Being engaged in breeding chickens, it is extremely important that the birds are healthy and give out maximum production.
It depends directly on the nutrition, the composition of the feed and the frequency of meals.
With proper organization of this process will be possible to achieve maximum results.
Types of feed
All feed that is used in the process of feeding chickens is divided into the following types:
Wet food is the so-called mash. Her poultry farmers make their own. In most cases, the following components are added to this feed:
- chopped boiled potatoes
- finely chopped vegetables,
- wheat bran,
- hay flour
- sunflower cake,
- various cereals and cereals.
In addition to the main components, all kinds of greens are often added to the mash, water or dairy products are poured in.
By dry food is meant the usual feed. This is a complete, balanced feed. It is recommended to acquire it in placers in order to avoid overfeeding of birds and obesity. Per day, one individual accounts for only 120 grams of this product.
Nutrition combined feed implies the addition of a variety of feedings in the diet. It is extremely important to accurately calculate the required proportions of all feeds. The ideal option is to use an equal ratio of dry, grain feed and protein supplements.
Nutritional value of feed
When choosing feeds, it is necessary to take into account that the diet of hens should not only be diverse, but also quite nutritious. It should contain the following components:
- Squirrels. This material is used in the structure of cells and is one of the main components of chicken eggs. When organizing the feeding of laying hens, it is mandatory to introduce proteins of both vegetable and animal origin into the diet.
- Fat. Elements extremely important for the full development of the bird. They are the basis of the necessary energy reserve, deposited under the skin and spent on the formation of eggs. For the same, so that the chickens get the fats they need, oats and corn are introduced into their diets.
- Carbohydrates. With their help, the normal functioning of the muscles and all organs is ensured. That is why the feed should be enough fiber, as well as sugars and starch. A lot of carbohydrates are also found in foods such as potatoes, pumpkins, carrots and beets.
- Vitamins. With a lack of vitamins B, as well as A and D in the body of birds. They become more susceptible to various diseases, and this in turn leads to a decrease in their productivity. In order to replenish the vitamin reserve, their diet includes silage, pine meal, fish oil, greens and yeast.
- Minerals. Without them, the normal formation of the skeleton of chickens and shells is impossible. In a separate container, chickens should always have products such as chalk, bone meal, gravel, wood ash or lime.
What to give to eat: food preparation
Food before giving to the birds must be properly prepared. In this case, the chickens will eat it with great appetite, and all the useful substances are much better absorbed.
In the process of preparing food, you must adhere to the following recommendations:
- Greened at least a little potatoes and sprouts contain solanine - a very toxic substance that passes into the water during cooking. That is why it is necessary to drain the liquid immediately after cooking, and knead the prepared products and mix with flour.
- It is recommended to grind all root vegetables on a grater and add flour mixtures to them.
- In the feed should not be moldy bread.As a result of ingestion of poultry products of mold fungi, it can be poisoned.
- Protein feed in advance you need to grind and only then add to the composition of freshly prepared mash.
- In order to better digested grain feed, they should be crushed.
- In the case of using legumes as feed, they are soaked in water and steamed. Thanks to this manipulation, proteins will be better absorbed.
- Any products from the garden or garden must be chopped, and sometimes even boil or scald with boiling water.
In winter, sprouted grains should be included in the bird’s diet. They contain a huge amount of vitamins needed for chickens in this difficult period.
In order to increase the composition of the feed content required for normal life and maximum productivity of poultry vitamins of group B, it is recommended to apply the yeast method.
For this purpose, yeast is added to the feed mixture and thoroughly stirred.
Feeding of hens
The diet of the hens should contain all the substances they need. The ideal option is considered the use of feed. But due to the fact that the price of such feed is high enough and significantly exceeds the cost of production issued by birds, less expensive feed is more popular among farmers.
Among the products that should be in the daily diet of chickens, it is necessary to allocate whole grains, green fodder, a number of vitamin and high-grade mineral supplements.
In drawing up the menu for the birds, you should regularly alternate feeding grain and flour, green and protein supplements. Access to the mineral feed from the hens should be free at any time.
The same requirement is mandatory for drinking water.
Having decided on the composition of the feed, it is necessary to correctly calculate the number of feeds. In order to maximize egg production, feed layers should be given four times a day.
Morning, very early feeding in this case should consist solely of grain or feed mixture. In the evening, as late as possible, birds are given grain.
The remaining two feedings are self-prepared wet mash and any vitamin feed.
The interval between all feedings should be the same. In winter, the mash must be heated before feeding. The bird should have time to eat them still warm.
All of the components of the diet of poultry should be of exceptional quality. If there is no component in them, it must be replaced with another one, but with exactly the same nutrient.
It is also necessary to ensure that the hens receive all the necessary substances, but do not overeat.
This can lead primarily to obesity, and subsequently to a significant decrease in egg production rates.
Features of feeding in the winter
Feeding birds in winter has its own characteristics. In the diet of their food must be included such juicy food:
Feed is recommended to pre-grind in a meat grinder. Additionally, you should boil more and beets with potatoes. Vegetables after cooking need to crush and mix with mash. It is recommended that sunflower oilcake be added to the mash during this period. Thanks to this product, the required amount of proteins and fats will be supplied to the chickens.
Preparing for the winter, stock up on hay. It is recommended to fold them in bundles and attach them to the trough. In separate tanks, it is necessary to lay out gravel or crushed chalk.
In the evening feeding to give the birds wet mash is extremely not recommended. It is better that this meal include only whole grain feed. Also worth taking care of the presence in the coop warm water.
Food for meat breeds of chickens
When organizing the diet of such chickens, it is necessary to take into account the fact that as a result of breeding the bird's body has changed significantly.Naturally, broilers and already adult chicks need to be given food in different quantities.
After the completion of a period of intensive growth in birds, puberty begins. During this period, their growth almost completely stops. This process should not be ignored. At this stage it is necessary to reduce the portions of feed produced.
Feeding broilers is allowed in several ways. They can be given an unlimited amount of low-calorie mixtures, which are limited in the content of proteins and carbohydrates, or use full-fledged feed, but give them up taking into account the norms of each individual.
Often serious consequences are the omnivorous chickens. Birds simply do not pay attention to the quality of food and with appetite eat even moldy or rotten foods.
As a result, they develop intestinal infections and many other diseases. At the same time, the poultry farmer already has to study all nutritional characteristics during illnesses.
To avoid this, you should find out what kind of products will harm the bird.
Regardless of the breed of the bird, in its diet should not under any circumstances be fermented, sour feed and other spoiled products.
Do not give chickens and whole roots, peeling, raw potatoes. Before putting food waste in the feeder, they should be checked and sorted.
It is unacceptable that food poultry, food film, foil or any other inedible items.
- Attention must be paid to fresh grass. Among it should not be poisonous. Wormwood, celandine and horsetail are often the cause of poisoning.
- Also, do not give the birds baking. At the same time, grain or wheat bread will only benefit the hens, especially during the winter period. It must be dried and added to the composition of the mash.
Observing all the rules of the organization of feeding birds, will be able to grow them healthy and get the maximum production. One has only to take into account all the peculiarities of feeding chickens at different ages and depending on climatic conditions.
Feeding domestic chickens
Chickens are omnivores with a short digestive tract. They need primarily concentrated feed (grain, animal feed, etc.), which should be at least two-thirds of the diet, and additional feed (food waste, vegetables, root vegetables, etc.
) - one third. Therefore, these birds must be provided with a highly nutritious diet, especially during the laying period. The approximate daily ration for domestic chickens is given in the table.
Such feed means, such as reverse, cottage cheese, milk, acidophilic milk, are usually fed when feeding meat breeds.
Diet for laying hens with a live weight of 1800 (per head per day)
At home, in the absence of specialized feed, special attention should be paid to the preparation of feed for feeding.
For example, it is better to feed grains in crushed form, potatoes - boiled and pounded, meat - in the form of minced meat, greens and silage - in a chopped state, milk - in a fermented form, shell, or chalk - in a chopped state.
In addition, in a separate trough should be gravel or coarse quartz sand, not less than the size of millet grain and not larger than a grain of wheat. It is very useful as a vitamin feed to give germinated oats or wheat, lettuce, young nettle, dandelion and woodlice.
Chickens eat grain most willingly. Therefore, by increasing or decreasing the amount of grain in the diet, it is possible to regulate the consumption of the remaining feed to some extent.
Excessive eating of grain by these birds can lead to a decrease in eating of cheaper local feeds, obesity of chickens and a decrease in egg production.
With an insufficient amount of grain in the hens, the weight can be reduced, which ultimately will also lead to a decrease in productivity.
The ratio of nutrients in the diet should meet the standards. The table shows the rations for laying hens of Russian white breed of chickens.
For laying hens at the age of 7–8 months with an egg production rate of 55–60%, a second one can be chosen from the given rations (18 g of protein, about 142 g of feed units).
For laying hens at the age of 16 - 17 months, with a 40% egg production rate, the fourth ration is suitable (19 g of protein, 140 feed units).
Rations for laying hens of Russian white breed of chickens (for the winter period)
If there are several groups of cell layers of different ages and different productivity, they can make up only 1 - 2 rations, but differentiate them into separate groups, changing the ratio of grain and feed.
In the first 45 - 60 days after planting the pullets into the cells, they are given a larger amount of grain, which contributes to the normal completion of growth and does not cause excessively early egg-laying.
With increasing age, the amount of whole grains in the diet is gradually reduced.
After the first feeding (dry feed mixed with germinated grain), the hen is given 2 times a wet mash from additional feed. The mixer should not stick to hands, but in hot weather it should be made more humid, otherwise it dries quickly and reluctantly eats. In the last feeding of the hens give a grain mixture. In total, the hens are given 4 times a day.
If cell layers are not subjected to ultraviolet radiation by mercury-quartz lamps, then the diet for them should be provided with vitamin D due to fish oil or preparations of vitamins D3 and D2.
It is even better to use irradiated yeast, which contain less vitamin D, so it is easier not to overdose here, otherwise the bird may die.
It is good to include alfalfa flour and dairy products in feed and grain mixtures.
The winter period is more favorable for the cellular content of laying hens than the summer one. In winter, the house maintains an optimum temperature and humidity due to heating, regardless of the outside temperature.
In summer, especially at high temperatures and low air humidity, the temperature in the poultry houses rises sharply (up to 32 ° C) and without air conditioning it is almost impossible to create an optimal microclimate (18 and 70% humidity).
In this regard, the cells with chickens are taken out into the courtyard and placed under a shed or released into the pasture.
The decisive condition for obtaining high productivity of laying hens in both the winter and summer periods is full phase feeding.
The amount of feed is set depending on the productivity of chickens within 118-120 g per head. The effectiveness of the diet and palatability depend on the ambient temperature.
The lower the temperature, the greater the bird's need for energy, and therefore in the amount of feed.
In summer, feed consumption by poultry is significantly reduced, therefore providing it with the necessary amount of energy is a difficult task, as in mixed feed for laying hens there are usually 250 - 255 kcal with a need of 290 kcal. Feed consumption is reduced by 8 - 10%, so there is a decrease in the productivity of poultry.
Consequently, the nutritional value of the feed mixture should be increased accordingly by enriching it with protein and energy feeds, introducing meat or bone meal, crushed corn grain (up to 50%), 3–4% vegetable fat in a 1: 1 ratio with an acid number of not more than 8— ten.
For this purpose, in the warm period of the year, rations given in the table are recommended for egg-breeding hens.
Approximate rations for chickens of egg breeds in the warm period of the year (with egg production 165 pieces per year.
In order to save valuable grain feeds through the use of agricultural wastes, approximate rations are presented, presented in the table. On the basis of these rations they prepare wet masters and feed them in three doses.In winter, at night they give not 30, but 40 - 45% of the daily diet.
Rations for laying hens, weighing 1800 g. (On the head)
Feeding homemade wet hens to chickens is physiologically more reasonable compared to dry feeding, because with this type of feeding the bird spends less energy on receiving food, since the excretion of a large amount of saliva does not require wetting of the food lump. In addition, mash potatoes are easier to digest and better utilize their nutrients. However, the negative side of the mash is their susceptibility to fermentation and spraying, which causes digestive disturbance in birds.
In private farms in the absence of specialized feed, special attention should be paid to the preparation of feed for feeding and in the absence of vitamins to germinate oats or barley, to feed red carrots, fresh greens. Fish oil can not be fed to laying hens because it contains unsaturated fatty acids, which provide the smell of fish in eggs and meat.
Features of feeding laying hens
Every novice farmer who wants to keep laying hens should properly organize their feeding. After all, the way they are carried depends on a competent diet. Therefore, the question arises: how to feed the chickens at home, so that they are excellently carried, and their eggs are distinguished by high taste quality, size, shape and color of the yolk?
What kind of food is it?
Chicken feed can be divided into three types:
Wet food can be called mash, which can be prepared independently. Most often, the mash is added:
- depressed boiled potatoes
- chopped vegetables
- wheat bran
- hay flour
- cake or meal
- whole grain cereals.
Sometimes in the mash include greens. Also in the wet feeding housewash water, which should be the third part of the entire feed. If possible, water can be replaced by dairy products.
Dry feed for chickens is considered feed. It is most effective, therefore, at a price higher than other types of feed. For laying hens it is best to buy feed in the placer so that it cannot eat much and thus does not suffer from obesity. One bird per day accounts for about 120 grams of dry food.
The combined food includes various types of top dressing. With this diet, it is important to correctly calculate the proportion of all feed. The best option is to 1 part concentrated dry food to 1.3 parts of the grain. It is important to note that 2/3 of the feed is cereal, and 1/3 is protein supplement (cake, meal, etc.).
Features of feed selection
Every farmer should carefully and seriously consider the choice of feed and the preparation of proper diets. If it is good to organize the feeding of chickens, then together with the feed they will be able to obtain the necessary trace elements that directly affect the formation and formation of eggs.
The daily ration of feeding chickens should include (based on 1 head):
What to feed domestic chickens to have a good rush?
The productivity of poultry directly depends on a balanced diet. All breeders remember this, but often beginner owners of country houses forget.
Pushing the feeding rules into the background, they try to equip the chicken coop in the most comfortable way or replace the birds altogether, counting on increased productivity.
In fact, the way out of the situation is much closer and simpler: a clear mode and a well-composed menu will solve all the problems with low masonry levels!
How to feed chickens: rules and regulations
and the breeding of birds in the garden is a kind of small production, which requires strict compliance with the rules of care. Rated feed delivery is one of the important points.
Food before serving must be prepared and weighed in order to avoid malnutrition or overeating chicken.
Deviations in both directions can adversely affect not only the quantity of eggs produced, but also the health of the bird.
As a rule, laying hens are fed at least twice a day: immediately after waking up and one hour before the light is turned off. In some cases, the diet involves three or even four meals a day.
In the cold season, portions slightly increase, so that the bird gets enough energy to warm it.
The ideal solution is to provide chicken houses with feeders and drinkers, which allow them to save expensive raw materials (grain, mineral supplements, etc.).
Hens hens at home - a fairy tale or reality?
Breeding chickens people engaged in very old times. It is difficult to find a house in the countryside where there are no these birds. And this is not at all surprising, since the maintenance of laying hens at home is not difficult at all, with minimal material costs.
And in response, it turns out not only such a valuable product as eggs, but also tender meat that suits almost all people. The double benefit is obvious. Many people keep chickens' houses not only for themselves, but also for sale, which becomes very good, and most importantly, a profitable business.
But in order for the hens to bring only profit and a minimum of care, it is necessary first of all to take care of suitable care for them. You can learn all about the content of laying hens from this article.
After you have decided to start laying hens, think whether you can keep them in comfortable conditions? After all, they are very demanding, and if you do not adhere to certain rules, all your efforts will be reduced to zero.
So, first of all you have to build a comfortable poultry house in which you will keep your chickens. For these purposes, it is best to build a chicken coop yourself so that all conditions are met.
When calculating the size of a chicken coop, please note that 3-4 hens can fit on one square meter. The size of the house should allow the hens to move freely. But even if you have only a couple of poultry, contain 1 sq. M. they can not.
The minimum size in which the content of laying hens will be comfortable - 3 sq. M.
Also immediately worth taking care of the availability of walking - a small courtyard. The minimum size of such a courtyard should be about 15 sq.m. Chickens that move often develop faster and better, which, accordingly, has a very positive effect on their ability to lay eggs.
Around the courtyard be sure to build a fence, in order to avoid attacks of wild birds and animals. Over the courtyard make a shed, under which the chickens will hide from the hot sun or heavy rain.
The entrance to the house will be properly done from the south side to protect the chicken coop from the cold wind.
If you are planning a floor maintenance, the floors in the house are best made of clay or earth, in rare cases of concrete, as it does not heat well, and overcooling affects chickens badly and can cause various diseases.
With the floor content in addition the floors are insulated with straw, sand, or peat. When keeping laying hens, make sure to keep the hen house clean, this will prevent the appearance of infections and bacteria that can undermine the health of the birds.
The walls in the chicken coop are best made of logs or lumber, they are not as strong as brick or cinder block, but they warm up quickly and keep warm, which is very important in the winter. The roof, like the walls, should be well insulated, otherwise chickens will simply stop carrying eggs.
The windows in the hen house should be placed on the south side, since the hens are very demanding of light. With a lack of lighting chickens become lethargic and sedentary. In winter, when daylight is not enough, it is worth highlighting with electric lamps. It is necessary to illuminate as much as possible the roosts, as well as the feeders and drinkers, but leave the nests in a darkened place.
Layers like fresh air very much, so windows should open easily.From the outside, a protective grid can be installed on the windows.
In order to avoid stale air in the hen when keeping hens, it is necessary to take care of good ventilation. The temperature in the chicken coop is always maintained in the range from +18 to +26 degrees.
Hypothermia for the hens is very harmful and they begin to carry fewer eggs.
It is imperative that roost be made inside the hen house, since birds spend the most time on them. Perches can be made from wooden poles. They should be placed at a distance of 25-35 cm from each other. Note that per hen requires 20 cm perch.
It is also necessary to take care of the equipment for the maintenance of laying hens. Feeders and drinkers you can easily purchase at any specialty store or do it yourself. Feeders are often made of plastic pipes.
View trough does not play a special role, as long as it was in an accessible place. Drinkers are best to choose automatic. Chickens are rather sloppy birds, and in order to avoid rapid water pollution, it is better to choose a closed type drinker.
Also do not forget to install ash baths in the hen house; chickens love them very much.
If you follow all the conditions described above, then you get a comfortable home-made chicken coop for laying hens.
Poultry Farmer Rules
In order to keep the egg production at a high level, it is necessary to replenish the chicken coop every year with young birds. In the first year, about 250-300 eggs are laid. Every year this number will decrease, therefore the young growth is required.
To make breeding chickens effective, be sure to take care of a good, healthy rooster. Its breed does not have to be the same as the layer hen. Breeding is best done in spring. According to the observations of specialists, the chickens that were bred in the spring have better health and are resistant to various diseases.
A mandatory item in the maintenance of chickens and roosters during the breeding season is a high-quality, most nutritious food and comfortable living conditions. When you decide to stop the breeding process, the rooster is best kept in another room.
Hatching eggs lasts approximately 21 days. Some chickens lack the instinct for brooding, so keep a close eye on your birds. If you notice that the hens do not sit on the eggs, it is best to pick them up and wait for the hatching in the incubator.
During the period of incubation of eggs, you must observe the highest purity in the hen house, regularly carry out wet cleaning and disinfect all equipment. It should be noted that one hen is able to sit around 12 eggs.
When you notice that the chicks begin to hatch, provide the hen with maximum rest. Do not help her, she will cope.
Chickens begin to appear around the 18th day, and the process itself lasts about 2-3 days.
Remember, if the care of chickens will comply with all the rules, then high egg production will be guaranteed.
11. Features of feeding chickens when kept in cages.
Feeding chickens when kept in cages. All feeding equipment and chickens should be in good condition. If the distribution of feed is mechanized, follow the serviceability of the installation and the uniform distribution of feed in the feeders.
Chickens are fed dry flour mixtures with a flour mixture and a grain of two or three species.
Granulated feeds are not recommended for breeding chickens, as they are inclined to overeating and, consequently, to obesity, lower egg production and incubation qualities of eggs.
In hot weather, when chickens lose their appetite and the feed rate decreases, you can prepare small granules from the flour mixture. However, in this form, the feed is given only for a short period.
Depending on the type of equipment when using dry flour mixers, chickens are distributed one or several times a day. When combined feeding morning give feed, and in the evening - a cereal mixture.Compound feed can be mixed with grain and distributed at the same time.
In the diets of cellular chickens, they increase the amount of calcium, phosphorus, vitamins and microelements and reduce energy in comparison with the rations for chickens in the local content.
In order to prevent losses, feed is filled 7 or half the height of the feeder. Distribution of feed begins from the upper tiers of the cells so that the chickens in the lower tiers can see the feed and do not worry. To control the correct feeding, the control group of chickens is systematically weighed. Water the bird from cup type or nipple drinkers that prevent water leakage. [eleven]
12. Feed, rations and feeding technique
In the conditions of intensive poultry farming, the main technological principle of productivity management is feeding the bird with full-fledged mixed fodders in a regulated manner.
Complete ration feeds produce enterprises of the feed mill industry according to the norms of content, in particular for laying hens, individual nutrients and exchange energy (Table 1).
The main components of complete feed for poultry are cereal grains (50-70%) - corn, wheat, barley, oats, millet, rye - energy-rich and poor protein.
Bean grains (peas, beans, lupine, etc.) are introduced into the mixed feed in a limited volume (5-15%) due to the presence of inhibitors of proteolytic enzymes that impair protein digestibility. As grains of legumes, and meal, yeast and animal feed in the composition of animal feed serve as sources of protein and essential amino acids.
The required level of energy in complete feeds is provided by introducing 2-3% of the diet into their animal and vegetable fats. They also use waste products from plant masks - phosphatides containing enough essential fatty acids.
In complete feed for poultry feed, it is mandatory to include some mineral supplements (bone meal, shell, chalk, limestone, feed phosphates, salt), which provide the optimal content of calcium, phosphorus and sodium (Table 1).
Table12. Recipes feed for chickens eggs,%
Features and rules for keeping and feeding laying hens
Age of hens, months
Fish meal (from non-food fish)
100 g of feed contains,%:
exchange energy, MJ
crude protein crude fat
raw calcium fiber
isoleucine phenylalanine threonine
All used feed for the preparation of animal feed should be benign - without signs of mold and putrid odor, should not contain prussic acid, gossypol, aphlotoxins, poisonous weed seeds and more than 0.3% of admixture of sand.
It is not recommended to feed rancid feed fats to the bird (acid number above 20) containing more than 1.5% unsaponifiable substances.
Recipes complete feed for phase feeding chickens egg lines are given in Table. 12.
In order to balance the feed for vitamins, microelements, individual amino acids in their composition are premixes developed for all species and ages of poultry (Table 13).
Table 13. Premix for industrial hens, per 1 ton of premix (recipe No. P 1-2-89) 
Recipe optimization programs play an important role in the technological chain of feed production and in the system of relations between producers and consumers of compound feeds (Fig. 1). The extent to which the optimization program will take into account all the factors that determine the quality of the feed depends on the degree of compliance of nutritional indicators obtained by calculation, and in fact in the finished product. 
Thorough inspection and requires grain. First, its nutritional value varies greatly depending on the region. Secondly, its smell should be pleasant and fresh, with no signs of mold.
Fat and oil should only be of superior quality.When animal fat and vegetable oil are mixed, it is difficult to determine whether an antioxidant has been used to stabilize this fat.
Meat and bone and fish meal are also subject to scrupulous analysis. If fish meal and rapeseed meal is stale, the smell of fish will be felt in the egg and poultry meat. True, the genetics of Lohmann Tirtsuht revealed the gene responsible for the cleavage of the trimethylamine group in the feed, so that the production of crosses from this company has no unpleasant odors.
A quality certificate for the purchase of raw materials will prevent the risk of infection with salmonellosis, the presence of amines in the feed. It is not uncommon for high protein content in raw materials to be attributed to the addition of urea, which is toxic. [eight]
The generally accepted approach to the optimization of compound feed recipes practically does not concern the problem of their production under the conditions of a specific technological process. This circumstance leads to an imbalance in the nutritional indices of the finished feed relative to the calculated values. The diagram (Fig. 2) shows a typical graph of the relative deviations of the actual content of methionine + cystine from the calculated values in 41 different batches of feed at one of the plants (relative deviations are defined as the difference between the actual and calculated values divided by the calculated value, the result is multiplied by 100 %). It can be seen from the diagram that deviations, sometimes substantial, occur with equal probability both in one and in the other direction, which indicates the effect of random perturbing factors.
Modern software for creating compound feed recipes should not only apply the optimization procedure to the existing set of raw materials, but also take into account all the destabilizing factors in the technological process in order to ensure maximum consistency between the calculated and actual nutritional value. 
In the rations of birds injected gravel in the amount of 0.5% by weight of the feed. The size of gravel particles (preferably quartz and granite) for layers should be 3-5 mm. This contributes to the mechanical grinding of feed in the muscular stomach and the increased utilization of nutrients.
When normalized feeding of adult birds use approximate norms of feeding them complete feed (table. 14).
Table 14. The approximate rate of feeding feed to adult birds, g per head per day
Care for laying hens
Chickens begin to sweep at the age of 4.5-5 months. Daylight hours should be about 12 hours. Hang incandescent electric bulbs 40-60 W at a height of 1.8-2.2 meters from the floor. In the cold season it is impossible to get a high egg production rate of chickens without using additional lighting. To make chickens nest in the right place, put a liner made of wood, alabaster or chalk in the nest (you can extract the contents from the egg and fill it with a solution of gypsum). The weight of such eggs should be 50-60 grams.
Chickens are unpretentious in the care, prolific and hardy, breeding at home will not be easy. A reliable and high-quality poultry house (Dodonov chicken coop) will help. The room for the hens should be very spacious, dry and warm, ventilated, well lit and kept clean. Good housing and feeding conditions contribute to an increase in egg production by 15%, as well as an increase in egg mass.
For laying hens, there is a need for a walking platform, which should be fenced off, from 1.5 to 2 meters in height. It is advisable to make it out of a grid or slats without gaps, so that rodents do not harm birds. Be sure you need a shadow of chickens, make a small canopy. On the territory of the walking area you can make roosts, where birds like to sit during the day. Use dry leaves, straw, sawdust, chopped hay or peat as a floor mat. Daily remove litter from the coop, change the wet litter.
Feeding laying hens should be abundant. Part of the grain feed is recommended to be germinated before use. This is done very simply. Soak corn or barley in warm water, sprinkle a thin layer in the room (the air temperature should be 23-27 degrees). Keep the grain wet all the time. On the third or fourth day there will be sprouts, after which the feed can be given to chickens. In the chicken coop should be drinking bowl filled with clean water (you need to change the water daily).
Include in the ration of layers: cereals and legumes, powdery feed, meal, cake and yeast, animal feed, greens, coniferous, hay and grass meal. Increase egg production in chickens using yeast feed. At 1 kilogram of meal you must take 30 grams of fresh yeast, previously diluted in 1.5 liters of warm water. Stir the mass well, put in a warm place for 6-9 hours. After this, the feed is considered ready, it can be added to the mash 20 grams per day per head.
Features chicken egg breeds
All egg breeds of chickens have a number of similar characteristics that determine their productivity.
Laying hens are usually they "mature" earlier and start rushing already at 4-5 months of life. The second difference from meat and egg-meat breeds is body weight. Adult chicken weighs no more than 2 kg, roosters can weigh a little more (up to 3 kg).
Egg chickens have light bones, rather dense healthy plumage, which covers the whole body, except for the paws.
The third difference is well developed wings. You may have noticed that meat breeds have massive, well-developed legs, but the wings are not suitable even to fly over a meter fence.
Laying hens are very mobile. Due to the fact that birds have to lay eggs every 25 hours, their metabolism is accelerated. These chickens constantly need food that is rich in minerals and vitamins.
In order for the result to live up to expectations, you need to know everything about the hens, so now we’ll tell you about the average egg production and what it depends on.
Breeding breeds bring at least 200 eggs per year. The average value of egg production in farms is 275 eggs per year, which is a very good result. There are also particularly productive hybrids that produce about 300 eggs per year, however, this productivity is due to high costs (more feed, more electricity costs due to the increased length of the day).
It is worth remembering an interesting feature that relates to reducing the number of eggs. The older the chicken, the greater the egg mass. Thus, the average weight of 10 eggs in the first year of life is equal to the mass of 8-9 eggs in the second year of a bird's life.
On average, egg production falls by 15–20% each year, so the hens that are 5 years old become practically useless. This is connected not only with a decrease in the number of eggs, but also with the fact that in the third year of life many ovarian cancer develops, and this problem can be dealt with only by buying new layers.
How to choose laying hens when buying
Many owners are wondering how to choose the right layer. Basically, chickens are bought in mass markets and bazaars, where you can only dream of good quality birds.
Every owner wants to buy a quality product, but, as you understand, a quality product is quite expensive.
That is why it is very important to choose not only the breed you need, but also healthy young animals.
Of course, we recommend buying birds on farms and in special nurseries, where they are properly cared for and bred, keeping the rules of selection. However, not everyone has this opportunity.
Let's start with when it is better to buy laying hens. Many know that it's better to buy a bird in spring then the peak of their productivity will fall in the summer, and you will immediately justify the money spent.
You need to buy young at the age of 4-5 months - that is, those chickens that have just started to be born.
Each owner has his own approach to the selection of young stock, as well as his own assessment criteria. Now we will talk about external signs, which can determine the health of the chicken and its belonging to the egg-breeds.
- Appearance. Chicken should be clean, well-groomed. The presence of baldness, wounds, growths or deformities is unacceptable. The plumage of a good young is uniform, brilliant, smooth. Late shedding is a sign of a good hen.
- Infections. If you notice that the chicken near the anus is full of excrement, this indicates the presence of intestinal infections, which not only lead to weight loss and egg production, but are transmitted to other birds.
- Hidden problems. When buying a bird you need to carefully examine the skin, raising the plumage. Healthy skin color is pale pink. If under the plumage you notice a yellow sagging epidermis, it means that the young have serious problems with the liver. In no case can you buy such a bird.
- Colds. Attention should be paid to the head. Bird's scallop should be red, even, without deformation, wounds or swelling. Eyes should be bright, bulging, shiny. Sunken, faded or soured eyes are a sign of problems. If the bird sneezes or it has discharge from the nostrils, it is a sign of respiratory diseases (mycoplasmosis).
- Rickets and bone problems. The abdominal cavity of the chicken should be soft and elastic. The presence of curvature or sagging in the keel indicates rachitis or other bone problems.
- Determination of chicken productivity. It is possible to determine a good layer on the stomach, in which the oviduct is located. A good chicken should have at least four fingers between the pubic bones and the posterior end of the sternum. A bad chicken fits just two.
Requirements for the room
Laying hens are kept in specially equipped chicken houses, which must meet the minimum "standards".
The coop should be located on a hill, in a windless place. The accumulation of moisture or flooding by groundwater is unacceptable.
Now consider the scheme for the construction of an optimal chicken coop for layers.
The room is rather small and suitable for keeping an average bird population. When calculating the area of the chicken coop, you need to know that at least five square meters of plots are allocated to five individuals. m
Growing a laying hen, you need to maintain a certain temperature, which affects the health of the bird and egg production. Temperature is affected by the height of the ceilings, which should be no more than 180 cm. In order for the chickens to feel good, the room should be 23-25 ° C.
In the chicken coop must necessarily be ventilation, which provide vents or hoods. The absence of this element in the chicken coop will lead to a lack of fresh air and excessively high temperatures in the summer.
An important part is the floor covering. Many owners think that if you concreted the floor or put wood, then cleaning will not be so problematic. However, in the case of concrete, you will get a very cold room (the floor will be so cold in winter that chickens will feel discomfort, regardless of the air temperature), and the wood may bend down.
For flooring, straw, hay, sawdust or other hydrophobic natural materials are used that will not hurt the bird and will not lead to its death if the litter is eaten.
Laying hens require good lighting, so in the chicken coop per 1 square. m floor should have at least 11 square meters. see windows. This calculation allows you to build a well-lit room.
In summertime, the chickens do not need additional lighting, since the daylight hours are more than 13 hours. In late autumn, in winter and in early spring, it is imperative to maintain the same light regime with the help of artificial lighting.
We should not forget about the disinfection of the room, feeders and drinkers.On this depends not only the smell emanating from the chicken coop, but also the condition of the bird.
Walking yard for chickens
Poultry needs extra walking space. For this, near the hen house you need to fence off the area under the walking yard. The courtyard is limited to a wooden or mesh fence. The fence should be sure to check for the presence of "dangerous" places, stumbled upon by which the bird can get hurt.
Walking yard is recommended to do under the canopy, which will protect chickens from extreme heat and will not allow precipitation to accumulate in its territory.
Do not leave the ground in the courtyard without coverage, as the activity of the bird will turn it into a swamp, which threatens not only the adjacent building, but also the health of the hens.
Nests and nests
Roots and nests are an integral part of any chicken coop.
Perches are made of wooden bars or poles, which have a diameter of not more than 6 cm. Perches should be located near the window, at a height of 1 m or more from the floor. The distance between the crossbars - 35-60 cm.
To make it easier to carry out cleaning in the room, perches can be made lifting, on hinges.
On average, 20-25 cm perch is enough for one hen. If you allocate each individual less space, it threatens conflicts.
Now let's talk about nests. Most likely, every owner understands that chickens will not rush anywhere (although it happens), therefore for them you need to build a comfortable nest, from where it will be convenient to pick up eggs.
Nests are built in a darkened corner of the hen house. To do this, you can use wooden boxes or wicker baskets with dimensions of 30 × 30 × 35 cm. Fill the nests with straw, hay or wood chips.
One nest is enough for 5-6 individuals. It can be placed both on the floor and on a small hill. The place should be accessible and warm.
Feeders and drinkers
Feeders and drinkers should be both in the hen house and on the street, so that the bird can quickly find food and water.
The feeder is made in the form of an elongated low capacity, which is made of wood or metal. The material should be non-toxic, should not dissolve or release any poisons in contact with water.
The length of the feeder and their total number depends on the number of birds. At least one individual should be at least 10 cm feeder. In the opposite case, you get an uneven distribution of food (someone will overeat, and someone will starve), or there will be fights between chickens.
In order to prevent the raking of the food, the feeders are set at a low height so that the chicken can reach the food with its beak.
Drinkers, as well as feeders, should be located both in the courtyard and in the hen house. Many have now submitted a swamp, which is formed near a container with water as a result of "bathing" the bird. That is why the drinker should be of such a design that allows you to get to the water, but does not allow the chicken to pollute or spray it. Therefore, you should buy a special drinker for chickens, so that you do not have to get rid of excess moisture in the room (chicken coop) every day. In appearance, they should resemble a cooler, only with an additional tray into which water will flow.
Many owners who are breeding chickens do not know that the presence of the "bath" with ash in the hen house is mandatory.
The fact is that the bird often suffers from various skin parasites (ticks, bedbugs, lice), which can be eliminated only by taking a ash bath. Parasites not only cause direct damage, but also carry various infections that can destroy livestock.
The bath is made of boxes or other containers, which have dimensions of 120 × 70 × 20 cm. The filler is a mixture of sand, clay and furnace ash. Everything is mixed in equal proportions.
Ash baths bring not only benefits, but also the pleasure of poultry.
Features of the winter keeping of laying hens
This item is very important, since in winter many chickens simply cease to nest at many owners, and we buy the chicken of egg breeds precisely for obtaining the maximum possible number of eggs.
There is no real “break” in the winter time. The absence of eggs is only affected by conditions.
If you save on heating or other conditions, then the bird will consume feed, it will spend energy and other resources, and you will not receive any products.
Start with the most important thing - temperature In winter, the temperature in the chicken coop should not be below 15 ° C. In order to constantly maintain this temperature, one must either insulate the walls, or install heating devices (one should remember that the bird should not have access to them), or lay the litter correctly.
Immediately it should be said that it is very dangerous and expensive to put heating devices in the hen house. Not a bad choice setting the "stove" close to the wall, which will slightly heat the room.
Wall insulation also requires significant costs, but one-time costs will pay off in the future. Insulate the chicken coop in the same way as the living quarters, but on top of the insulation you need apply a larger layer of plaster, so that the chickens do not pierce the walls and pull out the insulation.
The easiest and cheapest way to keep warm - lay the litter. The vital activity of microorganisms in the litter heats it to a temperature of 32 ° C, which is enough to maintain the minimum allowable temperature. The litter is laid in several layers. As soon as one layer drowns, the next one is laid.
Above, we mentioned that in the winter time the length of daylight is not enough and it is necessary to include artificial lighting. To achieve maximum productivity, the light must be turned on in the morning (from 6 to 9) and in the evening (from 17.00 to 20.00).
Now let's talk about than feed the laying hens in winter. To preserve the health of the poultry and get high-grade products, in the diet, in addition to grain crops, boiled vegetables (beets, carrots, potatoes) and supplements with vitamin D (prepared at home by mixing bran, eggshell, bone meal and sunflower oil cake) must be present.
Do not forget about water temperature in drinking bowls, as cold water can cause colds. Water should have a temperature of 25-35 ° C so that it does not immediately cool, but not burn the poultry's esophagus.
It is necessary to understand that in winter time water is changed much more often, therefore it is necessary to pour 2-3 times less water in the drinker.
Followed by A few tips that have a positive effect on the quantity and quality of eggs:
- in winter, the litter needs to be raked daily with a rake, so that it does not coagulate, or pour various “goodies” on the floor, so that the bird rakes the straw itself.
- the length of the day should be slowly increased in the late fall and also slowly reduced in early spring.
- for the night, chickens are given whole grains, which, when digested, emit a lot of heat and warm the bird.
How to feed laying hens: chicken diet
In this section, we’ll talk about what chicken eats, what vitamins and microelements a bird needs to live, and how to feed chickens to get really nutritious eggs.
Feed the birds need at least 3-4 times a day. The first portion is given early in the morning, the second - late in the evening (give whole grains). Daily portions are given with the same period of time. They should consist of wet mash, which should include many vitamins and trace elements.
It often happens that chickens do not eat all the food and start to just throw it around the yard or chicken coop. This leads to the emergence of rodents and the development of pathogenic bacteria. To avoid this, it is necessary to clearly understand how much feed chickens need per day. The optimal amount of feed per individual in summer is 140 g, in winter - 120 g.Thus, for a day, each hen should be given 420 g of various feeds in the summer, or 360 g in the winter.
Now consider the vitamins, trace elements and other components that are part of the feed, their effect on poultry and eggs.
Squirrels. The most important building material of which animal cells are made. Everyone knows that eggs are valued for their high protein content. Therefore, to talk about its importance is unnecessary. If the chicken does not get the right amount of protein, then the eggs will be poor. Chicken gets protein by eating bone (fish) flour or sunflower, soybean or rapeseed meal.
Fat They need a bird to replenish energy reserves. Fatty rich corn and oats.
Carbohydrates. Provide energy to the physical activity of the hens.
Vitamins. Vitamins A, B and D are important for laying hens. To provide the bird with these vitamins, green fodder (green beans, pumpkin pulp, corn, carrot, quinoa, nettle, dandelion or other wild herbs) is added to the diet. Vitamin D is rich in baker's yeast, which can be added to food in small quantities.
Minerals. They are responsible for the thickness and integrity of the eggshell. In order for the bird to obtain the necessary substances, feeders with chalk (preferably not crushed), small shells, crushed eggshell, gravel or crushed bones are installed in the chicken coop and on the walking yard.
Now let's talk about how to feed the laying hens for the prevention of various diseases.
Above, we described that chickens should be bought at the age of 4-5 months, since at that age they should have received most of the vaccines for the most common diseases.
If you bought chickens, then follow a strict vaccination schedule.
When chicks are 5 weeks old, they are given infectious bronchitis vaccine and Newcastle disease. A week later, vaccinated against salmonellosis. At 7 weeks vaccinated against mycoplasmosis, and at 9 weeks of life vaccinated against rhinotracheitis. At thirty weeks, the bird is vaccinated against infectious encephalomyelitis.
Vaccine for vaccinations can be purchased at any veterinary pharmacy.
How to choose a young?
First, the young animals for the production of eggs are chosen from the breeds of the egg direction. It is naive to hope for a high egg production of chickens of another direction, for example, meat.
Breeds of laying hens
You can choose the young of the following breeds: Russian White, Andalusian, Leggorn, Czech gold, May Day, Italian Kuropatchatye, Minorca, Carpathian Green Feet, Hamburg, Loman-Brown, Hisex, Kuchinsky anniversary jubilee. As a result of breeding, new cross-hens are being bred: Borki-1,2, Irtysh, Zaslavskiy-1,2,3, Zarya-17, Gibro-6 and many others.
If you have already decided on the breed or cross, when choosing young stock, you need to draw on their external signs and habits: the breast is flat, the paws are strong, the eyes are bulging, do not water, the feathers are shiny and clean, the comb (if it is grown up young) is bright. The young chicken must be agileWithout obvious signs of illness, she should not sit on the floor.
Focusing on these indicators, depending on the age of the young, you can make a good choice for poultry farms.
Care and maintenance at home
If you have made the right choice of young animals, then good care and proper maintenance will provide excellent results. To care for and maintain chickens in two ways: in the cages and in the range.
Combining these two methods is strongly discouraged, as the hen must get used to certain conditions. Any change of such conditions, especially often, leads to stress and a decrease or cessation of egg production.
Breeding hens without walking
This method involves their constant presence in the process of life in special cells.
The size and number of cages directly depends on how many poultry stocks are planned to be kept. On 1 m2 area can accommodate 7-8 adult chickens egg direction. If the population of birds is large, the cells have tiers.
It is not difficult to construct such cells, however, this requires serious investments (as compared with the second method of maintenance, which will be discussed below).
Making a cage - tips for beginners
The cage is made of fine-welded mesh. Instead, they also use a chain-link (on the sides and on the back side), metal bars - in front. The bottom is a two-level.
First, at a distance of 20 cm from the bottom of the structure, we fasten the welded mesh to the frame with a slight incline so that the eggs can roll into the egg collector, and then fasten the pallet of plywood, flat slate, other material, for example, polycarbonate, other material to the bottom of the frame.
To improve egg production, it is desirable to carry out additional lighting in each cell. And in order to make it better, you need to either place the cage in the shed closer to the window, or do additional lighting. Drinker choose any type - vacuum or nipple. In this case, selected nipple type.
Scheme and device perch
We fix the bottom in the cage under a slight slope to the egg collector so that the eggs themselves can slide into it.
Requirements for the conditions of adult birds: the cells inside must be clean, the presence of ventilation in the room, the optimum area of maintenance (unhindered food), the availability of high-quality fresh food in the feeders and fresh water in drinking troughs, increased light day, air humidity 69-71%, no drafts and dampness, the air temperature in the summer is 22-25 degrees, in the winter - 18-20 degrees.
Feeding: what should contain a diet
When feeding chickens, it is important to consider that the feed contains the right amount of protein, fat, carbohydrates, minerals, vitamin.
- Squirrels - the main building material for the cells of the body and the main component of the egg. They are found in large quantities in legumes, oilcake, bone meal.
- Fat - energy stock of hens. Contained in grains of corn, oats.
- Carbohydrates - necessary work of all internal organs. In large quantities is in succulent feed. There is a lot of cellulose in whole uncleaned grain.
The most necessary vitamins for layers - A, B, D.
Mineral substances are necessary for the formation of egg shells. Its much contained in bone meal, chalk, wood ash.
Chicken feeds can be provided in two ways:
- buy ready-made feed. Advantages: in such mixed feeds the proportional ratio of nutrients is respected. Disadvantage: their high cost,
- prepare the mixture yourself. Disadvantage: a certain experience is needed + additional time spent for cooking. Advantages: the total cost of feed is reduced.
When the cell content is better to feed 4 times a day, at least - 3. In the morning and in the evening we give more grain.In the afternoon - mineral supplements, vitamins, green and juicy feed.
This type of content is significantly different from the cellular, and almost does not have differences in feeding. The main difference is the division of territory into a walk, where chickens walk freely, and the chicken coop, where they race, spend the night (if the chicken coop is built on the street). This layer is preferred for laying hens because it feels more free.
A chicken coop with a paddock can be made indoors as well, then chickens will sleep where they are comfortable - in the paddock and the hen house.
Walking laying hens
Let us consider in more detail the option of a chicken coop with a walking street.
The size of the enclosure depends on the number of livestock. The section for walking can be 2 - 3 times larger in area of the chicken coop. It is possible to do such open-air cage both folding, and stationary. The welded construction of a profile pipe or wooden beam is covered with a chain-link mesh or galvanized welded mesh with a mesh of up to 50 mm.
We do this in the walking section of the bird. From above we stretch a protective mesh.The second part - the chicken coop, we build of plywood or chipboard. In the same part we make perches, sections for nests, stairs or a ladder.
About the hen house
In the chicken coop (meaning the part of the aviary where the chickens are rushing) should be:
- feeding trough
- drinking bowl
- ladder (gangway) - if necessary,
The number of nests is directly dependent on the number of laying hens, i.e. the more of them, the more nests. Inside the nests put finely chopped straw. Extremely it is advisable to install a board in front of the slots 15-20 cm. So that the chicken can easily get from the perch to the nest.
Feeders - bunkers in the hen house (recall that we are considering the open-air version of the content of chickens) are conveniently located outside. Then you just need to open it and fill the feed inside. Through the receiving chute the bird will eat.
Coop Feeder Device
Chicken perch in the household
There are many varieties of perches for chickens. Their main function is that they serve to make the bird sit on them. This implies the necessary design features.
The material is usually wood. Firstly, it is affordable and relatively cheap, and secondly, chicken legs will not freeze on them, which cannot be said of metal poles. You can use the usual dry strong stick of wood. They should be relatively straightforward.
It is advisable to choose a bar of such diameter that it would be convenient for the chicken to clasp it with its paws. Neither fat nor thin (it will be difficult to keep balance).
Immediately make a removable perch. This will simplify the cleaning process.. But in this case it is necessary to fix it very well, so that it does not rotate around its axis. We set the perch in 2 or 3 rows, and it is not necessary to do this at the same height. It is desirable to make one perch lower, the other higher, the third at the second or even higher.
It is necessary to have them relative to each other at such a distance that the droppings of the chicken that sits above do not fall on the bird sitting below. The total length of the perch should accommodate all livestock.
It is necessary to take into account that in summer time chickens are seated from each other at a distance of several centimeters due to hot weather, while in winter they are pressed against each other for additional heating.
It is necessary to establish a roost at such height that the chicken could easily fly up on it. Low location does not train their muscles, high creates the likelihood that the bird does not climb on it. Ideal - from 50 to 70 cm from the floor.
Another option perch
How to care for a bird
Requirements for the conditions of laying hens in a chicken coop with walking are the same as the content in the cells: the cells inside should be clean, the optimal area of maintenance (unhindered food), the availability of high-quality fresh feed in the feeders and fresh water in the drinkers, increased daylight hours, no drafts and dampness.
Food is the same as with the cellular content. Add protein feed, mash and others in small quantities.
In the spring, in the spring, in the summer and in the autumn there is enough fresh greenery, but if necessary, you can throw a juicy grass, the peel of the watermelon, and other food debris. Can be limited to two meals a day - in the morning and in the evening, and once - mash, mineral supplements, greens.
Diseases of chickens and their treatment
Chickens are subject to many diseases. In order to protect them from undesirable consequences, including death, it is necessary to carry out preventive measures (disinfecting the premises before settling chickens and afterwards with observance of safety measures), feed them with high-quality and fresh products, give vitamins and trace elements.
However, it is not always possible to protect feathering. It is worth paying special attention to such common diseases of adult birds as:
- heterocidosis (intestinal worms). Treated with piperazine. Prevention: thoroughly clean the room,
- salmonellosis (stomach upset). It is treated with tetracycline or ditrevitom,
- ascites (fat accumulates in the abdomen). Prevention: it is necessary to give greens,
- arthritis (joint disease). It is treated with ampicillin. Prevention: to give only high-quality food, the litter should be dry,
- Newcastle disease (infection of the bird through the eggshells). Prevention: postponing of patients and disinfection of the room,
- poisoning. Prevention: you need to ensure that the feed is fresh and of high quality,
- typhus (damaged stomach). It is treated with antibiotics, for example, ampicillin. Prevention: isolating sick chickens, disinfecting the house,
- streptococcosis (internal organs are affected). Treated with antibiotics. Prevention: isolating sick chicken,
- tuberculosis (affects chicken lungs). Treatment is impossible. Prevention: maintaining hygiene in the house.
Business plan from scratch: costs and profits
The first question that beginners ask themselves before taking on the maintenance of laying hens for the purpose of selling eggs is whether this is profitable?
Breeding chickens on an industrial scale
You can make in theory 100 business plans, but take into account all the risks and what will be impossible in practice. Calculating a profitable business plan from scratch, it is assumed that chickens will not have a case or take a small percentage of it when calculating.
In addition, the profitability of production depends on the conditions of housing, the number of livestock (the more, the more profitable production), seasonal weather conditions, the breed of chickens, feed, and other factors. In the end, it depends on the experience of the poultry farmer.
Is it profitable to breed and raise chickens?
We propose to summarize this question, and to show what elements consist in the expenditure part of the budget for cultivation and profit. Is it profitable or not?
Home farm with chickens
Expenditures (what you need to spend money on):
- purchase of eggs for the incubator and the cost of electricity (if the business does not start with the purchase of young animals or adult chicken),
- purchase chickens or young stock, or an adult laying hen (in case we don’t buy eggs for an incubator),
- Construction Materials for poultry house equipment (profile pipe, plywood, polycarbonate, flat slate, welded mesh, chain-link mesh, drinkers, etc.),
- power consumption for lighting, heating in winter time (increase in daylight),
- purchase feed or grain, vitamins, mineral supplements, medications,
- Unexpected expenses (and they will be!).
Of the above items of expenditure, most of the money will go to the purchase of chicken young or chickens (if you buy them, and not grow) and the purchase of feed.
Income part (for which you can get money):
- from implementation eggs,
- from implementation chicken meat (in the case of slaughter of an adult chicken, whose egg production has productively dropped to the limits of its cost price),
- from implementation litter.
In the absence of force majeure, the profitability of breeding chickens leaves from 30 to 100%.
In the final part of the article, we will determine what the egg production of chickens depends on. It is affected by:
- breed of chickens
- conditions of detention,
- force majeure in the form of diseases
- practical experience of the poultry farmer.
It should be remembered! The less the laying hen is stressed, the higher the egg production.
What is different about the winter ration of feeding chickens?
Once it is cold in the room, birds need significantly more nutrients only to warm the body. To this must be added the expenditure of energy for the production of eggs. This is the first difference. Three times. In summer, chickens will always find for themselves green fodder, various “worms, bugs and spiders” to replenish the protein component of the diet, etc. In winter, these possibilities are absent. This means that in the winter diet should be an increased amount of these ingredients.Conclusion - feed for winter feeding of layers should be more nutritious and diverse in composition.
In winter, feed must be balanced and especially nutritious.
To prepare the mixture should be based on the recommendations of zootechnicians. Unfortunately, not all gardeners listen to the advice or have the ability to withstand the scientifically based norms of winter feeding. From here and low productivity of layers in the winter period. And sometimes they generally stop carrying eggs.
Improper content may cause a decrease in egg production.
How to organize winter feeding - practical tips
The physiological characteristics of chickens distinguish several periods of development. The winter stage is in a special place due to the most difficult conditions. What to do to facilitate the passage of this adverse period?
- Increase the multiplicity of winter feeding to at least three. If in the summer food is given twice a day (in the morning and in the evening), in winter it is not enough. The fact is that the bird's body requires significantly more energy for heating, and, energy must be supplied and consumed evenly throughout the day. Various mash and succulent feed, let's in the morning and afternoon, at night only dry food. There is a possibility - organize drinking bowls with warm water. Let it be necessary to change it more often, but the condition of the hens will significantly improve, and this will certainly have a positive effect on productivity.
In winter, chickens should be fed three times a day.
Vegetables in the nutrition of chickens
It is important to give greens to the hens.
Prepare a nettle for chickens for the winter
Fish oil is good for chickens
Shell feed for chickens
Drinker for hens in the hen house
How will wintering laying hens depends only on you. In order to have eggs in the winter, efforts should be made in the summer - to prepare food.
This refers to carrots, fodder and table beets.
- Carrot. If you have the desire and opportunity, then you can sow a separate garden bed specifically for chickens. Carrots choose fodder varieties, its yield is several times more than ordinary. In appearance it is pale, with a slight bitterness. For birds, these characteristics do not matter, the main thing is that the root vegetable with a full set of useful substances. While storing, make sure that no specimens with obvious rot damage are found, one carrot can cause damage to a large amount of the crop. If the chicken coop is warm - then you can store carrots in it. If the water in the chicken coop freezes, then the roots must be transferred to a warm cellar.
Carrots and beets to feed the chickens
The number of these feeds should correspond to the number of chickens. On average, it is recommended to plan up to 12–13 kg per hen for the winter. These calculations include the inevitable weight loss. Fodder beet - an excellent forage for all animals. It is very profitable to sow, a large crop is piled up in piles, covered with straw and added to the ground. Be sure to do a few vents for ventilation. Products are made from scraps.
Pumpkin for feeding chickens in winter
Especially for winter feed, chickens are sown pumpkin. This vegetable is beautifully stored until the new harvest, has high qualities in composition and quantity of vitamins. Pumpkin is stored best of all, the main thing is not to damage its skin during harvesting and storage. Store the vegetable should be in the basement, cellar or a warm extension. If there are a lot of overcooked zucchini in the garden, then these plants will be used for winter feed for laying hens.
Practical advice. Squashes are not stored for a long time, use them as feed first.
Especially on the forage of hens it is not grown. Use small culled or damaged tubers. It should be noted that gardeners do not like to add potatoes to the winter ration of layers. This is due to the fact that the feed for a long time to cook: they need to be washed, pour clean water, cook, knead, cool, and only then can be given to feed. Such an operation will have to be repeated at best in a day.The cost of physical labor should be added to the monetary losses in energy resources and it will become completely clear why the hens do not often have to eat boiled potatoes.
How to cook feed for layers in the winter time
The technology varies somewhat with the temperature in the chicken coop. The temperature in the room should be no lower than + 15 ° С, in such conditions the hens continue to lay eggs. In practice, in most household additions it is much colder, in many the temperature is almost the same as the street one. And in such conditions, chickens have to spend the winter, fortunately, the frost for them is not very scary. In some cases, they continue to lay little eggs.
Warm coop with heating - photo
For cold rooms, feed must be prepared more thoroughly. It is recommended for the hens to give some more warm mixtures; water should be poured into the water bowl and heated as it freezes. If in the feeder frozen food remains - do not throw it away. In this form, it can be stored for a long period of time, and as it thaws, the chickens will eat it. It is necessary to feed more often, at least three times a day. Do not abuse mixtures, dry food should be at least 40-50% of the total diet. It is recommended to add hay or grass meal to prevent disorders of the digestive tract of the hens.
Vitamin grass meal and granules
There are fewer problems in warm rooms. Water and feed do not freeze, you can monitor the status of feeders and watering can less often. Root vegetables need to be crushed with special large graters or with the help of electrical units. Do not cost to cook at once a lot of feed, the number of root vegetables should not exceed the two-day norm. Otherwise, there are risks of spoilage, and stale feed has a very negative impact not only on the egg production, but also on the general health of the hens.
Electric Shredder for fruits and vegetables
You should not rub the pumpkin and zucchini, it is enough to chop them into several pieces with an ax or a bayonet. Make sure that the pieces are turned pulp to the top. Chickens themselves will peck at the flesh, only one rind will be thrown away. If there is a desire, you can first remove the seeds from the pumpkin and zucchini, there is no desire - leave them to the layers. Large seeds, however, they do not eat without prior grinding, and small and unripe peck with pleasure.
The use of electrical units for the preparation of feed
Winter feed for layers requires greater physical effort during preparation. We strongly advise you to purchase an inexpensive, productive and multifunctional chopper. It does not matter the specific brand, there are a lot of them today. The principle of operation is no different, the main thing is that they can crush and grain, and juicy roots.
Grinder feed IK-07U is designed for grinding grain, root crops, fresh grass, hay in the domestic environment
The drive is an electric two-phase motor, it is better not to take a three-phase motor, not every household has three phases. The grinder will provide an opportunity to quickly and efficiently crush cereals, including corn. And for root vegetables there are special knives made of durable alloy steel.
It is recommended to change the hens of the hens annually, otherwise the productivity of the hens decreases sharply, the cost of eggs increases, and the quality of doubtful meat decreases even more. What do experienced gardeners advise? Do not leave chickens for the winter, especially if you can not keep them in warm conditions. At subzero temperatures the hens cease to run, their maintenance in winter is a waste of time, money and effort.
Leftovers from the table for feeding chickens in winter
Experienced gardeners recommend eliminating all livestock in the late autumn, and acquiring a new one in early spring. Thus, the owners will have eggs and relatively good meat.For these purposes, it is better not to acquire layers, but mixed breeds of chickens.
How to store eggs
Many owners do not even think about how to properly store eggs. Some put the eggs in the refrigerator, others keep them in the pantry, others - use preservative coatings that are applied over the shell.
Now we will discuss all the basic ways to store eggs.
Cold storage. A common mistake is the arrangement of eggs on the door of the refrigerator. The fact is that the flow of warm air and frequent temperature drops reduce the shelf life of products. Eggs are best placed in the fruit and vegetable compartment. Storage temperature - 1-2 ° C. At this temperature, they remain fresh for three months.
Store at room temperature. Fresh eggs can be stored in a room where the temperature does not exceed 20 ° C (humidity at the level of 70-85%), but the shelf life of products in such conditions is only three weeks.
There are other ways of storing eggs, which, although not very popular, still retain their freshness and quality as well.
- The shell is covered with egg white. Protein is applied several times intermittently so that the previous layer can dry out. After that, the products wrapped in paper and carried to a cool place.
- Eggs smeared with petroleum jelly or glycerin, placed in a box and put in a cool place.
- Eggs can be stored in table salt. For this, products are plentifully sprinkled with salt and put in a cool place.
Breeding laying hens is not only interesting, but also profitable. If you like to grow birds, you want to consistently receive high-quality and useful products, then follow the rules described and use the experience gained.