Of great importance in the life of a person are indoor plants, decorating our life are loved by everyone and bred everywhere.
Many people would like to engage not only in indoor floriculture, but also in fruit growing, get their own lemons or, for example, grow grapes from stones at home.
Practice shows that it is possible to grow grapes in an apartment using the so-called tub (pot) technique.
Practice shows that it is possible to grow grapes in an apartment or on a balcony, using the so-called tub (pot) technique.
Living on the 5th-7th floor of a stone house and having a small balcony with an area of only 1-2 square meters, you can grow up to 3 vines.
Having the desire to grow indoor grapes and harvest, without spending more time than is spent on caring for ficuses, palm trees, geraniums, you can in Kharkov, Kiev or living on the 15th floor of a high-rise building in any other city.
Varieties of room grapes
In a closed room it is better to grow self-pollinated varieties.
These include: large Neptune raisins, Victoria early grapes, Victoria wine grape variety, seedless Rylains pink Sydlis, Oleg (Pink) pink grapes, very early Aksinya (up to 100 days), traditional Georgian wine variety Saperavi north and of course resistant to Diseases of the Moldavian Cardinal (1-5-58).
For the growth of vines arranged lightweight frame or wire supports.
Growing grapes at home by grafting, cuttings or bone
Grapes are propagated by stones, cuttings, layering and grafting.
When the grapes are propagated under the seed, it bears fruit only for 5–7 years; at the same time, from the seeds, the desired variety does not always grow because of cross-pollination.
Raising seedlings requires care with high agricultural technology, which is not always possible under the terms of the tubing content.
By grafting, grapes propagate only when it is necessary to have a root system in the bush more frost-resistant than the crown, which is unnecessary for tubing breeding. The grafting technique is complex and requires a great deal of experience growing.
By cuttings, grapes are easily bred, and both lignified (last year's) cuttings and summer greens take root easily (see How to root grapes).
For the cultivation of grapes in the room soil substrate is prepared as follows: take a third of the humus, a third of sod land and the same river sand.
It is advisable to add 1 cup of wood ash (ash) or half a glass of complex mineral fertilizer to the prepared mixture.
You can buy ready-made universal soil for planting seedlings, but you need to choose with a neutral pH reaction.
Planting cuttings produced in small greenhouses or pots. The air temperature in the room should be within + 21 + 25.
When the upper bud germinates and a sprout appears, the glass (film) from the greenhouse or glass (if it is a flower pot) temporarily begins to be removed, thus, adapting the bush to the environment.
After reaching the germ height of 16-20 cm, the grapes "roll over" into dishes with an upper diameter of 16-18 cm. It is necessary to take into account that the roots of young grapes very poorly tolerate exposure, therefore one should not disturb the integrity of the earthy coma at the roots.
In July, the plants are “overrun”, but already in pots with a diameter of 25-35 cm. Grapes are taken out into the open air not earlier than the second half of April or better - in early May, depending on local weather conditions, i.e.
at a time when the air temperature does not fall below 2–3 ° C heat.
In the fall, after dropping the leaves and stopping growth, tubs with bushes are removed for the winter in dry cool rooms, where a temperature of 2-5 degrees Celsius is ensured. The vine should be twisted spirally and tied to pegs.
The soil is watered rarely, just kept wet.
After dropping the leaves, pruning is done according to the age of the plant (the grapes are formed). At one year old - leave 2-3 buds, on a 3-4 year old bush, shorten the vine to 5-10 buds. Fruiting vines shorten to 5-8 buds.
In March of the next year, the bushes are brought into the rooms, generously watered with water and fertilized.
After the formation of flowers on the shoots, they pinch the fifth sheet of the floral brush.
Of the non-infertile, two or three, closer to the root, are not pinned to form fruit shoots next year. Such shoots pinch at a length of 1-1.5 m.
Therefore, you should always have on the bush 1-2 fruit arrows (fruiting vine) and one or two growing for fruiting next year (substitution).
The grapes on the windowsill - two crops
When growing grapes at home, you can get two yields each year. This is done as follows.
The bush removed for winter storage in the 15th day of February is brought into a warm room and is well watered. After 13–15 days, the buds will begin to bloom, and after 25–30 days they will bloom.
By May-June (depending on the ripeness of the variety), berries are already ripening.
3 weeks after the harvest, the bush is taken out to the glacier (to a cool place), where the temperature is no higher than +4 and stay there for up to 50 days (one and a half months). After that, the bush is brought into the room and at the end of October, beginning of November, juicy grapes will ripen again in the apartment.
After fruiting, the grapes must be transplanted, removing up to 1/3 of the roots and replacing it with 1/3 of the ground.
With double yields, more fertilizer is required - usually 100 cm3 of 10% slurry solution per liter of earthen coma volume, once a week, moreover, for each liter of slurry 2 g of superphosphate is necessarily added.
Watering room grapes
Water in plant life plays one of the main roles: it is consumed directly by plants and is a nutrient solvent.
Bushes during the period of growth and fruiting need a lot of water, some of it remains inside the plant as an integral part of tissues and aggregates, some of it evaporates with leaves.
When the contents of the tank, a significant part of the water evaporates from the soil, the other part is consumed by the plant. Therefore, without a normal flow of water bushes wither, stop growing, and in some cases even die. It is necessary to give the right amount of benign water.
The temperature of the irrigation water should be at room temperature; irrigation should be carried out regularly, at very specific times, as needed, and not as far as possible.
Watering plants is better to produce from watering cans, with this watering does not destroy the earthen room and the earth is not washed out of the pot.
Separate streams of water are better loosened by an earthen clod in a tub, moreover, such water supplies to the ground and air.
Watering the bushes is best done in the evening, at sunset or in the early morning.
To keep the foliage clean, to wash off the dirt and dust that has accumulated on it, the plants are regularly washed with warm water using a soft brush or cotton swab. Such washing takes place two to three times during the summer. At other times, spray the grapes with warm water.
When the grapes are kept on the balcony during periods of rainfall, neither watering nor spraying is done, as the rains adequately water the soil and wash the leaves.
The volume of land in a pot is ten times less than the volume occupied by roots in a soil culture. Grapes, which are grown at home, receive nutrition several times less than the same bush contained in the soil.
However, for the normal development of all parts of the plant, for the formation of fruits, it must receive nutrients in the required amount.
A small earthen ball does not contain the necessary supply of nutrients, and those nutrients that are there are quickly absorbed, the earth is depleted and is no longer a full-fledged supplier of nutrients.
And if you do not feed the bush with fertilizers, then its growth decreases, fruiting stops, and it may die.
To grow grapes in the apartment, and even more so to increase fruiting, it needs to be given artificial fertilizing - to apply fertilizer to the soil.
The most versatile liquid fertilizer is slurry. In the slurry contains almost all of the compounds of the required chemical plants.
And since the slurry is a product of the natural decomposition of organic substances, all substances contained in it are easily absorbed by plants.
The preparation of slurry is very simple, and the results of its application give a good effect.
Preparation: Capacity (bucket, barrel, jar) fill two-thirds of the volume of mullein or horse manure. Free space is filled with water and set in a warm place for fermentation.
After 14-15 days, when the fermentation process stops, we filter. Leftovers we drift. And we put the filtered liquid in a cool, dark place. We use as needed.
To water the plants, the resulting solution is diluted with 9 parts of water, i.e., a ten percent solution is prepared.
Before the subcortex, the soil is watered first with clean water and then carried out by watering with a slurry solution.
When conducting watering, make sure that the stems and leaves of the plants are not poured with the solution. If this happens, they should be washed with clean water.
Watering begins in early spring, is carried out weekly and ends in August and September. On average, plants should be watered once a week, adding a glass of solution to the soil for each kilogram.
In the second or third year of grape life, i.e., when it enters the fruiting period, 2 grams of superphosphate per liter of solution is added to a 10% solution of the slurry.
Slurry can be prepared from chicken manure, in a similar way, only for irrigation they take not five, but a five-percent solution (one cup is diluted with twenty glasses of water).
Mineral fertilizers are used at different periods of growth, in various mixtures. The composition of the mixture depends on the need for plants at certain periods of growth in certain substances, on the degree of soil depletion and its composition.
For normal life, bushes must extract sufficient amounts of potassium, nitrogen, calcium, iron, phosphorus, etc.
With a shortage of nitrogen in the ground growth is delayed, the leaves grow small, sometimes turn yellow and fall off, the flowers also become shallow and sometimes fall to flowering.
When there is an excess of nitrogen in the soil, on the contrary, the bushes grow too much, form many leaves, but do not bloom well.
With a lack of phosphorus - the edges of the leaves turn yellow, fungal diseases develop more easily, fruit (flower) buds are poorly formed. Some flowers may be dropped before flowering, or a large number of ovaries (fertilized flowers) may be dropped until the fruits are fully ripe.
Lack of potassium and calcium is characterized by weak growth (especially shoots - they grow thin), yellowing of leaves. The lack of salts of iron and copper in the soil causes lightening of the leaves and provokes disease Chlorosis - the absence (lack) of chlorophyll in the leaves.
G. E. Kiselev (“Indoor Floriculture”, 1948) recommends the following compositions of mineral fertilizers for certain periods of growth and life of the bushes.
These mixtures are used in solutions of 1 g of the mixture per liter of water when dosing up to 200 g of solution per 1 kg of soil.
Watering mixtures are made 1-2 times in 10-20 days, in the period from April to August.The number of watering depends on the vital activity of plants - more vital (fast growing) water more often, slowly - less.
It must be remembered that the lack of nutrition, as well as an overabundance, leads to inhibition of growth, and perhaps even death, therefore, it is necessary to use mineral fertilizers carefully and only in cases when plants really need them.
Transshipment and transplants
For the development of an active root system in a tub, the first 2-3 years of growth repeatedly replace the pots (pots), gradually increasing their volume, crossing the bushes from smaller dishes to larger ones. When it enters a fruiting period, transshipment is stopped, and transplants are made once every 2-3 years.
During transshipment, the bush is taken out of the pot without disturbing the earthy coma and transferred to a larger pot with the addition of earth.
At the same time, drainage and top layers of soil 2-3 cm thick are replaced, the rest of the coma is not disturbed. Transshipments are done after the end of the next growth period in grapes, i.e.
when the young shoots and leaves are ripe. In the summer, no more than two transshipments.
The handling is as follows: when the growth has stopped, the bush is watered (but not abundantly) with water, the pot is tapped on all sides and, with the top closed with the hand, turned over, if the earthen clod is not separated, take a wand and, pressing it through the drainage hole, push it out pot.
Use a blunt object to clean 2-3cm of the upper layer of the earth and the drainage layer. Examine the root system and remove all rotten and dead roots, they are different from the living darker color or even dark brown.
In the new dishes, drainage is arranged, then 1-2 cm of sand is poured. The nourishing earth is poured in such a layer that the upper edge of the clodded bush in the pot is 4-6 cm below the top of the pot.
After that, the ground between the walls of the pot and on the top 2-3 cm is filled up and compacted. The compaction of the earth, in order to avoid damage to the roots, is made with your fingers or a blunt object.
After transshipment, abundant watering and spraying of the bush with warm water are made.
For the first 7-10 days after transshipment, the shrub is removed to a shaded place.
The method of transplantation is the same as transshipment, only during transplantation up to 1/3 of the earth is removed from the earthen coma, up to one third of the roots and up to one third of the crown are cut.
Transplantation is done in early spring or autumn, while in the first year the plant is given rest, destroying most of the fruits in the embryo or even removing them.
Dishes (tubs, pots) during transplantation are disinfected.
Growing grapes from cuttings or stones is not difficult at all, the main thing is patience and attentiveness. The reward will be sweet and tasty berries.
Cissus - room grapes. Care and cultivation at home. Planting and reproduction - Flowertimes.ru
Cissus - unpretentious ampelnaya plant from the family of grapes. He is loved by many flower growers. In the people it is called indoor grapes or birch.
Rhode Cissusov has about 300 species of plants. They are common in the tropics and subtropics. As a rule, cissus are lianas that cling to supports with their antennae.
The leaves of these plants are whole and dissected.
Indoor grapes can not boast a lush flowering. It blooms quite rarely. Dull, pale flowers of cissus are collected in false umbrella-shaped inflorescences. Cissus is valued for beautiful ornamental leaves. It is grown in hanging pots.
Caring for them is simple, the plant is great for novice growers. He will be able to plant trees in the apartment, the office, and the hall of a larger building. In room conditions most often grown cissus rhombus, antarctic and multicolored.
Indoor grapes are heat-loving plants. In spring and summer, he prefers a temperature of 18-25 degrees. In addition, in the summer it can be taken out on the street.
In the autumn-winter period, he will be comfortable at a temperature within 18 degrees. It can tolerate lowering the temperature to 10 ° C, but in such conditions it is better not to contain it.
Cissus Antarctic can grow at a temperature of 5 ° C, but a capricious multicolored cissus needs a constant room temperature throughout the year. It should not fall below 16 ° C.
It should be noted that cissus does not tolerate drafts. Due to sudden changes in temperature, room grapes can shed their leaves.
Location and lighting
The photophilous cissus prefers well-lit places. It is suitable bright ambient light. Cissus antarctic can grow in partial shade. It can be placed in the halls of offices, public institutions.
Some people grow it even in bathrooms. In cissus multi-colored, too, there are no special requirements for lighting. But in order for him to grow well and develop, he needs a lot of light.
But from the direct rays of the sun it should be protected, especially in the summer outside. Of all the cissus, which are grown indoors, cissus rhombus is the most light-loving.
Despite his love of sunlight, it is necessary to shade him on hot days.
In spring and summer, cissus grow very quickly and need abundant watering, as their large deciduous mass evaporates a lot of moisture in summer. But the plant can not be poured, as the roots will rot.
Also, you can not overdry the ground. Water room grapes are watered as the top layer of the earth dries. With the onset of cold weather reduce watering.
In winter, watering should be moderate, as cissus at this time of year does not develop so quickly.
Since cisissa grows in tropical and subtropical zones in natural conditions, moist indoor air is very important for them, especially if it is in a dry room. Cissus multi-colored is very picky about moisture, it is sprayed more often than other species.
Experienced growers recommend spraying this plant in the winter twice a day. In the summer, as well as in houses with moderate humidity, it is sprayed less frequently, but regularly. Indoor grapes loves to take a shower. This procedure can please him in the summer.
For hygiene purposes, he can take water treatments after the winter.
Indoor grapes need regular supplements, especially during the period of intensive growth. It is fed with complex mineral fertilizers for non-flowering plants from April to September. Fertilizers are applied every week. In winter, the cissus does not need any additional feedings.
Since cissus grows and develops very quickly, it is transplanted every year until the plant is five years old. Then it can be transplanted every 2-3 years. Earthen substrate for indoor grapes is better to cook yourself.
The composition of the optimal soil mixture for cissus includes leaf, peat, humus, sod land and sand (in equal parts). Do not forget about good drainage, so that water does not stagnate in the roots of the plant.
Claydite can be used as a drainage.
To cissus always looked attractive, it must be regularly cut, pinch. Every spring spend rejuvenating and sanitary pruning.
In order for the plant to branch better, you need to pinch the tops of the shoots. In the process of growing, the grapes are given the desired shape.
In reproduction cissus is nothing complicated. It is propagated in a vegetative way using apical cuttings that remained after pruning.
Sections of cuttings are treated with a growth enhancer and rooted in water or light earth. To make the plant look more decorative, several rooted cuttings are placed in one pot.
Cissus can also be propagated by dividing the bush during transplantation.
Diseases and possible problems
The greatest threat to indoor grapes is a spider mite and leaf aphid.Chemicals to combat these pests are used very carefully, as the leaves of cissus are very sensitive.
If the leaf plates of cissus become convex and concave, the plant should be sprayed more often. Also from the dry air in the room can dry the tips of its leaves. Pale leaf color indicates a lack of trace elements. If the plant grows slowly, it must be fed.
The main features of the care of grapes in the spring in the Moscow region
Many amateur gardeners are afraid of planting grapes in the suburbs. They believe that there is no point in planting in the climatic conditions of the Moscow region, since this culture is very demanding to care.
However, caring for grapes is not as difficult as it seems at first glance. The most important thing is the correct fit.
Also for planting in the suburbs should choose those varieties that respond well to care, as well as frost resistance and good yield.
For example, Isabella grapes are perfect for growing in the Moscow region. Planting seedlings is best done in the spring.
In the southern regions can be carried out in the fall, but only spring is suitable for planting in the Moscow region. This is due to the climate.
With the right care after planting Isabella begins to grow rapidly, and soon turns into a full-fledged vine.
Why is it worth planting grapes in the suburbs in the spring
In landing in the suburbs in the spring, of course, it makes sense. However, before planting, it is necessary to weigh the pros and cons.
If the owner of the backyard plot in the Moscow region can provide sort "Isabella" proper care, plant a vine must be.
But if the gardener realizes that he will not be able to pay much attention to the care of the vine, it is better to postpone the planting until the time for leaving appears.
A few reasons to plant grapes in the Moscow region in spring:
- The vine, thanks to its spectacular appearance, is actively used in landscape design. For example, with the help of a climbing vine, you can make a wonderful “hedge”,
- Berries are very healthy and have a pleasant taste. Of these, you can make grape juice, marshmallow and marmalade, as well as a wonderful homemade wine,
- Far from all summer residents grow a vine, therefore the presence of this fruit is a cause for pride,
- The berries ripen amicably, and varieties suitable for cultivation in the climatic conditions of the Russian Central zone, have good yields,
- Growing and caring for them is a very interesting activity.
Useful properties of grapes
It has many useful properties.. Mature berries contain:
- Vitamin C,
- Useful organic acids (for example, grape acid) that have a positive effect on the body,
- Natural sugars
Homemade wine also brings great benefits to the body with moderate consumption. Dried grapes (raisins), as well as marshmallow and marmalade, cooked without added sugar, can be eaten even by diabetics.
However, it is not recommended to give grapes and grape juice to children under one year old. It has the property of enhancing the formation of intestinal gases and often causes flatulence. For the same reason, do not use it to those who are breastfeeding.
Varieties of varieties suitable for cultivation in the Moscow region, has a very good taste. Its sweet taste is pleasant and slightly sour. like both children and adults.
Regular use of it helps to rejuvenate the body and improve skin condition.
Thanks to their beneficial properties, grape acid and essential oil are widely used in the manufacture of cosmetics.
Grapes: planting and care in the Moscow region
Caring for a plant in the Moscow region has its own characteristics.
Before landing in the Moscow region, you need to keep in mind the following:
- He is very afraid of the cold
- Also, this culture is afraid of the wind, so the place intended for planting should be closed from the wind. Ideal - the blank wall of the house,
- He loves soils rich in magnesium. If there is an insufficient concentration of this trace element in the soil, it is necessary to use mineral fertilizers containing magnesium, when feeding,
- It is advisable that the vine grows in a well-lit place,
- It is necessary to carefully consider the drainage system of the liquid, as the Isabella grape does not tolerate stagnant water in the soil.
Landing is most often carried out in the spring. Most gardeners buy grapes saplings in nurseries and specialized stores.
However, some winegrowers grow seedlings all winter for outdoor planting at home or in a greenhouse. Before planting it is necessary to fertilize the ground.
It is best to use complex mineral fertilizers for this purpose. Also excellent are manure, peat and humus..
Of course. You can plant grapes in autumn, but only if winter is expected to be warm and snowy.
Grapes "Isabella" and other grapes in the Moscow region: practical recommendations
Grapes - climbing plant, so the growing vine will need support very soon.
For support, you can use ordinary vertically stuck wooden or metal sticks. It will curl on the support and develop rapidly.
The main thing is that the support should be firmly fixed in the ground, not wobbling and not fluctuating at the slightest breeze of the wind.
It is best to choose for planting in the suburbs of the variety, possessing a strong immunity to downy mildew, powdery mildew and white rot. Of particular relevance are such varieties in the event that the plot on which the grapes are growing is in a lowland or marshland.
The greater the humidity of the air and the soil, the greater the likelihood that the grapes will become sick with powdery mildew. In the Moscow regionwhen summer is sometimes wet, rainy and overcast, and in the fall there is often fog, the prevention of powdery mildew is of particular importance.
In order for the cuttings to settle down faster and develop better, you should choose a warm sunny day for planting. After planting, the side shoots begin to actively grow in the cutting, and soon the cutting becomes like a small bush.
Usually inexperienced gardeners, having seen these metamorphoses, think that they made a mistake when choosing seedlings. In fact, there is no mistake here. For young grape cuttings, a quick and abundant formation of lateral shoots is characteristic.
However, soon they begin to die off gradually, and the plant takes on the appearance of a real vine.
Of course, grapes in the suburbs do not take root at all.
However, if an amateur gardener is willing to pay a lot of attention to a plant and overcome the difficulties that have arisen, it is necessary to plant a vine. If you choose the right grade
If you choose the right grade, he will surely please the summer resident with a good harvest. Young homemade wine from grapes "Isabella" will not leave anyone indifferent.
To grow a vine of this variety is possible not only in the Moscow region, but also in the Vladimir region. Of course, in the case of a frosty winter, grapes may die, but more often winters in the Middle Belt are quite warm and snowy.
Grape care calendar throughout the year
Work on the care of grapes should be carried out regularly - from winter to late autumn. Each month there is a certain amount of work, performing which you can achieve a good harvest.
Growing grapes requires daily care. Care work may involve some minor actions or large-scale work that takes several days in a row. So, consider what work on the care of grapes required in each month.
Do you dream that the cottage looked like an old fairytale castle? It's easy, if you know how to grow girlish grapes - decorative liana, which will radically transform even an ordinary house. Or maybe you want to grow girlish grapes on the balcony, loggia or even in an apartment? No problem! True, the latter option is more acceptable in Siberia, so that the plant does not die.
This variegated ornamental grape got its “girlish” name due to the property of forming fruits, bypassing the pollination process. In this culture, green lianas are of decorative value: the flowers of the plant are not attractive, they have no value and the fruits of the “ladies'” culture. Therefore, mostly used girlish grapes in landscape design, its ornamental foliage will decorate even the most modest house or gazebo in the country.
For girlish grapes are characterized by pointed leaves, resembling maple. In the summer, the leaves of the maiden grapes are colored green, but as the winter season approaches, they change their color to noble purple. Before planting girlish grapes, make sure that there is a suitable vertical support or trellis nearby - the lianas need to cling to something. The variety is characterized by active growth, so you have to regularly prune the plant, otherwise it will fill all available space with shoots.
You can grow girlish pyatilistochkovaya grapes in different ways, but if you are not cramped in time, try to do it by sowing. You can sow culture at any time, but if you do it not in the fall, then the seeds need stratification.
Timing and location
Tricusta maiden grapes is one of the few varieties of parthenocissus that feel equally well both in the sun and in the penumbra. But if you want the foliage to change its shade to bright crimson in the fall, it is better to plant grapes where there is enough sun. In addition, seedlings planted on the southern slopes grow faster and form larger foliage. A plant that feels badly is planted in a place where a strong wind is blowing - then you cannot wait for the bush to grow rapidly. Not the best solution to plant girlish grapes nearby with water pipes or wires. It is best to give preference to a place near the barn or gazebo, fence or house. Wild grapes (or, as it is also called, girlish grapes) can grow on the soil of any composition, but the root system develops best in loamy neutral alkaline earth.
If you choose the seed propagation option, it is better to do this in the fall. The prepared seed material should be placed in previously plowed and fertilized soil (no more than 1 cm) and watered. Less time consuming is the cutting method.
In this case, you need to know how to cut the cuttings correctly: each must contain at least 4 buds, while the cuttings of the maiden grapes are buried in the ground so that at least 2 buds remain above the ground. Cuttings need to be watered properly, and in the future to maintain the landing site in a slightly moist state. So you will be able to achieve strong seedlings.
Care for girlish grapes
So, girlish grapes are planted safely, and you are already anticipating the variegated landscape characteristic of this variegata. Now it's time to figure out how to properly care for the variety. Is it possible to simply forget for a while about the planted cutting in the hope that a riotous vineyard will soon grow? It turns out it is almost like that.
When girlish grapes are planted correctly and on time, further care consists of regular watering, periodic feeding, as well as a close examination of the plant so that diseases and pests do not affect the culture. Another mandatory step of care is getting rid of weeds and seasonal pruning.In addition, the girlish grape tri-pointed at a young age needs additional supports, because while he still does not have tenacious mustache.
Girlish grapes, like most ornamental trees and shrubs, need to be fed: in early summer and during the period of active growth.
Sometimes the culture does not go as you expected, and there is a need to plant or transplant grapes to another place. It is better to transplant the girlish grapes (grown) as early as possible, although the culture is so unpretentious that with proper skill you can move even five-year specimens from place to place. Do-it-yourself grape transplantation begins with the preparation of a planting pit: it must be as large as the intended root of the plant and the earthen clod around it, but somewhat deeper than the previous hole. A drainage layer is laid on the bottom, then sand, and then a nutrient mixture of soil and fertilizers. After 14 days, when the ground settles a little in the hole, the plant should be cut so that the size allows it to be transplanted. Just drop a bush into a new hole and cover it with earth, not forgetting to water it.
The first few years after planting the girlish grapes in landscape design does not have much appeal. But then, when the culture begins to actively develop, it is very important to carry out pruning in time to form the correct skeleton, and to direct the lashes to grow in the right direction. They do this with the usual garden shears before the lashes begin to grow, fixing them neatly in the correct position, getting rid of the excess shoots. When the formation of the plant's skeleton is complete, you will only have to carry out sanitary pruning in spring or autumn, so as not to allow the culture to grow into a huge shapeless bush.
Fight against diseases and pests
As Wikipedia says, virgin grapes are less susceptible to diseases, are rarely affected by pests, so talking about how to get rid of such troubles rarely occurs. However, improper care can break even the strongest. So, with excessive soil moisture, the plant may be affected by a fungal infection, as the state of the leaf cover will tell you. In this case, remove all affected leaves and minimize watering. If on the vine of your wild grapes pests suddenly settled, do not be afraid, and boldly fight them with the help of an insecticide.
Preparing for the winter
No special manipulations in the fall before the winter you do not need. “Girl's tears”, as the grapes are called, perfectly spends the winter without additional shelter. If you are afraid that the plant will still suffer, you can mulch the root, and whip it off from the supports and cover it with lapnik. That's all the difficulties that can create a gardener grape. As you can see, the description of care for the culture is not difficult. Be sure to plant this truly female plant, and tears of frustration do not threaten you.
Cissus will feel more comfortable at high temperatures, since, as already mentioned, the tropics and subtropics are considered its homeland. In summer and spring, the temperature in the room where there is indoor grapes should not fall below 18 degrees, but it is better if the thermometer is at 25 degrees. In winter and autumn such high rates of temperature should not be achieved, and it will be quite enough if the air temperature in the room is 18 degrees. In addition, in the summer it is recommended to take the pots with this flower out, they will feel much better there.
Despite the fact that the plant is thermophilic, it can safely withstand a temperature drop of up to ten degrees. But for a long time in such conditions the flower should not be. Here a lot depends on its variety.Since the Antarctic Cissus will not suffer much at a temperature of five degrees, but the multi-colored one needs a constant figure not lower than 16.
It is also worth noting that drafts are absolutely contraindicated in this plant, since they can lead to leaf fall.
Where to put
Indoor grapes loves not only heat, but also a lot of light. But direct sunlight is best avoided. If you acquired an Antarctic tsissus, then you can put it in partial shade, there it will also feel normal. Multicolored cissus also loves light, but no more than rhombic. However, no matter how light-loving this plant is, it cannot be placed under direct sunlight and should be hidden in the shade during especially hot days of summer.
The period of active growth in cissus falls in the spring and summer, so at this time special attention should be paid to watering. The room grapes have a large deciduous mass, which requires a lot of moisture. Therefore, watering should be abundant. But in this matter you should be careful, because the plant can be poured, and then its roots will begin to rot, the flower will just die. Overdrying is also not recommended. You need to monitor the condition of the upper layer of the earth, if you find that it has dried up, then you can safely water the flower. When the cold comes, the amount of watering is greatly reduced. Especially in winter, the cissus needs little moisture, since its growth is slowed down. Experienced growers recommend using automatic irrigation for indoor plants. This is a convenient way to water the plant on time and not to waste your own time on it.
Cissus is a houseplant, ivy-shaped grapes from the tropics and subtropics, and there, as you know, the air is quite humid, and it should be the same in the room where the pots with this flower are located. The multi-colored cissus is especially demanding to high rates of air humidity. Therefore, it must be often sprayed. This is especially true of the winter period. Flower growers say that in the winter months multicolor cissus should be sprayed at least twice a day. In summer, the procedure can be shortened, but you can not abandon it altogether. Indoor grapes should also be cleaned with a damp cloth.
When the room grapes have a period of active growth, it is extremely necessary to feed. To do this, it is better to choose high-quality complex mineral fertilizer for non-flowering plants. You can buy it in any flower shop. Fertilizers start from April and continue until September. You need to feed the flower every week. In winter, cissus fertilizers will not be needed.
The ivy-shaped houseplant is a flower that grows and develops at an incredible rate. That is why in the first five years of his life, transplants should be done every year. Then they become more rare, and one procedure every two or three years will suffice.
Land for planting can be bought at the store, but flower growers recommend preparing it yourself. Moreover, it is not so difficult. It is enough to mix equal parts of sand, leaf, humus, peat and sod land. And we must not forget that every plant needs a good drainage layer, which is necessary for the fact that the roots do not stagnate water, which leads to rotting. Good drainage in this case will be expanded clay.
How is pruning done
In the spring there are two types of pruning: sanitary and rejuvenating. If you want indoor grapes to branch better, you should pinch the tops of its shoots. You can even give the grapes the shape that you would most like to see.
Types and features of reproduction
Each grower must know how this or that plant is propagated. Decorative indoor grapes have two types of breeding: cuttings and dividing the bush.Both of these methods are considered quite good and almost always have a positive result.
Reproduction room grapes cuttings is quite simple. It is enough just to cut off the tip of the escape you like and place it in water until it takes root. This process is fast. After a week there will be good roots.
The division of the bush is carried out during the next transplant plants. The bush can be divided into several parts, but it should be done very carefully so as not to damage the root system.
How to plant
First of all, you should find out in advance where the plant will be. Then prepare the tanks for the landing, lay out the drainage layer and half fill the vases with soil prepared according to the technology outlined above. If you plant several cuttings in one pot, then you should choose a larger diameter.
Indoor grapes (cissus) are recommended to be planted and transplanted in the spring. Caution should be planted plant in the winter, and if possible this is generally better not to do. This is due to the fact that in winter the flower comes to rest mode, and its growth slows down a lot. There is a risk that the cissus will shed the leaves or not at all.
Reproduction by seeds is also possible, but this method is applicable mainly only to the Antarctic cissus. Seeds are planted in common containers, then they pick a pick and plant them in separate pots.
Diseases and pests
Even the best care at home for indoor grapes will not be able to protect it from various pests and diseases. But if you study the symptoms of diseases, then you can help your favorite plant in time.
So, note that if the leaves of the grapes are covered with brown spots and the plate becomes wrinkled, then this is clear evidence that the plant lacks moisture.
It happens that the flower "stops" in place and does not grow at all. In such cases, you should completely replace the ground and transplant the flower in a larger pot.
If the leaves get direct sunlight, they quickly become pale. May dry up the green part. This means that the plant does not have enough water, and also recommended daily irrigation. Especially often this problem occurs in the summer, when the plant is especially hot.
It is also worth noting insects that can harm indoor grapes:
- Shchitovka. It mainly attacks the leaf part of the plant. You can get rid of it with the help of a special plant treatment with insecticides.
- Spider mite It is not difficult to detect its presence, since thin cobwebs appear on the leaves. And after a while in their place you can find spots. It is also better to fight spider mites with insecticides.
- Aphid. This is a rather dangerous insect, because it sucks the sap from the plants, which provides them with normal livelihoods. The flower begins to dry, the leaves are covered with yellow spots, dry and fall. If time does not take up the treatment, then soon the flower will die completely. Here insecticides will come again.
Decorative indoor grapes are fairly easy to grow at home. This task is possible even for a beginner florist. It is worth noting that the main thing here is to choose the right place for the location of the pot and water the plant in time. No special conditions of maintenance and care of the cissus at home does not require, which makes it even more attractive to florists. After all, unfortunately, not always the modern person has time for his favorite plants. As well as unpretentious flowers are valued in offices and various institutions, because there, too, there is not always time to care for them. And to further facilitate their work on tsissusom, you can use automatic irrigation for indoor plants.
Cissus - It is a representative of the family Grape, or Vitaceae, which includes more than three hundred plants, including those common in tropical and subtropical zones. A significant part of the cissus is climbing lianas, which, like ordinary grapes, cling to the support by means of antennae. Cissus foliage can be either solid or have a dissected shape.
In the conditions of indoor floriculture cissus bloom extremely rarely. Small and unassuming flowers on cissus are collected in the likeness of false umbrellas. Cissus is valued by florists as an unpretentious caregiver, leafy ornamental plant that is ideal for growing in hanging types of pots.
Grapes that can be grown in the apartment: features of planting and care for indoor grapes
Grapes are very often grown not only as a garden plant for its tasty fruits, but also as a plant for decoration.
After all, thanks to the special shape of the grape bush and its ability to wrap around even 5-meter-high supports, it can easily decorate both a gazebo and a 3-storey house.
At the same time, few people know that you can plant your own home from the inside with the help of grapes.
This can be done through indoor grapes, better known as "birch", "southern grapes" or "grape ivy".
Below we describe the features of this plant and how to properly plant and grow it at home.
Popular varieties of cissus
In indoor floriculture Cissus antarctic, or Cissus antarctica, as well as Cissus rhombolist, or Cissus rhombifolia, which favorably differ in shade tolerance and unpretentiousness, are most common.
Features and differences of indoor grapes from ordinary grapes
The correct scientific name for indoor grapes is cissus. This is a whole species of indoor plants, having a direct relationship with ordinary grapes. Grow it at home is very simple, because the plant is absolutely not whimsical to care. It is worth paying attention to the good endurance of this plant, which is able to endure long periods of time without irrigation, temperature drops to 12ºС.
Cissus has no fruit, pleases only with a huge abundance of greenery and strong growth. With regular feeding, its vine can entwine half of the room, which is also facilitated by strong antennae.
Features of the appearance and growth of indoor grapes
Indoor grapes is a plant with a thin vine covered with lush foliage. With the growth he has a large number of shoots, which are also very thin. Thereby, the plant has very small weight and flexibility. Antennae, which are formed on shoots of cissus, have a spiral shape. They very easily cling to any objects in the house and to special supports.
The leaf form of the most common type of cissus, which is called “birch”, is very similar to the leaves of real birch. With an elongated ovoid shape, they have a dense structure and a shiny surface. We have already mentioned that almost all types of cissus very rarely meet flowering. If the plant is flowering, the inflorescences are almost invisible, because they have very small size and appearance. Flowers are collected in false umbrellas that do not form fruits.
Varieties of indoor grapes: we select a plant to taste
It is very important to note that in addition to the "birch" there are many other types of cissus, which can be easily purchased and planted at home. The most popular in our time are the "Cissus Antarctic", as well as "Cissus Rhombic (Rombolist)". They gained their popularity not only due to external beauty, but also to their unpretentiousness and ability to grow even in shaded rooms. What are the features of each of them will tell in order.
Features of "Cissus Rombolic": what is the beauty of indoor plants
This indoor grape got its name directly from the shape of its sheets. In contrast to the usual and most common "birch" with ovoid leaves, this plant leaves have a very complex diamond shape. This is the fastest growing plant of all types of indoor grapes. In just one season, it can grow by more than 2 meters. For the growth of "Cissusu Rombolistnomu" fit any support, for which he can easily cling thanks to a strong mustache.
Among all other species, it is best mastered both in dark corridors and on overly refreshed window sills. The ability to tolerate even very strong temperature fluctuations makes it possible to decorate open verandas or gazebos with this plant during the summer period.
In any case, he needs support to grow. Its strength does not matter, because, despite the large size, the weight of the bush is very small.
"Cissus Antarctic" - description of an evergreen indoor plant
This plant is found under another very interesting name - "Liana Kangaroo". Its difference from other types of indoor grapes lies in the peculiarities of the development of the bush: its shoots have a rusty appearance. The leaves are heart-shaped and rather large in size - an average of 11x7 centimeters.
The flowering of this bush is absolutely not nice. The flowers have very small sizes, they are green in color, for which reason they do not stand out against the background of leaves.
Virtues This type of houseplant is that it can be left for long periods without irrigation. At the same time, the bush will keep the same fresh look. But in terms of the shortcomings of the "Cissus of the Antarctic", then they have a sufficiently large number of them. In particular, the plant can tolerate the winter very painfully, since the humidity of the air is significantly reduced in cold weather.
Also him very high summer temperatures are contraindicated, because of which the leaves of this indoor grapes can dry up. Place a pot or tub with this plant should be chosen very carefully, because it is not well tolerated as strong shading, and too much abundance of sunlight and heat.
Differences and features of "Cissus Striped"
This grape has recently become less common as a houseplant. Perhaps this is due to its great similarity with the girl's grapes, which is a garden ornamental plant. Especially great similarity of these two grape species is in the form of a leaf.
The positive qualities of this type of plant is its very rapid growth. In addition, unlike other indoor grapes, Cissus Striped does not require high humidity, and grows well in rooms with dry air.
The features of this plant are also as follows:
• The most optimal air temperature for growing “Cissus Striped” is a thermometer indicator of + 16ºС. However, the plant easily tolerates lowering the temperature to + 7ºС. Winter is better tolerated in rooms with cooler air.
• When the summer temperature rises to + 22ºС, a room where the air is well ventilated, but there are no drafts.
• In summer, it is very important to water the “Cissus Striped” shrub regularly, but this should not be done more often than the soil will dry out in a plant pot.
• If you want your plant to have a more bushy shape, the tips of the shoots can be trimmed. This will not affect the general condition of this plant species.
Individual characteristics of "Cissus quadrangle": what are the differences of a plant?
This plant, like all previous ones, is an evergreen vine. Sometimes you can find its name as "Cissus Cactus", obtained due to the meaty structure of the whole plant.The main feature of it is in the form of shoots: they are not round, but 4-sided, presented as succulents. The color of the shoots is green.
Leaves forming on the shoots are trilobed. The size of the leaves is very small, constantly fall. Another difference "Cissus quadrangle" is that this plant has a very slow growth.
Same, such properties are knownsuch as reducing stress, improving metabolism, improving immune stability, can contribute to the quality of healing of fractures and acts as a means to alleviate pain. It also treats varicose veins and hemorrhoids.
Plant and color your house with the help of the indoor “Cissus the Multicolored”
Unlike all previous types of indoor grapes, Cissus Multicolored is the most fastidious in growing, although in appearance it is the most beautiful. The leaves of this plant are quite large and have a motley color. When you look at these petals, one gets the impression that someone had inflicted a very interesting pattern on them, combining red, silver and purple tones.
The plant will interest anyone with its appearance, but the difficulty lies in bringing this plant to us from the tropics. For this reason, the plant It has many whims and features:
• The usual climate for Cissus the Multicolored is a temperature not lower than + 25ºС. Optimum air humidity is about 85%.
• Even in winter, this room grape requires a temperature not lower than + 15 ° C, although it is best to keep it at a temperature of + 23 ° C.
• Since the plant is very capable of growing and has a very long vine with many shoots, it requires a lot of moisture obtained from the soil. Under natural conditions, the inhabitants of Java use its vines as a source of life-giving moisture. At home, “Cissusu Multicolored” requires a very large pot and very frequent and regular watering.
• Unlike other species, the Cissus the Multicolored can throw off its leaves for the winter. In this state of tranquility, its stems can even be pruned, as well as on large fruit-bearing bushes. In the spring of this bush re-bloom and becomes even more magnificent.
Terms of planting indoor grapes: what features you need to know
This plant is propagated by cuttings or dividing the bush. In the first variant, only apical cuttings are used, which are capable of rooting perfectly. For the stem to take root, it is placed in water for a while. After that, planted in a pot. It is best to plant several cuttings, which will get a thicker and lush bush. However, the lush the shrub, the larger the pot should be for the plant.
As for the timing of planting this plant, they can include any time of year. However, taking into account the fact that some types of indoor grapes shed their leaves in winter and fall into a dormant period, spring and summer are the best times for this. It is during these periods that the plant is in the active growth stage, therefore, when rooting its roots, rooting occurs rather quickly.
As for the case, if you decided to propagate the indoor grapes by dividing the bush, then spring time would be better. After all, it is recommended to transplant grapes in spring, in the process of which it is very easy to plant another plant.
Ways to grow indoor grapes
Indoor grapes belong to the ampelous plants, that is, grown in pots in a suspended form. This plant, lowering its vines down and clinging to other supports, is capable of planting a large enough space in the room. But besides this, it is possible to grow "birch" in ordinary slides on the floor. If you build a special support, it will trail up or in any direction convenient for you.
What are the features of care for indoor grapes: instructions and tips
After planting any home plant, and especially indoor, care is required. And this care must necessarily take into account all its features and requirements. So that you do not have any difficulties with growing all the above-mentioned types of indoor grapes, we will describe in detail the most important aspects of caring for this plant, answering the most popular questions.
Where to put a pot with indoor grapes?
Unlike ordinary garden grapes, indoor does not like an excess of sunlight, although most species love the heat. Thus, it is best to place or hang a pot with this plant near the western or eastern window. Thus, there will not be an overabundance of sunlight, but the plants will not be overshadowed too much.
However, “Cissus Rombolic” deserves special attention in this regard. This plant is extremely fond of sunlight, so the pot with him should be put only on the windows on the south side. In the summer it will perfectly master the garden and on the balcony.
How often do you need to water a similar plant?
The peculiarity of this type of plant is that its leaves have a sufficiently large mass, and at high temperatures evaporate an unusually large amount of moisture. Therefore, in spring and summer the plant should be watered constantly and plentifully. Water should be used soft, preferably separated. With the arrival of a cooler period of time, the amount of watering is reduced. In winter, the plant is watered solely in order to maintain the vital activity of its root system.
Is it necessary to feed the house grapes, and which fertilizers can be used?
It is necessary to feed room grapes, as this will contribute to the growth of the plant and its pomp. Fertilizers should be applied to the soil only during the period of the most active growth, that is, in spring and summer. It is used with the simplest complex of fertilizers, intended for indoor plants. Regularity of dressings - once for 1-2 weeks.
How often do you need to replant a houseplant?
Young, only growing plants, it is desirable to replant each year. This procedure will promote more active growth and increase in volumes of the bush. Adult indoor grapes are recommended to replant only once every 2-3 years. In this case, the more the plant grows, the more the pot for him to pick up. The best time for transplanting is considered to be early spring.
Do indoor grapes affect pests? How to deal with them?
It is not strange, but the indoor grapes did not avoid such a problem as pests. Most often on the leaves and shoots of the bush can be seen leaf aphids and spider mites. They can bring a lot of harm to the plant, cause drying and twisting of the leaves. To prevent this from happening, as soon as you notice such pests on a bush, immediately start combating them.
The most effective way is chemical processing. However, only special preparations can be used for it, as there is a risk of damage to the leaves of the vine.
Grape care in February
In February, start the preparatory work for the new season. You can begin to grow indoors seedlings from cuttings.
Check the root system of planting material in storage. It should not be over dried or over wet. Get fertilizer to feed the grapes in the spring.
If you have not covering grapes, it can be cut.
Grape care in April
April - we begin to actively care for the grapes. Covering varieties this month is time to disclose. This must be done before the kidneys swell.
At the beginning of the month, add organic and mineral fertilizers to the grooves from which you took the ground for shelter, cover them with earth.
You can fertilize the soil with a liquid dressing by combining it with watering.
It is necessary to clean the vine from the remnants of the earth and tie it to the trellis.If the grapes are affected by pests, then spend a special spraying.
Grape care in May
In May, after the buds are dissolved, the excess shoots are removed. Also from this month you need to start watering - under each bush pours three buckets of water. If you didn't fertilize in April, do it now.
Green shoots in May pinch, remove extra stepchildren and inflorescences. In addition, in May it is possible to process grapes from a tick.
Grape care in June
In June, planting of young vegetative seedlings continues. Before the flowering of grapes, the points of growth are pinned to 5-10 cm on tall shoots. This is done to better pollinate grapes.
Flowering of grapes is a good period for the development of various diseases and the defeat of shoots by pests. Be on the alert and on time carry out preventive work to combat them. However, it is not desirable to treat grapes with pesticides during the flowering and fruit set.
The care of grapes in summer is to regularly pinch and tie up the vine. During the pea grape (tentatively at the end of the month) feed it with liquid fertilizer.
Grape care in July
In July, fertilizing with nitrogen fertilizers should be stopped, but phosphate-potassium fertilizers, on the contrary, should be applied more actively. Toward the end of the month, it is recommended to carry out the minting of the vine, that is, cut 7-9 cm from the top of the bush.
Tie young shoots regularly and remove your stepchildren. Feed young saplings with mineral fertilizers.
Grape care in August
August - the berries begin to ripen this month, so the grapes require a large amount of moisture. In addition, the bushes should be fed phosphate-potassium fertilizers. As ripening crop should be harvested.
Feed the fruiting bushes with mineral fertilizers without nitrogen. In the middle and at the end of the month do chasing. To improve the maturation of the vine do foliar dressing phosphate-potassium fertilizers. If gray rot occurs, perform prophylactic treatment with potassium permanganate.
Grape care in September
September is the time for active harvesting of mid-season grapes. Caring for grapes in the first month of autumn includes the treatment of bushes with berries with a solution of potassium permanganate, with the appearance of oidium foci. It is also recommended to spray the grapes with superphosphate and potassium salt.
When overloading the grapes with berries, tear off extra brushes.
Grape care in October
In October, the harvest of the last harvest ends, the vines of late varieties are cut off, and the aisles are dug up. At this time, you can plant lignified vine saplings. Planted in October, seedlings root well.
Prepare cuttings for planting next year. It is possible to produce watering of grapes, if the autumn has stood arid.
Grape care in November
November - the end of grape care. In the last fall of the month, covering varieties are cut, then the grapes are covered for the winter. If you cover the grapes with earth, the shelter must be made before the start of frost.
If grapes are covered with sawdust, peat or pine needles, it is necessary to make grooves along the trellis.
You can not hurry with the shelter, but harden the vine until the temperature drops to 7-10 ° C.
If you have not moistened the grapes in the previous months, be sure to do it in November. Bad watered grapes winter worse.
Grape care in December
In December, special care for grapes is not required. Check planting material regularly.
Moisturize it or vice versa, open for ventilation with excessive humidity.
Get ready for the next season - buy fertilizers, garden tools, inspect and repair the trellis.
So you see that 9 months of the year grapes require active care. Perform all these actions in a timely manner and then you will get a bountiful harvest from each bush.
We grow grapes on the balcony - the requirements for light
Grapes love the sun, in the shade it stretches out and lets out kilometers of thin lashes, not capable of tying up a single bunch. So it is preferable to grow it on balconies facing south or south-west.
In addition, it is desirable that the glazing of the balcony was floor to ceiling. The more sunlight that hits the leaves, the better.
Make sure that the side walls of your balcony are covered with reflective material. Ordinary strong foil for this very well suited.
In order for the light to reflect on the vine, and not on the street, the surface of the wall covering must be slightly concave inward.
It is also advisable to cover the window into the room from the balcony, along which the vine itself will be fastened, with a reflecting film. In the room, of course, from this there will be twilight, but the grapes will say only “thank you”.
about grapes on the balcony
In spring and autumn time, the grapes of the house will need lighting. This is especially true if your balcony is on the north side. Install fluorescent fluorescent lights.
Additional coverage will be required during one and a half spring months and one autumn.
After harvesting, the leaf no longer needs such intense sunshine, since it no longer produces any nutrients for the ripening of fruits and bark.
So in October-November, after removing all the fruits, the lighting can also be turned off. In the spring, do not turn on the backlight before the leaf itself comes out of the bud and the vine does not begin to actively vegetate.
Grapes at home - temperature
Most varieties of vine are frost-resistant enough, they are not afraid of frost at 20 or even 30 degrees. But the roots of grapes are very tender.
Under natural conditions, they go deep into the ground, below the layer of winter freezing, and are also protected by a pillow of snow - the best winter thermal insulator. Naturally, in balcony tubs, the earth may freeze to the very bottom.
And then do not keep your plants: the bush can die and it remains only to hope that it will be possible to restore it by rooting the cuttings cut from the preserved vines.
It is worth noting that if you glazed a balcony from floor to ceiling with a modern glass package, then in principle the problem is almost solved.
But, besides, actually, the glazing of the window, there is also the problem of cold floors and walls.
Before covering the walls with reflective material, it is not bad to insulate them - the choice of special winter insulation is large enough in any hardware store. The floor also needs to be warmed.
Thus, the temperature of your residential vineyard, even in the most severe frosts, will not drop to the critical point of soil freezing in tubs.
It is best if the winter temperature on the balcony is between 0 and +10 degrees Celsius. Something like a fridge.
This is enough for the grapes on the balcony not to be frozen, but also not to wake up in early growth due to the very mild winter conditions (unless of course you acquired a heat-loving variety from Spain).
It should be noted that the constant drifting of wintering plants into an apartment during the onset of cold weather will not save, and even harm the plants.
For a hibernating kidney, there is nothing worse than regular changes in temperature and humidity: from close to zero temperature to room conditions, from the humid winter climate of the street to the dry, almost desert, air of the heated room.
Photo of grapes on the balcony
Also, when wintering, make sure that the soil in the tanks with grapes does not dry out. Under natural conditions, snow is a moisture-preserving factor.
At home, mulching can also be useful. From time to time, moisten it with a spray bottle, but not very often so that acidification of the soil does not occur.
Do not cover the bushes with polyethylene.
Soil selection and soil fertilization
Soil choose moderately nutritious friable. The soil should not lead to stagnation of moisture. At the bottom lay drainage. Capacity is better to prefer rather deep.
Fertilizing fertilizers need to produce very carefully and competently.
First, you should never fertilize dry soil in a plant pot. This can lead to an increased concentration of this or that mineral in the root system, or to a failure to assimilate the fertilizers introduced into the soil.
Photograph of mineral fertilizers
Secondly, each mineral should be made in a certain period of grape vegetation. This is especially true for macro-fertilizers (Phosphorus, Potassium, Nitrogen).
Microfertilizers, as a rule, are introduced immediately by the complex at the beginning of the growing season, that is, in the spring, in the summer during the most active period and before the end of the growing season, in the autumn.
- The first top dressing is best done in the first weeks of March, the buds have already blossomed, and the plant is preparing to plant flower ovaries. This is the most important feeding for plants that survived hibernation. A complex of trace elements is applied along the spilled soil: zinc, manganese, selenium, cesium, magnesium and others. In this feeding, it is especially important to pay attention to nitrogen-containing fertilizers, since they directly affect the growth of green mass that grapes need at this time of year.
- Then follow summer feeding, preferably once a month. Here it is necessary to include equally all the minerals: nitrogen, phosphorus, potassium and trace elements. The main goal of summer dressings is to strengthen the plant and the ovaries.
- Once the clusters have reached their standard size, nitrogenous fertilizers should be completely eliminated. It is desirable to increase against this background the proportion of phosphate and, in particular, potash fertilizers. This alignment is most conducive to ripening berries. If you continue to fertilize with nitrogen during this period, then the forces of the plant will go to build up the green mass, to the detriment of the crop.
Fertilizer on the photo
- In the process of ripening berries refuse to feed the three major minerals. It is necessary to carry out spraying only the mixes of microelements specially intended for the best maturing. It is also necessary to reduce watering to a minimum, in order to avoid cracking the berries.
- We carry out the last, autumn dressing after the harvest. This is the stage of final ripening of wood for the next year. Again, no nitrogen. More potassium, phosphorus and magnesium. The last feeding should be significantly smaller in volume and concentration than spring and summer. The essence of this feeding is to create a common mineral background for wintering and the first days after waking the plant from its winter sleep.
The complex of humic acids is the basis of all soil processes; they are involved in the processing and assimilation of minerals by the roots of plants.
These acids are necessary for normal functioning throughout the entire growth cycle.
It is recommended to bring together with mineral dressings, in order to better assimilate the latter.
Hormonal growth stimulants in the case of grapes are used to improve fruit sticking, less shedding of the ovary and faster maturation. Apply in three stages: during flowering, during the growth of ovaries and during maturation. As a rule, in the form of spraying.
Photo of grapes on the balcony
Effective microorganisms, when properly introduced into the soil, create useful microflora in the pot. Fertilize them need very well, clearly following the recommendations of the manufacturers.
At first labor-intensive cultivation of microflora in the soil of your indoor plants, over time, becomes more and more simple, since the main forces are no longer applied to breeding, but to maintain a stable bacterial background of the soil.
It is advisable not to combine the introduction of beneficial microflora into the soil with mineral supplements.
The shape of fruit trees should in no case be determined by whim or arbitrariness. Nikolai Gaucher
At home the bush is formed as well as in the open field.
The main essence of the forming is the abandonment of the knot of substitution, or fruit link. To do this, it is necessary to determine the three types of wood that we have in a grape plant.
Firstly, this is the oldest part - a branch of dark color. This piece of wood is at least more than two years old. From the branches grow vines of a brilliant brown color. Vine one year.
Last summer, she was a green shoots naklyuvshimsya from the bud, and now from her own green shoots grow, which are tied clusters of berries.
Formation is best done in the autumn, when summer green shoots ripen into vines, and the vines become branches. about grapes on the loggia
Choose the most powerful newly-made vines. We divide them into pairs. In each pair we cut one vine shortly, leaving 2 or 3 buds on the strength. Cut another two-thirds. We got a fruit link.
Now next year, fruit lashes will be carried from a long vine, carrying the crop, and shoots will also grow from a short vine, but they will be more powerful than those from a long vine, since there are only a few of them and more nutrients from the roots.
In the autumn, when the harvest ripens, without any regrets we prune the long vine to the very foundation. From the matured green shoots of the other, short vine, we again leave two, shorten one to two or three buds, and leave the other long.
This is our new fruit link, or replacement mote. So we repeat every year. That's all the rule of forming grapes. One vine bears the harvest of the coming year, and the other, in short, is aimed at a more distant future.
Cissus Antarctic (Cissus antarctica)
C. antarctica refers to strong-climbing plants. This cissus easily clings to the supports with the help of the antennae. Antarctica has brownish stems, leaves of a bright green color, up to 8 cm in size, oval and rough to the touch. For stems, stalks and antennae dense pubescence is peculiar. The flowers have a greenish color and are collected in corymbose inflorescence type.
The plant is characterized by active growth and unpretentiousness. Looks great in hanging pots and baskets.
Cissus rhombus or rhombic (Cissus rhombifolia)
S. rhombifolia belongs to the category of grassy vines and is the most unpretentious type in indoor floriculture. It has rhombic, trifoliate and complex leaves of dark green color, with jagged edges. The plant has a pubescent type of stems and petioles, as well as small tendrils.
In the conditions of natural, natural growth S. rhombifolia It blooms very small, greenish color, flowers that are collected in the racemose type of inflorescences with the formation of edible fruits of red.
Cissus multicolor (Cissus discolor)
C. discolor It is the most decorative and attractive cissus in indoor floriculture. The foliage of this plant resembles living patterns, and the reddish background of the upper part of the leaves is complemented with silvery spots. On the underside of the leaves have a purple color.
Under natural conditions, the plant grows in the tropics with a temperature of about 30 ° C and a high level of humidity, which somewhat complicates the process of growing C. discolor at home.
Cissus striata (Cissus striata)
C. striata characterized by the presence of very small in size three or five palmate leaves, which are very similar in shape to the girlish grapes. The plant grows quickly enough and is absolutely not demanding on the indicators of humidity. In winter, C. striata quite easily transfers the temperature to 30 ° C heat, which contributes to a stable transition of the plant to the rest phase.
C. striata is very convenient for indoor floriculture, but it is extremely rare.
Cissus quadrangular (Cissus quadrangularis)
C. quadrangularis - evergreen type of liana. Such succulent plants can be successfully grown under conditions of indoor floriculture. The plant has a fairly thick, tetrahedral shoots that are about 1 cm in diameter.
C. quadrangularis are traditional medicinal plants that are used in the treatment of joints and bone tissue. The plant helps clean the blood and can improve its composition. It is quite often used for losing weight and improving overall tone.
In addition, in the conditions of indoor floriculture, it is quite often possible to meet such varieties of cissus as:
- Cactus (Cissus cactiformis),
- Cissus Pithleaf (Cissus rotundifolia),
- Cissus Ferruginous (Cissus adenopoda),
- Cissus Amazonian (Cissus amasonica).
Choosing a place in the room
It is necessary to place cissuses in rooms that have eastern and western orientation. Liana-like plants can grow well on the north side, under artificial lighting conditions. When placed on the south windows, indoor grapes require shading from direct sunlight.
The most photophilous is C. rhombifolia, which is recommended to grow close to sunny windows.
In abundant watering first need species that have a sufficiently large mass of foliage, which implies a significant evaporation of moisture. In the spring and summer, cissus should be watered as much as possible and frequently. Water should be used soft and warm. Before watering is recommended to defend tap water.