifolium photo
Very beautiful shrub with bluish bloom on the leaves and bright red flowers. Originally from the rainforest of New Zealand. Also widespread in Hawaii.
Pittosporum heterophyllum or heterophyllum, but it is the Chinese glenous donut Pittosporum heterophyllum
Pittosporum heterophyllum or Chinese trigeminal Pittosporum heterophyllum photo
Broadleaf evergreen shrub, densely branched, up to 2.4-3 m, width is usually smaller. Leaves alternate, simple, 7–20 cm long and 2.5–5 cm wide, ovate, or obovate, lanceolate, leathery, blunt tops, basic — wedge-shaped, marginal smooth, upper surfaces glossy green. The flowers are pale yellow, fragrant, 1-5 in the inflorescence, bloom in late spring and summer. The fruit is a capsule, subglobular, about 6 mm in diameter, green, then brown.
Prefers diffuse bright lighting. Be sure to have well-drained soil. Gentle pruning possible. Pittosporum raznopolistny places of growth: the territory of modern China.
Curious Notes on Pittosporum
Interestingly, the resin is contained not only in the pittosporum seeds, but also in the bark and other parts of this plant there are resin-containing tubules, it also made it possible to use the word resin in the name pitta.
Pittosporum: growth pattern and species
The most popular plant varieties of the Pittospor family:
Tobira Pittosporum (Pittosporum tobira), sometimes also the names pittosporum odorous or ordinary are found. At home, such a plant in height can reach 1.5 meters.
The leaves are oval in shape, up to 10 cm in length and 4 cm in width. Differ leathery texture, dark green shade, wavy edges.
Light flowers are collected in corymbose or umbellate inflorescences, have a fairly strong pleasant aroma.
Pittosporum wavy (Pittosporum undulatum). Small shrubs covered with elongated-lanceolate leaves up to 15 cm long with wavy edges. White fragrant flowers are collected in umbrellas.
Pittosporum raznifistny (Pittosporum heterophyllum). Small bushy trees covered with alternate lateral-lanceolate leaves. The flowers may be yellow or white, going to the axillary and apical inflorescences.
Pittosporum rhombus (Pittosporum rhombifolium). Trees with rhomboid leaves up to 10 cm long and about 5 cm wide. White flowers, gathered in umbellate inflorescences.
Pittosporum plate (Pittosporum crassifolium). Shrub with mutually spaced branches. Leaves up to 8 cm long are optically ovate, the edges are bent downwards, their color is dark green. It blooms dark red flowers.
Fine-leaf pittosporum (Pittosporum tenuifolium). Densely leafy trees with oblong lanceolate leaves up to 7 cm long and 3 cm wide. The flowers are collected in bunches, have a dark red color.
Pittosporum: seed reproduction
Another method of propagation of such a plant is sowing seeds. Immediately after ripening, they are sown in containers filled with a mixture of peat and sand.
After the emergence of shoots, they dive into a new soil mixture, which consists of equal parts of sand, turf and leafy ground.
As young pittosporums grow, they are transplanted into permanent pots with soil for adult plants, providing the usual care.
Pittosporum: features of care
The main thing in the care of pittosporum is to provide it with a sufficient amount of light and a suitable temperature. The longest stems should be pruned each spring. Transplantation is carried out annually in a slightly larger pot; for adult pittosporums, it will be enough to change the top layer of soil in the pot.
From spring to autumn, watering this plant should be abundant, after each watering water should be poured from the pan. In winter, you need to water sparingly. Top dressing is required once every two weeks - in the spring and summer period.
Pittosporum at home should be on a bright place, protected from direct sunlight. In the warm season any room temperature will do, in winter it should be kept at least 10-13 degrees.
Pittosporum: possible problems
Dropping leaves from winter time is a sign that the plant is at too high a temperature. During rest, pittosporum should be in a bright cool room.
Of the pests such a plant can affect spider mites and scutes. To combat them, you can use one of the traditional methods.