An increasing number of farmers experience firsthand the benefits of self-rearing chickens at home. Care of daily chickens, which require special attention and a special diet, is considered the most crucial period.
The health of chicks and the success of their development in the future depend on many different factors, but all efforts may be in vain if the chicks are initially very weak. Therefore, an important point is considered to be the correct selection from an incubator for young chickens, when only the strongest and most viable individuals are selected for breeding at home.
The need to choose healthy offspring is associated with financial and time costs. The cost of purchasing feed to feed a weak chicken, which is more likely to die in the future, will simply be inappropriate. A weak pet, even at home, either dies during the first week of life, or its development lags far behind.
A healthy chick has the following characteristics:
- stays upright
- moves fast and confidently
- responds to the effects of sound and light
- shows pecking instinct,
- has a soft and taut belly with a healed umbilical cord,
- has a clean and white cesspool,
- has shine in the eyes,
- has soft plumage
- wings tightly pressed.
How to care in the first days
In the first days of life chickens most vulnerable to infection by various types of infections and during this period require the most careful care when you are kept at home. The most important points in ensuring proper care are:
- maintaining optimal temperature conditions
- providing high quality and balanced nutrition
- providing enough water to drink,
- maintaining the necessary conditions of detention.
After the incubator, the chicks are deposited under a layer or in a pre-prepared box. In most cases, the method of nursing a day-old chicks without the participation of the chicken is used. As a temporary shelter for pets, a wooden box or cardboard box, which is left in a dry warm room, is considered ideal.
Previously, the bottom of the home of the kids is covered with a rag laid in several layers.. The following materials are not recommended for bedding.:
- paper, as chicks' legs on such material will slip, which is fraught with dislocation,
- straw, as the chicks will be constantly confused in it, which is fraught with injuries,
- sawdust, as the chicks will try to peck at them and die as a result.
After a week, chicks can be relocated to a permanent place of residence. The main requirements for the premises are considered: the presence of dryness, heat and lack of crowding of the young. The following requirements also apply to the chickens:
- the premises must be disinfected before moving the chicks,
- rats or cats must not enter the room,
- room humidity should not exceed 70%,
- per 1 m2 should be no more than 12 goals,
- regardless of the floor covering on the floor, it is imperative to lay an adsorbent material, which is suitable as dry straw.
It is worth considering that walks for small chickens are allowed only from a week old. Sunlight has a beneficial effect on the health of young chicks, improving metabolism and preventing the occurrence of rickets. In the first days, the duration of walking of chicks should not exceed 1.5 hours.
Temperature and light conditions
In chicks, the thermoregulation system is finally formed only by the end of the first month of life, therefore for young chicks it is very important to maintain the required temperature.
The optimum temperature for day-old chicks is 35 ° C. On the second day of life, the temperature can be slightly reduced to 30-32 0C. After each week, the temperature may drop by 3 ° C.
For older and stronger chickens, a comfortable temperature is 21 ° C.
An ordinary incandescent lamp is sufficient to maintain the proper temperature level, but you can use lighting devices with more power. The heating device is recommended to be placed at a distance of 40 cm from the level of the surface on which the temporary room is located.
Chicks must have sufficient freedom of movement. and independently regulate the need for additional heating. If babies get hot, they should be able to move a sufficient distance from the source of heat. Conversely, in case of freezing, the chicks should be able to comfortably accommodate near heating equipment.
How well daily chickens feel can be judged by the characteristics of their behavior. If the kids are lumped together and try to cling to each other, this indicates an insufficient room temperature. Under comfortable conditions, daily chickens are active, have a good appetite, and during the rest period they behave calmly.
Important for day-old chicks playing light mode, with which you can stimulate the development of chicks, as a long period of coverage contributes to their rapid growth. In the first days, the lamp is left for a full day and switched off for no more than 15 minutes. Every day, the light period is gradually reduced, thus the kids get used to the darkness.
How to feed day-old chicks
The guarantee of good health for small chicks is sufficient provision of a balanced diet. The youngsters can peck independently within 8 hours after hatching. The main diet in the early days should include the following components:
- During the first 4 days, 3 grams of boiled egg should be in the diet in the amount of an individual, this product should be the main type of feed for day-old chickens,
- on the second day of life, a small amount of boiled millet can be added to the ration in the amount of 3-4 grams per individual mixed with the egg,
- on the third day, chicks can enter high-quality feed mixtures for chickens,
- after 3 days in the diet should be greens in the form of finely chopped nettle, clover, carrots, green onions,
- gravel is added from 4 days for better digestion of feed,
- Sour milk products and bone meal are gradually introduced.
Until the age of one month Chickens are not recommended to give barley and oats, as these products at this age provoke diseases of the intestinal system in chickens. In feeding the chicks, wood ash should be used in the amount of 0.6 grams per individual. By two months, the dosage is increased to 6 grams.
During the first decade, the feed is given with an interval between feedings of 2 hours. Subsequently, the frequency of feeding is reduced to 6.
In the first days it is recommended to sprinkle the feed in a certain place, and not to put it in the feeder, so that the chicks do not hustle while eating and do not interfere with each other.
If after eating the kids are calm and go into a state of sleep, then the food for pets is given in sufficient quantities.
Great value for little chicks is availability of fresh water. It is important that there is no fluff on the surface of the water. It is recommended to feed the chicks with the help of special drinkers, which today can be purchased at any pet store.
If you identify weak chicks that are poorly eaten and sedentary, it is recommended to plant them in a separate place. In this case, more active and healthy chicks will not interfere with their good nutrition, and after a while the weakened chicks will catch up with their fellows in growth.
Features of growing broilers
There is a huge difference in growing broilers and chickens of ordinary breeds of chickens. Broilers belong to meat breeds and in a short time gain significant weight. The daily chick weighs 40 grams, and within a week their weight reaches 200 grams. Already after 2 months, broiler chicks reach a weight of 1.5 kg, and after 3 months the poultry farmer can already taste poultry meat.
The technology of growing broilers provides for two main ways:
With the intensive method of growing from the moment of birth, broilers are housed in cages, while the density of distribution of individuals is large enough - up to 12 broilers per 1 m2. This density remains unchanged during the entire growing period.
The trough should be located in such a way that there should be at least 3 cm per pet per pet. For feeding, special balanced feeds for broilers are used, containing a large amount of proteins, vitamins and proteins. An important condition for the successful cultivation of broilers is the constant presence of feed in their feeder.
Daily broilers, as a rule, begin to be fed with special ready-made “Start” class mixtures. Baby food must contain the following components:
- corn and bone meal,
- a piece of chalk,
- feed yeast.
Already in the first week, a significant increase in small broilers will be clearly visible. On the second day of life, chicks can be given a drop of trivitamin, which will improve the immunity of babies.
To enrich the ration, broilers from 5 days can put cottage cheese into the feed, and from 11 days, chopped and steamed grains can be given as feed. The daily feed rate for broilers of this age is 15 grams per day per individual.
Feed broilers need at least 8 times a day in small portions.
From now on, it is imperative introduce greens into the diet of chicks.
During the first 5 days the lighting in the broiler area should be constantly present. For 22 days, they spend a daily reduction in lighting time by 1 minute; for older broilers, the length of daylight hours should be at least 18 hours.
The extensive method is possible only in the summer, when the young growth is raised in natural conditions with the possibility of walking. Feeding broiler chickens with this method is no different from feeding chicks of ordinary breeds.
Prevention of diseases in day-old chicks
The following means are used to prevent diseases and stimulate the growth of chicks:
- 1 ml of Baitril solution is diluted in 1 liter of water and injected into the nutrition of babies from 2 to 5 days of life, which makes them more resistant to infectious diseases,
- 3 grams of Nutril-Se diluted in 6 liters of water and used for chicks from 5 to 12 days of life, which stimulates the growth rate of chickens,
- 1 ml of Baikoks solution or 1 gram of Coccidiovit is dissolved in 1 liter of water and chicks are soldered with this solution in order to improve their development in general,
- Once a week, chicks can be soldered with a weak solution of potassium permanganate.
Important points in chick care
There are a number of standard recommendations, the implementation of which will avoid annoying errors. When growing day-old chicks it is recommended:
- fill the feeders with no more than 1/3, otherwise a significant amount of feed will simply be trampled by chickens,
- before filling the feed into the feeders, the remnants of the old feed must be removed, otherwise the feed will rot,
- Care should be taken to ensure that all chickens eat feed, when identifying chickens that rarely fit the feeder, it is recommended to deposit them in a separate place,
- timely update fresh water in the drinkers,
- in order to prevent diseases use special drugs,
- Feeders and drinkers should be disinfected periodically; a soap solution or 5% formalin solution can be used as a treatment agent.
Compliance with the diet, taking into account the characteristics of the breed and the basic rules of the content will allow to grow healthy and strong chickens.
Growing chickens - how to buy, how to feed and how to care for chicks
Hello! Today I will have a feathery theme again, let's talk about how to grow chickens, how to buy and how to care for feathered crumbs.
The topic of chickens is haunted by me, I want to start a dozen chickens at the dacha for entertainment, having bought it from chickens so that I can observe all phases of life.
I have already studied so much material that I am ready to give out structured information both for myself and for you.
Breeding chickens is an interesting and profitable occupation. For example, when my acquaintances learned about my desire to raise chickens, I already had potential buyers of eggs. So, you will always earn yourself some bread! In addition, in summer the bird can destroy pests in the garden, slugs and other villains. Chickens are unpretentious, grow quickly and give an egg. I advise it to breed hens.
How and when to buy chickens
The best time to buy chickens is April and May. Experienced “pipelines” advise taking chickens at poultry farms - this is how you get quality material for sure. The most recommended chicken on an egg is leggorn. And take them, I already wrote about the cultivation of these chickens - http://1dacha-sad.com/xitrosti-vyrashhivaniya-kur-nesushek-leggorn-na-dache-opyt-sosedki/.
Well, if you want to breed chickens for meat, then take the broilers. I can’t say anything about meat because I didn’t study it at all.
Take more chickens, taking into account their deaths, for example, so that by the autumn you have 10 strong young layers, in the spring get 15-20 chickens.
It is best of all to transport chickens from the place of purchase in a carton of 50 x 50 cm. In the same box they will continue to live with you. The height of the box must not be lower than 35 cm, otherwise the chickens will jump freely out of it. It is best to have two such boxes so that during the cleaning of one, to replace fluffy inhabitants in the other.
How to choose?
When choosing chickens for growing at home, it is necessary to take into account age and sexual characteristics. In addition, the selection of young stock is carried out by external signs.
If chicks are healthy:
- they have a tucked up belly
- umbilical cord
- there are no signs of bleeding,
- fluff shiny and smooth.
The optimal age for purchasing chicks is 20 days. Growing healthy chickens at home, from this age is not difficult, they are no longer dependent on the hen, able to feed themselves and find their own food.
How to grow healthy chickens at home? When keeping chickens in cages, the following conditions must be met:
- dry and clean
- maintaining the required temperature and humidity,
- well-chosen mode of lighting and ventilation.
The bird house must be disinfected beforehand, lay a dry loose litter on the floor, check for protection against rodents. The last thing to complete the cage is all necessary to maintain the life of chicks. This should include not only lamps, but also heating equipment, feeders, drinkers. On 1 m2 occupy 12 chicks.
The first days of the laying hens, when grown at home, suffer from hypothermia or excessive heat. Just before the age of one month their body has not had time to adapt to changes in external conditions.
On the litter
Chickens are kept on a deep non-replaceable bedding.. Thanks to it, a large amount of thermal energy is released. This protects the limbs of chicks from exposure to low temperatures, and has a positive effect on their general condition and health. Due to the permanent decomposition, which occurs in the litter under the influence of bacteria, chickens receive an auxiliary source of biologically active substances.
If you properly care for the litter, it will not stick together in clumps. For bedding most often choose the following materials:
- straw chopping,
- wood shavings
In the first 10 days, chicks should be fed at intervals of 2 hours.. At this time, the basis of the food should be such a mixture: finely chopped, hard-boiled eggs, crumbly cottage cheese, semolina or corn grits. For 10 individuals, 50 g of cottage cheese, 50 g of cereal and 1 egg will go away.
It is useful to introduce into the diet a mixture consisting of such products:
- lightly ground oatmeal,
- chicken feed,
- dry milk (1/4 part of the volume of cereals and 1 tablet of multivitamins, crushed into powder).
This dry mix is convenient in that chickens can adjust feed intake themselves.
From 3 to 5 days you can reproach chicks with finely chopped greens. From 5th to 7th day of life, loose mash on kefir, fish and meat broths are allowed.
From 10th day such products are allowed.:
- boiled potatoes,
- grated carrot,
During this period, it is useful to introduce into the diet finely crushed chalk, egg shells, previously boiled. Separate gravel in separate feeders.
Use of feed
Using high-quality feed, you can saturate the body of chicks with useful vitamins. It is best to use chopped cereal feed. Bring in feed into the diet of poultry according to the following scheme:
- Up to 10 days for chicks to feed in feed step by step - from 10 g per day. Over time, gradually increase the dosage to 35 g.
- When the chicks were 10 days old, the rate gradually increased to 170 g per individual per day.
Home Care for Laying Chicks
Yaytsenosky breeds of chickens grow rapidly and often carry eggs. In the first days in the diet to make the following products:
- crushed corn,
- chopped boiled eggs.
From 1.5 months chicks can be transferred to "adult" feed. These include:
- food waste,
- boiled potatoes
- green bean.
The water in the drinkers of the chickens should always be clean and fresh. So that the chickens do not get wet and do not climb into the container, it is worth turning a 0.5 liter jar of water. This will provide a gradual moderate drink. For the prevention of disease, chicks once every 7 days should be given a slightly pink solution of potassium permanganate (10 ml per 1 l of water).
You can add pounded antibiotic pills to food. Yaytsenosky breeds of chickens to feed 4 times a day. If the weather is warm outside, then they equip a place for walking. It is necessary to keep adult chickens in sheds with equipped perches (90-110 cm from the floor) and nests (1 nest for 4 individuals).
The room should be free from drafts and inaccessible to rodents. Around the hen house set trough and drinkers.
How to grow daily chickens? It is most difficult to care for such chicks, as they are most vulnerable to diseases. For day-old chicks, the following conditions must be observed.:
- required temperature conditions
- optimum air humidity
- lighting and ventilation mode,
- balanced diet and nutritional dosage.
Already dried chickens can be transferred to a brooder. To create a comfortable living environment you need to provide indoors:
- dryness and purity
- compliance with the required temperature and humidity conditions,
- correctly choose the mode of lighting and ventilation.
This breed of chickens is distinguished by its unpretentiousness. They quickly adapt to new conditions and are able to maintain high productivity even in harsh conditions. Keep these chickens can be indoors or on the run.
In the barn you need to ensure the availability of drinkers, feeders, bedding. No drafts. In winter, to extend the daylight use additional lighting. For laying hens it is necessary to use balanced feed. They must contain a large amount of vitamins, minerals, proteins, carbohydrates. On one individual enough 115 g of dry food per day.
Breeding for beginners
How to ensure the proper breeding of chickens in the incubator beginner? Before laying eggs in the incubator, it is necessary to adjust the required temperature readings. For the 1st week of incubation, the values of 38.5-39 degrees remain optimal. You need to use an egg no older than 3 days. Laid eggs in pencil cancel (on the one hand - a dash, and on the other - a cross).
After the bookmark, they will warm up for a day, and then they can be turned over. On the 19th day of incubation, the process is nakleva. At this time, stop turning the eggs and lower the temperature to 37.5 degrees. On the 20th day, a mass hatching of chicks is performed, and on the 22nd day, it ends. Further incubate the egg is not worth it.
After the incubator
After the incubator, when growing chickens at home, chicks can be kept for the first 1-2 weeks in boxes. But for full development requires much more space. The temperature in the first week should be 30-33 degreesand in a month it drops to 20-22 degrees.
Be sure to provide chicks with full watering. Change the water in the drinkers 2 times a day. The composition of the grain mixture is as follows:
- Wheat and corn - by 35%.
- Oats - 10%.
- Barley - 20%.
As the first feed, the chickens after the incubator must be given a boiled egg - 1 piece for 30 individuals.
Farmers can make the following mistakes when raising chicks.:
- Improper feeding and grooming of domestic chickens in the first week. Often farmers use boiled egg, greens, cottage cheese for feeding. But such food is sometimes tragic. It is best to use balanced and combined feed.
- Not compliance with the temperature. Initially, the temperature should be 32-33 degrees. And then every day to lower it by 1 degrees.
- Lack of fluid. In the drinkers should always be fresh and clean water.
- Refusal to prevent. In addition to vaccination, it is necessary to feed chicks to antibiotic feed.
Despite the fact that it is difficult to grow chickens at home, even a novice farmer can handle it. To do this, he just needs to adhere to the above rules and treat this process responsibly.
How to grow chickens
Chickens are a fairly frequent "phenomenon" in the current economic yards, especially in the villages.
Keeping chickens is not very difficult, and it’s also very profitable.
People try to buy chickens in the markets when they decide to start smoking.
But in most cases, little chickens can be brought out on their own, so as not to spend money on the purchase of these yellow lumps.
It is not necessary to have a hen hen in its content, you can do without it.
What do you need to do to ensure that as many chickens as possible reach adulthood?
Answers are given below.
The most important aspect when breeding chickens is the freshness of the eggs. From the moment the egg is laid, no more than 10 days should pass. Chickens are unlikely to hatch from older eggs.
Sure to check all eggs for mechanical damage shells, they must also be clean. For these reasons, it will be better to change the litter in all the nests where egg-laying is performed, and also to close it overnight so that chickens do not sit there.
Eggs can not be washed before incubation or incubation. All of them should be similar to each other and have the correct form.
The most natural way of breeding chickens is to hatch them under the hen.
For this you need to take the most healthy and calm chicken from your farm. She should have a pronounced maternal instinct, as well as the ability to incubate.
Planting chicken eggs should be in late March - the first half of May. It is better to make the nest spacious enough, since in too close a space, the hen can damage or completely crush the eggs.
As a nest, you can use a basket of wicker or a wooden box. It is necessary to put straw on the bottom of the future nest, which keeps the heat and the necessary moisture well enough for a long time.
You need to put the nest in a secluded corner where little light comes in.
Desirable protect the hatching place and the hen itself from the rest of the hensso that they don't bother her again.
In the hen house, you constantly need to open the windows and doors so that the air can circulate continuously. Do not allow the night temperature to drop below 12 ° C. It is advisable to put the nest on the floor or 10-12 centimeters rise in case of a cold floor.
13-17 eggs can be put under the hen. It should be placed in the nest in the evening. Be sure to check whether all eggs are placed under the hen.
If not, that extra will need to be removed.
The hen feed should be dry grain. Near the feeder should always be a container of clean, fresh water. The hen needs every day to let outduring which she will take baths from the ashes, as well as walking on fresh grass.
While the hen is walking, you can inspect the eggs. If some of them are cracked, then they need to be removed, and without replacing them with new ones. If necessary, you can change the straw from the bedding.
Approximately 22 days after planting the chicken, the eggs should hatch. 2 days before full hatching the chickens will peel the shells.
After the chicks leave the shell, they cannot be taken out from under the chicken until they are completely dry. When they dry, they can be put in a basket, the bottom of which should be covered with a soft cloth.
The basket will need to be put in a warm place. The optimum temperature should be + 28 ... + 30 ̊С. When all the chickens hatch, they will need to be brought back under the chicken.
If you bought small chickens or brought them in an incubator, then they can be put under the hen. Under the chicken, chickens should spend no more than 35-40 days, after which they will be able to live independently.
If it is planned to grow chickens without a brood, it is important to prepare premises for them in advance. It should not be drafts and damp, but it should be well ventilated. The floor should be covered with a layer of sawdust, straw or corn cobs with a layer of 10-15 cm.
Daily incubation chickens will be the best option if you decide to buy them. But incubating eggs at home is not a super-task, so you can buy a small incubatorwhere you can do it yourself.
Until the little chickens are 6 weeks old, they should be additionally heated. The amount of additional heat will depend on the temperature of the air around, so in the summer it is best to remove the chickens without the hen.
During the first week, chickens should be kept at a temperature of at least 32-35 ̊C so that they have the opportunity to warm enough. Every week the temperature can be lowered by 3. The reduction should be made to a level of 21 ̊C.
Additional heating may be needed after, but only if the air temperature becomes extremely low. Look carefully at the chicks. If they are active, rather squeak and run around the perimeter of the room, which contains, then this is a sure sign that the temperature is optimal for them.
If all the chickens crowded together, then they lack warmth. And if the chickens breathe heavily with an open beak, then they need to be cooled.Additional heating can be done with the help of special infrared lamps or with electricity, gas.
Small chicks should always have fresh water and access to feed. It is better to feed them with special feeds, which are enriched with vitamins and nutritional minerals, which will be so necessary for young birds.
Feed for chickens are different, it all depends on the purpose of growing. Therefore, to begin with, decide why you grow these birds - for eggs or for slaughter.
You will be able to grow chickens if you remember these simple rules. Therefore, do not be afraid to buy small birds and grow beautiful, and most importantly, healthy chickens from them.
Care for chickens in the first days of life
The future development and health of chickens depends on many factors. But even if the bird has created all the conditions for growth, it is difficult to expect good results if the chicks are initially weak. Therefore, when selecting from an incubator, youngsters are strictly sorted, taking for the further rearing only the most viable individuals.
The first days of life are the most difficult and crucial period for chicks and poultry farmers.
Care for daily chickens, the most vulnerable to diseases and often suffering from an improper diet, should be aimed at creating and maintaining:
- required temperature conditions
- optimum air humidity
- lighting and ventilation modes
- balanced diet and nutritional dosage.
Dry strong chickens from the incubator are transferred to a brooder with the conditions created for a comfortable habitat of the chicks or enclosed under an experienced hen.
The main requirements for the premises where the population of chickens is located are:
- dry and clean
- maintaining proper temperature and humidity
- well-chosen mode of lighting and ventilation.
Before the chicken house accepts the chickens, it is cleaned, disinfected, laid dry loose bedding, checked for protection against rodents, completed with everything necessary to maintain the life of pets.
Such equipment includes not only lamps and heating devices, hygrometers and thermometers, but also feeders and drinkers. Their design should be chosen so that it is safe to use them, and the number is determined based on the number of livestock. When a chick is kept at home, no more than 12 chickens settle per square meter.
In the aftermath of the premises are regularly washed, cleaned the old litter, disinfect and ventilate.
Air temperature and lighting when growing chickens
The first days and weeks of life chicks often suffer from hypothermia or, conversely, excessively high temperatures. The fact is that until the age of one month the body of the chickens cannot yet quickly and effectively adapt to changes in external conditions.
Therefore, in the care of chickens in the first days of life necessarily include strict control over the temperature in the house or brooder:
- The chicks should spend the first day in an atmosphere close to that in the incubator. And the air for this is heated to a comfortable 35 ° C.
- On the next day, the room begins to gradually cool. In the first week the air can have a temperature of 30–32 ° C.
- Such heating is necessary not only during the day, but also at night, especially attentive poultry farmers need to be in overcast and cold weather periods.
- From the second week, the temperature is reduced by another couple of degrees, and the spawning bird already feels great at a temperature not lower than 21 ° C.
It is convenient to measure the temperature using a thermometer located inside the house. It is better if the device is fixed slightly above the floor, at the level of a chicken. This will give the poultry farmer an accurate picture of the bird's well-being.
Whether or not the chicks are comfortable, when they are kept at home, can be judged by their behavior:
- Chicks crowded under a lamp or next to each other are clearly cold.
- From the heat, birds ruffle feathers and wings, become sedentary and sink to the floor.
No less than the temperature, the correct illumination of the house is important when raising chickens. The first few days of the lamp does not turn off at all. This poultry farmer pushes pets to more actively eat, move and grow. Then the chicks begin to gradually accustom themselves to the darkness, turning off the lights first for 15 minutes, then for half an hour, increasing the rest time every day.
Feeding chickens when grown at home
A balanced diet matched for age and needs is a guarantee of good health and active growth of chickens. The first feeding of chickens in the care and rearing at home is carried out soon after the chicks are born. The earlier food is offered to the young, the faster they will acclimatize.
Usually, the ability to independently select food from chickens appears at the age of 8 hours. By this time, they can offer chopped, hard-boiled chicken egg. It is included in the menu for 3-4 days, gradually adding to the diet all the new healthy foods.
The first addition is boiled millet groats, then crushed wheat and crushed corn appear in the menu. The choice of these two cereals is due to good digestibility, which cannot be said about oats or barley. The coarse shells of their seeds irritate the digestive tract and cause diarrhea in chicks.
Growing chickens at home suggests that feeding should use not only dry feed, such as cereals, but also greens, lactic acid products, mineral additives, potatoes. Greens, beneficial for digestion, fall into the feeders in the first days. It may be:
- scalded and shredded nettle,
- green onions, containing, in addition to vitamins, mineral salts, moisture and fiber, are also volatile organic volatile products,
- carrot roots, which are given to chickens in ground form.
An indispensable source of protein at an early age is cottage cheese, whey, yogurt, buttermilk. They are added to wet foods and cereal mixtures.
From the fourth day, containers with small gravel, shells and chalk are placed in places where chicks are kept at home. Meat-bone or fish meal is added to the feed, which is an excellent source of animal protein.
When grown at home, chicks instead of flour can be offered finely chopped meat pruning or chopped earthworms. Protein consumption is especially important when it comes to raising meat breeding chickens.
When caring for daily chickens, feeding is carried out at intervals of two hours, laying out the food on flat sheets or pallets. Then the number of meals is reduced to 6, and after 2-3 weeks to four. Bred bird feeds in the morning and evening.
How to grow chickens at home, if their birth was in the cold season, when there is not enough green fodder? In this case, the birds offer germinated seeds of cereals, including a large amount of vegetable protein, fiber and vitamins. Also a good help would be grass meal.
Excellent results when growing chickens are shown by their feeding with ready-made feeds. Most often, these feed are divided into starting, growth and finish and differ in size fractions and composition.
In addition to feed and mineral supplements, clean room water should always be in the house. Also, the chicks are regularly given a solution of potassium permanganate, which is a kind of prevention of intestinal diseases. The fluid is changed daily, simultaneously rinsing the containers thoroughly. Drinkers for chickens should be safe. Since overcooling is fraught with the death of the chick, you can not allow the bird to get wet when drinking or could go into the water.
Features chickens at home
During the period of chickens rearing at home, special attention is paid to birds that are lagging behind in development, are gaining little weight and are less active than their peers who eat. In order to avoid even greater harassment from strong opponents, such chicks are deposited and provide them with personal care.
From a week old when keeping chickens at home, they are satisfied with walking. Staying in the sun is an important part of the prevention of rickets and other diseases caused by vitamin deficiency and metabolic disorders.
The first walks last no more than one and a half hours, but with increasing nestlings, over time, they may be longer in the paddock. The main thing that the space for walks was safe, well ventilated and lit. For a bird, it is better to provide a shed and drinkers and feeders placed under it.
Place for chickens
Chickens are very fond of heat, in the cool they can get sick and die. Many advise attaching a box to the battery, if you live in a room with water heating. It is recommended to cover the box at night with a cloth, this will allow the chicks to sleep in warmth and comfort.
By the way, in the box with chickens you can additionally put a bottle of hot water wrapped in cloth in the evening so that it warms up the space inside the box and adds comfort to the nestlings.
At the bottom of the box daily lay a new sheet of newspaper. Chicks need cleanliness. During the day, while you are awake, you should cover the top of the box with a net so that especially curious people cannot jump out. In the corners of the grid, you can attach weights, so that the network is under pressure and does not sag inside the box.
In the early days, chickens are recommended to be fed with a hard-boiled egg, and then finely crumbled and scattered on paper in a thin layer. Feeding frequency - every three hours. Approximate consumption per ten chickens for two days - 12 medium eggs. You can also drop vitamins in each beak once. This will further strengthen the immunity of crumbs.
After the first days of adaptation, the chicks are transferred to the day in the box. Morning feeding in a box, then transplanting into a drawer and before evening feeding, transplanting back into boxes.
The box is assembled from planed boards, the dimensions of the box are 70 x 100 cm, height is 35 cm. Inside the box, make a container for a container with water. Water is desirable to use boiled, separated day.
It is best to cover the box with a metal grid with a 2 x 2 cm cell. It is not necessary to do the hinges, it is enough to simply lay the grid on top.
No powder on the bottom of the box can not pour! The first week of life, chickens, like all small creatures, eat everything they see. Therefore, protect them from the temptation to peck sawdust, etc., powder.
Where to put the box
The box with chickens for the day is placed on a sunlit place in a heated room. One corner of the box should be draped so that the chicks can, if necessary, hide in the shade.
After 10-12 days, your chickens will become noticeably older. They will have feathers and a tail formed. If the air temperature during the day is above 20 degrees, then the bird can be let out for a walk.
Make a mobile pen for chickens for outdoor use. Identify a site that is protected from the cold north wind and well visible to the sun. Install a pad on it 2 x 3 m.
On the front, southern wall of the paddock, 30 cm high and 3 m long, make an opening of 20 x 25 cm, with a door on the hinge. Side by side, mount the feeder and drinker. Make the back, northern wall higher - 50 cm, with a length of 3 m. Outside the wall, it is recommended to nail polyethylene so that the wind does not blow in the cracks.
along the northern wall, at a distance of 30 cm, and at a height of 25 cm, along the entire length of the pen, make a perch with a diameter of 2.5 cm on pegs. Chickens will be able to rest on this perch.
The top of the pen is covered with a metal grid with a 2 x 2 cm cell.It is desirable to mount the grid on the frame, to prevent sagging to the frame, in 50 cm steps, wooden planks are mounted.
At night, the chickens must be removed from the pen, in order to avoid eating them by predatory animals. The first month after buying chickens for the night is put in a cardboard box, and later in a wooden box with a metal grid. The air temperature in the room should be from 18 to 20 degrees.
From the early days of life, chicks should be trained on feeding signals. Each time, before feeding, tap on the walls of the structure. Time after time the conditioned reflex is worked out and your pimples will run to the feeder at the first knock.
By the way, this technique will allow you to collect chicks in a box after a day's stay in the pen. To do this, turn the box to the side, fill in the feed, move the box to the door of the pen and open it, knock on the box. All chickens will run out of the pen into the box and you can easily transport them to the house for the night.
If the weather is rainy, then the paddock on the grid is covered with a film, in the corner there is a small opening for fresh air access. Once every 5 days clean the litter pen.
When the chicks are a month old, curiosity and craving for freedom will force them to dig under the walls of the pen. Regularly check for such undermining and fill these pits with tamping. Additionally, outside the walls of the pen can lay the boards or bricks along the contour.
After 48 days a can with a washed small river pebble is attached to the wall of the pen. River sand is not suitable!
How and what to feed the chickens when growing
The first two days the chickens are fed finely chopped, hard-boiled eggs.
On the third day, well-boiled millet is added to the ration. In the region for millet porridge, we even have a special name - chicken porridge. So millet has proven itself very well in this regard.
The porridge needs to be cooled before feeding. Feeding is done 4 - 5 times a day, the portion volume is selected empirically. Focus on the fact that fresh food should be fully eaten by chickens in 15-20 minutes. Additionally, cottage cheese and soaked white bread can be added to the porridge.
From the fifth day fresh greens and carrots should come into the diet of chickens. It can be finely chopped leaves of nettle, clover, moorberry, as well as raw carrot grated on a white grater. Greens and vegetables between feedings of porridge.
From the tenth day, feed the chickens 4 times a day with mash of the following composition: in equal parts take steamed and sifted feed, finely chopped nettle leaves, grated raw carrots, mashed boiled potatoes, finely mashed egg shells (1 teaspoon per 10 chickens) in a day).
From the beginning of the second month, feed the chickens with a mash of such a composition: sifted loose feed - 30%, finely chopped nettle and raw carrot grated on a fine grater - 20%, boiled potatoes - 30%, chopped eggshell - 1%. Such a composition and feed the chickens up to 4 months of age, and then the food is prepared as for adult chickens.
In the summer and autumn, feeding chickens with whole grains (wheat, oats, millet, crushed corn) is not necessary. The bird feeds on these products in the winter when the air temperature drops below -10 degrees.
Starting on the fifth day, place the feed in the feeder so that the chickens can feed freely.
How to water chickens
It is necessary to water the chicks with ordinary distilled tap water. The first 10 days, the water must first be boiled and cooled before being given to the chicks. It is not necessary to give uncontrollably water, as according to the assurances of some poultry farmers, it is precisely this factor that often gives the chickens pestilence.
Food for chicks do not salt! Sour food should also not be given. All food should be fresh, greens and vegetables are not lethargic and without mold. in a word, that, that they themselves would not eat, and the bird should not be given.
How to grow healthy and strong chickens at home
Chicken eggs and meat are very useful foods that are present on the table of almost every person. That is why the breeding of poultry is considered a very profitable occupation and quickly pays for all investments.
But before you decide to grow a bird, you must thoroughly study absolutely all the subtleties of this laborious business.
This article will describe in detail how to raise chickens at home for a novice poultry farmer, and other related issues.
When buying chickens from an incubator, you must choose the most mobile and healthy individuals. Otherwise, all costs may not be justified, because a weak bird dies in the early days or is far behind in growth.
Experts identify the following Signs of a healthy chicken:
- he is very steady on his feet,
- smart and good moves
- responds quickly to different sounds and lights,
- trying to peck all the objects around him
- has a soft and taut belly,
- the umbilical cord of the chick should heal,
- the cesspool should be pink and clear
- eyes must be shiny and bulging
- Wings should always be tightly pressed to the body.
How to care for chickens in the early days
The first week of their lives is considered the most crucial step in chick rearing, because at this time the young are very vulnerable to various diseases. That is why at this time it is necessary to take care of them very carefully. In the first week you need to follow these conditions:
- optimal temperature level
- good feed for food,
- cleanliness in the room
- constant availability of water.
After the young birds dry out, they must be pulled out of the incubator in a large box or under a special layer.
When a person takes care of them without laying hens, then the best option for their location after the incubator is a cardboard or wooden box, which must be placed in a dry and warm place. Such a house will allow chicks to get stronger and get used to the environmental conditions.
And also it will be very easy to warm such box. You can not put straw in the box, because the birds can get confused, and they quickly peck off the sawdust and soon die.
Basic requirements for a place for poultry
After 10 days, the young bird should be moved to a previously prepared place in the barn. Experts advise to keep it clean, because it is the main prevention of various diseases.
Strong crowding of chickens, numerous remnants of missing food, litter in the room, all these signs of possible development of the disease in birds.
For this reason, the place where the young live, needs constant heating and cleaning.
Experts advise to adhere to the following rules when raising chickens:
- before placing the bird, it is necessary to make high-quality disinfection,
- rats or cats should not be allowed into the shed,
- the optimum level of humidity should be about 60 percent,
- on one square meter of space should be no more than 13 heads,
- on the floor it is necessary to lay a thick layer of absorbent litter without mold, for example, you can use for this purpose fresh hay.
The bird can be released to fresh air from a week old because solar energy has a good effect on the metabolic processes in the body. And also walks are considered as excellent prevention of rickets.
First the length of the walk should be no more than 90 minutes, and then you can leave animals in the open air almost all daylight hours.
Especially for this purpose, it is necessary to make a small pen, enclosed by a fine net, so that the bird cannot escape or predatory animals have not reached it. It is also worth making a strong canopy so that heavy rain does not wet the chicks and they do not get sick afterwards.
How to maintain the light mode and optimum temperature
Natural regulation temperatures formed in chicks only after the first month of life. For this reason, it is necessary to carefully monitor the temperature level in a wooden box.
At first, it should not be radically different from the incubator conditions, which are about 35 degrees Celsius.
This is considered the optimum temperature, and later it should be reduced to 30 degrees Celsius.
Constant heating of the wooden box can provide a simple incandescent lamp. For the chicken coop is to use electric heaters or powerful lights.
They must be positioned in such a way that the birds have the opportunity to bask freely around them, and when they are hot, then move away.
Heating devices It should be placed at a distance of about 45 centimeters from the floor.
To determine the optimal temperature can be on the behavior of chickens. If they gather in groups, nestle close to each other, then the temperature must be raised.
Such a categorically impossible to prevent, because the birds are very susceptible to temperature extremes, they can become very sick and die.
When they always behave rather calmly, often run, feed, we can assume that their conditions of detention are good.
Light conditions are very important when growing chickens. With it, it is possible to adjust the growth of chicks, because the constant illumination contributes to the rapid growth of the bird. First, the incandescent lamp should be left for a day, but it should be turned off for about 20 minutes. So you can accustom chicks to the dark. Gradually, the duration of daylight worth reducing.
How to feed the chicks
A varied and complete diet is the basis for the rapid growth of chickens. They can bite on their own within a few hours after hatching. Experts recommend using these types of feed at this stage of growing chickens:
- Very finely chopped and boiled chicken eggs are considered the main food for the youngest chicks. It must be given the first four days of life.
- Further, it is worth gradually begin to make a variety of food. For this purpose, well-cooked millet is well suited. This cereal is very quickly absorbed in the body, and the grain size is best suited for small beaks. First, it is given in small quantities along with boiled egg. Such a mixture can feed a bird up to two months of age.
- Gradually add fine corn or wheat.
- Oats and barley should not be given, because young chicks are incapable of digesting their film. And it can provoke diseases of the gastrointestinal tract.
- When there are in stock good specialized feed formulations, they can be used only on the fourth day of life.
- Then you can start using green fodder, for example, sliced carrots, clover or green onions. These foods will help good digestion and are considered the best vitamin supplement to food.
- Next, you need to enter into the diet a variety of dairy products, for example, cottage cheese or milk powder. They should be added to different mash.
- After a week in a place for growing chickens you need to install a small container of gravel. This will help the bird quickly digest food.
- It should be included in the diet of a small amount of meat and bone meal. When it is not available, you can use waste meat or ordinary earthworms. These supplements are able to replace meat and bone meal.
- A good source of calcium is shallow river or seashells.
- When feeding offspring, fine wood ash should be used. On one individual should account for about 0.5 grams of this product. At an older age, the dosage should be increased to 5 grams.
You must first feed with an interval of about two hours, and then reduce the frequency of feeding up to 6 times, and then completely up to 4 times. In the first days it is not necessary to put food in a special feeder.
It is necessary to scatter the food in the place in which the chicks are accustomed to eat, because this way they will not interfere with each other and push. The main indicator of the health and well-being of birds is healthy sleep after eating food. When growing must be attentive to the weakest chicks.
Those individuals who eat poorly and move little, need to be transplanted to another place. After that, healthy chickens will not interfere with their eating, and they quickly gain strength.
Pure and boiled water must always be in the barn. And also it is necessary that the entire surface of the special drinker is limited. So you can prevent nicks from getting fluff.
For this purpose, you can use an ordinary saucer, in which you need to set a glass or a small jar upside down. Under the edge of the tank It is worth putting small sticks.
After that, as the water level decreases, the saucer will refill. You should not forget that every day you need to change the water and wash the saucer.
How to grow chickens under a hen
Growing chickens under a hen at home is a very old and proven method. A good layer will always warm and show the feeding place, and a person will be able to get rid of many household chores, because the hen will take care of the offspring.
Layers for such work must be selected very experienced and with a developed maternity instinct. In this way, will be more likelythat a domestic chicken will not abandon its chickens. If the chicks are not from her brood, but were raised in an incubator, then it is worth testing the hen.
In the dark, when the chicken sleeps under it you need to put a few chickens. If she did not reject them, then the next night it is necessary to put the rest of the offspring. The number of chicks fitted is directly dependent on the size of the chicken and the weather outside.
In the spring, 16 chickens will be quite enough, and in summer the layer is able to take care of 22 individuals.
Diverse and high-quality food, regular cleaning in the barn, care and human warmth can help in the process of raising chickens at home.
Late autumn you can enjoy healthy and young birds that will be able to provide humans with eggs and fresh meat.
And the remaining products can be sold on the market, what will help to replenish the family budget.
How to grow healthy chickens?
In the previous article, we determined that people who start breeding poultry are usually interested in two questions:
1. How to make chickens rush in the winter?
2. How to grow chickens so that they quickly gain weight and not die at an early age?
Well, we have already figured out the first question safely, and since spring is just around the corner, it's time to start considering the second item.
Causes of death at an early age
I repeatedly asked myself this question, trying to find a solution to the problem, and came to some, in my opinion, important conclusions that I want to share with you.
The fact is that the process of survival of young animals is influenced by many different factors: conditions of detention, diet, heredity, immunity and much more.
Usually the main causes of premature death of chickens are:
- Impaired care and nutritional patterns
How to grow healthy youngsters?
I incubate eggs in a homemade incubator. In the first hours after birth, chickens look very helpless and just sit, drying under a lamp at a temperature of + 30 ... 32 ° C.
After drying (after about five to six hours), the kids begin to move actively, find and peck at various dark spots and dots on the walls of the box, poke each other with their beaks. For me, this is a signal that the kids should be drunk first thing! Yes, it is to drink (and not to feed, as many believe), even if by force.
I dip the chicks' beaks in 5% glucose solution (sold in veterinary pharmacies in 200 ml vials).Glucose will give the chicks strength and accelerate the resorption of residual yolk. I give glucose once.
In the first three days of the life of the kids, I add the drug Enrofloxacin 10% or Baytril or Noroflox 10% to the drinking water (at the rate of 0.5 ml per 1 liter of water).
With this simple procedure, effective prevention of infectious diseases such as salmonellosis, mycoplasmosis, pasteurellosis, colibacteriosis is carried out, because these infections can cause the death of chickens at the very beginning of life.
The first three days I keep chickens in a warm room in large cardboard boxes.
Since on the fourth day the activity of the youngsters increases significantly, I transfer the chickens to spacious closed pens with a lamp heater inside. The size of the pen should be such that no more than 25 chickens per square meter.
Before placing the birds, I recommend disinfecting the room. I usually disinfect with Ekosept or Arkvadez.
The air temperature inside the pen should be about + 24 ... 30 ° С, and under the heater up to + 35 ° С.
Such a high temperature is due to the fact that the own thermoregulation in chickens at an early age is not yet developed well enough, and if it is below this, the babies are at risk of being overcooling and dying.
I would also like to draw readers' attention to the fact that the air temperature in the middle of the room and the air temperature at floor level (where chickens are most often) may differ by several degrees. This should be taken into account.
In addition, chickens' worst enemies are drafts and dampness. Do not forget about it.
Humidity in the room should be at 60 - 70%. I measure it with an ordinary household psychrometer.
The temperature and humidity levels described above should be kept for about a month.
A few words about the regime and diet
From the fourth day after the birth of the chicks to the seventh, inclusive, I add ascorbic acid to the drinking water (1 gram of the substance per 1 liter of water). This procedure raises the overall tone in the body of chickens and contributes to the enhancement of immunity and vitality.
From the seventh to the twelfth day, I begin to add to the drinking water the vitamin preparation “Chiktonik” or “Vitatonik” (at the rate of 1 ml of money per 1 liter of water). These drugs stimulate metabolic processes and are a source of amino acids, so necessary for the body of chickens.
I do not save on feed for young animals, because I believe that the better the chickens will eat in the first weeks of life, the better they will show later.
Earlier, I made up the diet of chickens on my own and prepared fodder from various cereal grains, bran, meal, fish and meat-and-bone meal, chalk, herbal flour and nettle. I did everything clearly, “in a book-like manner” measuring all the components in the right quantity and mixing everything carefully.
This was a rather troublesome task, especially since it was not always effective enough. Therefore, for some time now I have been purchasing and using exclusively ready-made feeds and feeding the babies, strictly following the manufacturer’s instructions.
The power model of my pets now looks like this:
From the first to the fifth day of birth
Choosing the best breeds of the egg direction
If you want to get a lot of eggs and make extremely profitable production, then you need to choose the right chicken breed. It is not always necessary to choose only from foreign options, as domestic poultry farmers grow decent breeds of chickens, which are in no way inferior to the best "Europeans" by egg production. Consider the most appropriate options for our climate zone:
- Layers Loman Brown. One of the most popular breeds on the territory of Russia and neighboring countries.For dozens of years they have not given the first position of the rating, and with their egg production they surprise every poultry farmer — about 315 eggs a year. The sexual maturity of the individual begins in 4-5 months, after which the chicken is productive for 2-3 years, and with each month the number of eggs laid will increase. They are resistant to diseases and have a very high vitality - almost all chickens survive (98% of the safety of the young). The testicle has a large size - up to 80 grams, moreover, one chicken consumes no more than 130 grams per day.
- Dutch Haysex layers - small individuals weighing only up to 1.5-2kg, come to puberty after 120-130 days, after which they rapidly increase egg production for 1 year. Egg production of white hens - 290 eggs per year, gray and brown - 320 eggs. Such a difference is due to the fact that the former have large expenditures of energy for heating the body during a cold season, therefore they rush a little worse. The egg is relatively large - up to 65-80 grams, has a hard shell, which significantly increases its transportability.
- Pushkin motley. One of the most "bright" chickens, which not only rushes wonderfully, but also pleases the host's eye. Many of them contain only for decoration and diversity of the economic court (especially since such decoration still brings a good profit). Egg production of this species is 315 eggs per year, the weight of one egg is 75 grams. Chickens have a Nordic, restrained nature - strong, firmly on their feet, it is important to walk around the yard and not fuss at the slightest noise. Survival of young stock - 99%, adults - 95%. It is not recommended to combine this breed together with another on the same range - the bird is proud, it does not like companies and may conflict.
- Kuchinsky Anniversary. Universal chicken - and you can keep an omelette and chop it up in the soup if necessary. One of the best meatless chickenswhich carries up to 240 eggs a year and quickly gains live weight. The chicken is already beginning to delight the host with eggs at the age of 5-6 months (or immediately goes into the meat breed), begins to carry small ones - weighing 60 grams. With proper nutrition and care, the survival of the young is 99%, the variety is well acclimatized, it feels great in any conditions.
Immediately you need to decide for what purposes you will keep the chicken coop, as the difference between the egg-bearing and meat breeds is very large (up to 100 eggs per year). If you basically get only the secondary product - then it is better to give preference to foreign breeds. If you prefer to eat or sell chicken meat, then it will be better to give preference to meat-breeding breeds that have an optimal balance between weight and egg production.
Care for chickens under 1 month
Caring for chickens is quite complicated, but buying a mature individual, rushing, is very expensive and will cost you about 400-500 rubles for 1 piece. That is why it is much more profitable and easier to take chickens from the incubator and feed them 3-4 months before adulthood. Moreover, if the chickens grow continuously in the same environment and get used to the chicken coop, they will start to fly much faster than if they were placed in a new habitat.
You need to choose the most active and clean individuals - then your chances to buy healthy chickens will greatly increase. Each chick must be noisy, active, respond to any sound and move towards it. If you knock on the box, Smokers should quickly run up to you and show extreme interest. Butts must be dry, and the fluff on the tummy is light and fluffy.
The first thing you need to bring the bird home. To do this you will need a cardboard box with holes on the sides and on the lid to ensure good ventilation. Smokers love high fever, but at the same time oxygen should be maximized, otherwise they may suffocate.During transportation, it will be necessary to make a stop every 15-20 minutes, open the box in the fresh air and give the chicks a little breath (5-10 minutes).
From the first days of growing chickens, it is necessary to provide maximum comfort and favorable conditions for growth and development, namely:
- For the first 15 days, set the temperature to +28 0С, while monitoring the behavior of the hens in the box, room or other room where you plant them. If a bird stumbles into large groups and gathers all in one place - it is cold, it is necessary to slightly raise the temperature. If the kids are sitting separately, have a sluggish appearance and are inactive - they are hot, lower the temperature. They must be active, run and squeak.
- The first few days to feed the best egg yolk, then go to the millet, and when the chicks grow up a little - coarse or waste from the grain. It is best to add to the diet of corn grits, which is useful and contains all the vitamins necessary for the normal development of the chicken.
- A hedge, a large box, a room or a box (depending on where you will hold them) must be without a draft and with a warm bottom. Kids can catch a cold if they sit on a cold or be in a draft - watch out for the absence of cold and do not allow hypothermia on young individuals.
It is necessary to control that the room was dry, smokers are always full (the easiest way is to put the feeder) and have constant access to water - they often want to drink the first time and they cannot be denied such pleasure.
We select the right diet for adults
After the chickens live with you for 3-4 months, they will begin to ripen and trot. Gradually, all chickens will become hens, and for them a special diet is required. Unlike broilers that are grown for meat, laying hens require a balanced feed that will contain not only the nutrients, but also the macronutrients necessary for the proper development of the chicken. Eggshell is almost entirely of calcium, which is taken from the body of the chicken - it must be constantly replenished and give a lot of vitamins to the bird.
If the shell becomes soft - this is the first of the reasons for the lack of vitamins, more precisely - calcium. It is necessary to drink the chicken Rotstar or Foros. The traditional diet of each layer is quite diverse, it should contain: fish meal, phosphates, cake from sunflower, rapeseed and soy, a grain mixture of barley, wheat and zhyt. Best of all, if you still will add 200-300 grams per month of feed chalk - this is one of the most useful minerals for the formation of eggshell.
You can also buy nutrient mixtures that have already been developed specifically for layers - they contain the optimal amount of the most necessary feed. Such food is just perfect for them, but it is quite expensive - 450-500 rubles for a bag of 50 kg. When buying a large batch (from 1 ton) you can save up to 50% of the money. If you make simple arithmetic calculations, you can determine that on average per year for the content of 1 chicken will take 3 rubles a day. Whether it is worth using full-fledged combined feeds or trying to feed them with cheaper mixtures that can be completed independently - each poultry breeder decides for himself. But, in any case, simply feeding the grain will not work - adding bone meal, fish, chalk, minerals is necessary, otherwise the chicken will be much smaller, and the egg size will be smaller than expected.
Features of the design of the chicken coop and nests
Nests can be made absolutely any relative to the form and place them in a convenient place for you, the main thing is to always follow the following rules of placement:
- Never place nests in a draft - chickens will not trot until you eliminate discomfort. The chicken should feel the warmth and comfort, then it will please you with a good "harvest".
- Install each nest separately, it would be better if it is fenced from the room from all sides. In this case, the bird will fly more and more.
- Place the chicken coop away from noise; ensure a temperature of + 23-25 ° C acceptable for egg laying. The coop must be compact in size.
- The perch should be no more than 40x40 centimeters, and better - 30x30 cm, with a side height of at least 6 cm, so that the testicles do not roll out when the chicken climbs and crawls out.
It is important to understand that the bird instinctively rushes to get a new offspring, so it will be productive only when it feels maximum safety, comfort and safety of future chickens.
The floor in the chicken coop is best made of clay, as concrete and other similar materials will be very cold in winter. You can make a wooden floor, pour up to 5-6 centimeters of wood shavings on top of it, so that the chickens have a place to dig and have an “active” rest. To create a "friendly" team in the chicken coop, you need to organize the nests correctly - all of them must be at the same height, otherwise your chickens will begin to divide themselves into different "classes." The higher the chicken, the more significant it feels. They will fight for a place higher, throw their predecessor eggs from the nest.
In the coop must be:
- Several small windows through which the light will flow in the daytime. The bird is much more comfortable if there is a light area in the room near it, and its nest will be in the shade.
- Feeding trough to be able to eat in the henhouse during bad weather.
- Heater. Particularly relevant in the cold season - it will significantly increase egg production if it provides a temperature of at least +15 ° C indoors.
- A door for layers, through which they will go out. It should be small (25 cm in height will be enough) to keep the heat in the room as much as possible. It is possible to hang a tarp or other material on it, which the chicken can move aside and crawl through - this design protects the room from wind and cold.
- Drinking bowl Liters for 5, no more, so that you can constantly pour fresh water on chickens, especially on a summer day, when they can come to a watering place 10-12 times.
If you do everything right and take into account the interests of chickens, they will certainly delight you with their productivity.
Disease prevention and how they can affect bird production
On the way to an effective business, you can face big problems - the disease of chickens. Unfortunately, no one is immune from this, as viruses are everywhere and the only thing you can do is to increase the immunity of the layers and eliminate the breeding grounds of harmful bacteria. If, however, it happened that the bird fell ill, it should be cured as quickly as possible and prevented from spreading the virus. Main diseases of layers:
- Coccidiosis A very common disease, especially in chickens under the age of 20 days, but often even occurs in two-month-old individuals. The main symptoms: an absolute lack of appetite (do not even eat your favorite food), lethargy, the wings are lowered to the ground and fall from their feet. One of the main symptoms is diarrhea. For prophylaxis, furazolidol or norsulfazole is added to the feed. If the bird is sick and does not want to eat - dilute 5-10 grams of the drug per 100 grams of water and pour into her mouth. Yes, fill it up - open the beak with tweezers or scrap materials and pour the preparation with a pipette or pear. Nestling "heal" in a couple of days, if not even from the medicine, so from the fear of such a procedure.
- Pasteurellosis. A very common disease in adult chickens. Chickens are experiencing it well, and mortality is only 30-40%, adults die almost all.Signs: chickens do not walk, sit alone in different places, sluggish, do not eat, often foam appears from the beak. It is treated through the introduction of intramuscular antibiotics and drugs by a veterinarian. The folk method is to pour 20-30-30 grams of vodka into the bird's beak for disinfection, as in the case of coccidiosis. The treatability is 50%.
- Helminthiasis Helminths occur not only in animals and fish, but also in chickens. They are parasitic in the intestines and organs of poultry. Sick individuals do not eat well, egg production and activity are significantly reduced. For prevention, you can sing Drontal or Junior.
- Single decrease in productivity. It often happens that the chicken is active, healthy, shows no signs of concern, but is not carried at all or very rarely. Practically up to 5% have such problems and, as practice shows, very tasty soup, jelly, hot and cold, comes out of them, because you will not wait for eggs from them anyway.
However, if you always feed the chickens with vitaminized supplements (ready-made mixes are sold), add greens to them in the diet, and also monitor the dryness and good ventilation in the hen house, the chickens almost never get sick.
The main "commandments" of the poultry farmer
In order for the business to be profitable, you get a lot of eggs throughout the year, you need to remember the basic rules of a successful poultry farmer:
- You can not overfeed chicken. Plump "balls" will not please you with good egg production, on the contrary - they will often get sick, go sluggish and lazy. And to whom did obesity benefit?
- Provide a “quiet hour” for chickens from 8 am to 4 pm and do not disturb them in vain - they are busy with important business. If you make a lot of noise and disturb the intimate atmosphere - the chicken will not carry an egg on this day.
- Provide a favorable temperature of + 20-25 ° C in the hen house. If it is very hot - the bird feels bad, will constantly run to drink water and try to run away into the street. If it is very cold, it will wait until the temperature reaches an acceptable temperature for masonry.
In fact, the egg production of chickens for 80% depends on the conditions that you create for them, and not on a certain breed or other, less important factors. Dutch farmers very often include music in chicken houses, mainly Mozart and in practice proved that individuals give 11–14% more eggs than those who simply sit in a shed with sound insulation under the same conditions of stay. On the territory of the Russian Federation, such methods of raising egg production at the factory are not yet practiced, but the connection between the comfort of the bird and its productivity has long been proven.
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Breeding chickens and chickens in private farms can provide their owners with fresh eggs and meat all year round. Egg production and muscle mass of chickens directly depend on the conditions of their housing and the quality of feed.
It is important to choose the breed of chickens for breeding and the way they are kept.
Where to begin?
Novice poultry farmers first need to decide on the goals of breeding domestic chickens. The goals of breeding chickens can be:
- Getting meat
- Getting eggs
- Breeding and selling chickens,
- Decorative targets.
Not only the choice of breed, but also the method of placement of chickens, as well as the number of their livestock will depend on the goals.
Acquire for breeding better day chickens from trusted breeders. When buying adult poultry to inexperienced poultry farmers, markets often sell elderly individuals whose meat is tough and their egg production is low or absent.
Choice of breed
If the main purpose of raising chickens is to obtain eggs, then for breeding should choose the egg breeds of birds. These breeds include:
- Russian white,
- Kuchinsky anniversary
- Loman Brown,
Chickens of oviparous breeds rush from six to seven months old, yielding up to three hundred eggs a year, but gaining a relatively small weight - from two to four kilograms, and their meat is suitable only for broth.
Chickens breed Leggorn begin to rush already from 4 months. The egg production of the German breed Broma Brown reaches 330 eggs per year, but the maintenance of this breed requires a good warming of the chicken coop in winter. Chickens of the Minor breed do not have high egg production (up to 240 eggs per year), but carry the largest eggs weighing up to 80 grams.
Chicken meat breeds carry few eggs (about 100 pieces per year), but quickly gain a lot of weight. The average weight of meat chickens is from 3.5 to 7 kg. Among the most popular meat breeds can be identified:
Breed Bharama is popular in Russia because of its good cold tolerance and the ability to quickly adapt to different conditions of detention. The weight of adults reaches five kilograms by the fourth month of fattening.
To receive dietary meat, chickens are a breed of Orpington, as their meat is the most lean and easily digestible among meat breeds.
A compromise option would be the choice of meat-breeding breed for breeding, since chickens of such breeds gain good weight with relatively high egg production. Meat-breaking breeds include:
- May Day,
- Bress Gallic,
- Plymouth Rock,
The most popular meat-breeding breed is Bress-Gallic because of its good stamina and productivity. The weight of hens of the Bress-Gallic breed reaches 5 kilograms with egg production from 190 to 220 large eggs per year.
Choice of room
The next step after selecting the breed will be the choice of the method of keeping chickens. There are three main ways:
- Free range,
- In nests with aviary,
- In special cells.
Free range implies keeping chickens in an open henhouse with perches and a large layer of litter. Chickens can freely go outside and walk to the compound. This method is suitable for keeping a small number of chickens (up to 20 individuals) in rural areas.
It is undesirable to keep free-range meat breeds, as due to the high mobility the bird will lose weight and it will be necessary to significantly increase the cost of food.
For chickens of egg breeds, free walking is more suitable, since mobility has a beneficial effect on the egg production of birds and the abundance of natural food in the form of greenery, insects and small pebbles will provide the layers with intake of vitamins and calcium for the shell.
Nests for chickens are indoor or outdoor covered boxes installed in chicken coops. Usually a small (3 by 5 meters) enclosure made of metal mesh for summer poultry is attached to such chicken coops.
In the cages for chickens the highest density of poultry landing is up to 12 individuals per square meter. A sedentary lifestyle with the cellular housing of chickens allows meaty breeds of chickens to gain weight quickly, but it is contraindicated for egg breeds, since, due to the limited mobility of the hen, they are obese and have difficulty laying eggs.
It is important to remember that keeping poultry in cages requires regular disinfection of cellular cages and good ventilation of the room, since a large density of birds, together with high humidity, can lead to the spread of infection and mass death of the livestock of chickens.
Features of the content of hens
It is preferable to keep the hens of the egg breed on the open range or in the nests with a small aviary. There are three options for obtaining chicks for the reproduction of poultry:
- Buying young
- Incubation in an incubator
- Hatching with a hen.
Buying one-day stocking is a quick and convenient way to increase poultry stock, but there is a risk of acquiring sick and outbred chickens from unscrupulous breeders.To avoid this, it is necessary to require from the seller certificates of veterinary control and pay attention to the appearance of the chickens - they should not be wet or dirty.
Reproduction of chickens with the help of an incubator allows you to get young, without removing the layers from laying eggs. In the incubators, fertilized eggs are kept at about 38 degrees for twenty-one days, after which the chicks hatch from the eggs. It should be remembered that the use of an incubator requires a responsible approach and experience from the poultry farmer.
The most economical way to get chickens hatching is their hen. In order to incubate the chicks, the hen must be kept quiet by placing it at some distance from other hens.
It is important to remember that in order to fertilize the eggs, it is necessary to keep one individual per 8-12 hens in the rooster population.
Feeding and care
To ensure high egg laying hens it is necessary to follow a number of important rules for their maintenance:
- Comfortable rooms,
- Balanced complex nutrition,
- The correct mode of lighting and ventilation,
- Providing protection
- Disease prevention.
If the birds are kept year-round, the room should be insulated, since at temperatures below +8 degrees the chicken production rate drops sharply. To protect against the cold, it is recommended to place the nests in the chicken coop at a certain height from the floor and not to attach directly to the walls. Using the entrance vestibule and infrared heaters will also help to keep warm in the winter.
To feed the hens you can use:
- Homemade feed,
- Factory feed,
- Hard food.
Grain feed is suitable mainly for open content, chickens, in which layers can receive the missing vitamins and trace elements due to the natural natural food. Compound feed is a mixture of crushed grain with the addition of vitamins, minerals and fiber. In the nesting method of keeping the feed is the best solution.
It is important to maintain the presence of sufficient calcium-rich minerals in the forage for laying eggs, which is necessary for the formation of eggshell in the chicken's body; the lack of calcium in the diet can lead to chickens eggs.
Great for feeding chickens mash - It is a compound feed, filled with warm water or milk cream. To make it you need to mix the following ingredients:
- Crushed barley - 500 g,
- Sunflower cake - 200 g,
- Meat bone or fish meal - 80 g,
- Cut greens - 50 g,
- Boiled carrots chopped 120 g,
- Shell shells crushed - 50 g.
After mixing, pour water (200-300 ml) until a thick crumbly gruel is formed.
Remains of uneaten mash can not be stored for more than an hour, so it is important to calculate the amount of ingredients in advance, based on the number of birds. An adult requires 70-80 grams of finished feed twice a day.
An adult chicken drinks a day to half a liter of liquid, so drinkers with fresh drinking water should be installed in the hen house. Drinkers of vacuum or nipple type provide a metered flow of water and do not require maintenance during the day.
The presence of a full day (12-14 hours) supports the well-being and high egg production of the bird, therefore, when laying hens in the nests, it is necessary to have artificial lighting at the rate of 100 W per 4 square meters. meters of space. Installation of photosensitive machines and timers will help maintain the light mode in the winter.
When placing the enclosure is important to ensure the safety of chickens. Pieces of metal mesh should not have sharp edges, on which birds may be injured. The presence of a strip or pile foundation will help prevent rodents eating eggs from entering the aviary and hen house.
The correct location of the chicken coop and the aviary directly affects the egg production of chickens.The basic requirements for a place to house chickens are as follows:
- Quiet place,
- Good light.
The location of the chicken coop near the roads is unacceptable, since the presence of extraneous noise will reduce the productivity of chickens, and representatives of the leggorn egg-bearing breed tend to fall into noise hysteria.
The location of the chicken coop on a hill will help to avoid moisture due to the accumulation of rain or melt water in the aviary or wetting of the chicken coop bedding.
It is important to remember that the exit door of the chicken coop and the aviary should be located on the south side, and the construction of the chicken coop in the shade of large buildings should also be avoided.
Features of the content of broilers
Broilers are chickens raised by a method of rapid intensive fattening within a period not exceeding forty-five days until they reach a weight of 2 kilograms.
Usually for broiler breeding take chickens obtained from crossing the meat breed Cornish and meat breed Plymouth. Broiler chickens, resulting from such a cross, gain weight faster than each meat breed separately, but these abilities are not inherited.
Cross-breeding chickens of different breeds is beyond the power of novice poultry farmers, so it is better to buy day-old broiler chickens from special breeders.
Advantages and disadvantages of home keeping chickens
The main advantages of domestic breeding of hens and broilers include:
- Getting natural meat and eggs
- Personal control over the process of growing chickens,
- The ability to receive additional products.
The meat of chickens grown in a private farmstead significantly differs in taste from the purchased one at the expense of better housing conditions than in large poultry farms. At home, birds do not overfeed with antibiotics and growth hormones, with the result that the meat of such birds is more suitable for dietary nutrition.
The owners of farms may receive additional income by selling chicken feathers for pillow stuffing and chicken manure as valuable organic fertilizer.
It should be understood that the maintenance of chickens at home requires constant monitoring by the poultry farmer, even when using modern automatic equipment, the installation of which is not cheap. Therefore, it makes sense to raise chickens at home if done with the expectation of a year-round content in the long term.
Thus, the home method of breeding chickens is suitable for those who permanently live in their home with a land plot and is not economically feasible for summer residents who spend only summer in their home.
Chicken meat, chicken eggs are healthy foods that everyone has on the table. Therefore, the breeding of chickens is not only profitable, but also payable. However, before deciding to start breeding chickens, it is still worth exploring in detail all the nuances of chick breeding, housing and rearing.
In this article, we will talk about growing chickens at home for beginners, learn how to raise chickens, why chickens defame, what to give broilers from diarrhea and other pressing issues.
How to choose chickens when buying?
Growing chickens from an incubator at home is a profitable business, because in addition to meat and eggs, you can successfully use the feathers of birds, manure as organic fertilizer. But in order for this to be beneficial, it is necessary to choose the right chickens.
The right time to buy chicks is April-May.. It is advisable to acquire daily chicks. It is better to acquire chicks in poultry farms, because in these places there are guarantees that individuals are healthy and strong. However, in order to choose chicks, it is necessary to know the nuances of selection, depending on the age of individuals.
In order not to be mistaken and acquire healthy day-old chicks at the time of purchase, you must pay attention to a number of criteria for the appearance of young individuals:
- Chick must be driedhealthy and active
- Pooh should not be stuck together. In appearance he must be fluffy, without dirt and debris,
- At daily young stock at the time of sale umbilical cord should overgrow,
- Be sure to carefully examine the umbilical cord. If it has a discharge, then this young should not be bought. Discharge is the first sign of an infectious disease,
- Cloaca must be clean, pink color with a wet structure. It should not be dirt, traces of litter,
- Chicks should be reaction to sounds,
- The back should be straight,
- The head must be flat,
- Smooth and regular beak with pigmented structure.
Just hatched broilers
Sometimes poultry farmers buy week-old chicks to save money and time. However, this is not always the right and right decision. Juveniles at this age are prone to disease. In addition, their bodies are weak and weak.
But if you decided to purchase weekly chickens, the following selection criteria should be considered:
- Individuals must be active and healthy
- Plumage should be fluffy, no dirt, no traces of droppings,
- The belly should be soft to the touch,
- The head is even, proportional,
- Beak straight with pigmented structure,
- Good response to sounds
- Must already be worked out pecking reflex
- The wings should be tightly pressed to the body,
- Cloaca should be clean, pink without dirt and secretions.
Chicks of one month of age are rarely purchased for divorce. But still some farmers believe that during this period, individuals survive better and have developed immunity against infectious diseases. Perhaps this is true, but do not trust this criterion. Sometimes monthly individuals get sick much more often.
In any case, the criteria for selecting monthly chicks are the same:
- Activity and mobility
- Good response to sounds
- Plumage - fluffy, without dirt, droppings, with a smooth structure,
- The belly should have a soft texture,
- The head must be flat and proportionate,
- The bill should have a smooth outline with a pigmented structure,
- Chicks should already be well developed. pecking reflex,
- It is worth paying attention to the wings, they should be tightly pressed to the body,
- The cloaca should be clean, pink, free from stains from litter and discharge.
Newly hatched chicks in the pen
Features hatch with a hen for beginners
How to grow a chicken from an egg at home without an incubator? Some experienced farmers prefer brooding under the hen because it is a natural process.
It is worth noting that the definition of a chicken that is ready for brooding will not cause difficulties. It is advisable to pay attention to the behavior of chickens. If suddenly the hen does not get out of the nest for a long time or stays there overnight, then it probably means that the incubation instinct has awakened in it.
But do not immediately lay under her eggs, it is advisable to observe the behavior of an individual for some time. You must let the chicken sit around it. The ready-made hen to incubate, when pulling it out of the nest, makes a bubbling sound and rushes back with all forces to incubate into the nest. In this case, the cultivation of day-old chicks at home will be quite economical.
Depending on the mass of the individual under it lay from 11 to 21 eggs. Place for incubation must be separated from the rest of the chickens. For the incubation site, you can use a separate cage or install a nest in a dark corner of the hen house.
Be sure to feed the henso that she does not die of hunger and exhaustion, which often happens. It is necessary to force the chicken to be removed from the nest and feed, water 2 times a day.
Chickens with a hen hatch in 20-21 days. Sometimes there are times when a hen, without waiting for a complete hatch, can throw the remaining eggs and go for a walk with the individuals that have already hatched.Therefore, to prevent these unpleasant problems, those individuals that have already been bred, are deposited in a box or in a warm place, a lamp is installed above them. At 22-23 days the family is combined.
- Natural process
- High survival rate
- The chicks from the time of breeding and in the subsequent period are together with the hen,
- Economical. This method will require fairly low financial costs.
- Long process,
- Low number of hatchlings per season
- There is a possibility during the incubation of the chickens hen eggs,
- Withdrawal of chickens in this way can be obtained only once per season and only in warm weather.
Feeding broiler chickens hatched in an incubator
Features of growing chickens in the incubator at home and their feeding
Breeding chickens using an incubator is in great demand, and for this the advantages of growing chickens after an incubator speak, among which it is worth highlighting the main ones:
- Favorable application. In one season, the incubator is used up to 10 times,
- Simple use. It is easy to handle with this device, it does not need to be fed, watered, and there is no need for concern that the hen cuts eggs,
- At a time, you can lay 50 eggs and above,
- All year round chicks. These devices provide all the features that provide output in the winter and summer.
Depending on the functions of the incubators are mechanical, manual and automatic.
In a manual incubator, each egg is turned over manually.. The use of a mechanical incubator is almost the same as that of a hand-held instrument. However, in this kind of incubator, turning not one egg, but all of them at once. In addition, compliance with the control of humidity and temperature in both types of devices lies entirely on the owner.
But devices with automatic turning of eggs greatly simplifies the life of the farmer, because they have a digital thermostat installed. During the laying of eggs, it is necessary to establish a certain temperature, and it remains stable during the subsequent incubation period.
If the temperature rises sharply or drops, the mechanism makes a sharp sound.. In addition, every hour the eggs are turned over, which prevents the embryo from sticking to the shell, and increases the survival rate of the chickens. However, these devices are expensive. But the only way you can grow healthy chickens.
Proper maintenance of newly hatched broiler chickens
Conditions of detention
- An important condition of the room is cleanliness. Be sure to clean every day at the place where chicks are housed, scavenge garbage, half-eaten food. Otherwise, infections may quickly appear in an uncleaned area.
- If there is a litter in the house, then it is regularly changed. It should always be clean and dry.
- It is not desirable that a large number of bird stock be present at the place of detention. It is important to provide young animals with free space so that they can freely walk, run, fully exercise all motor functions,
- Number of livestock directly depends on the area of the place for keeping chicks.
It is not necessary to keep chicks constantly indoors. It is regularly necessary to bring the livestock to the street for walking, but preferably at 2 months of life. Fresh air, getting additional green fodder are the main conditions for the full-fledged work of all poultry digestive organs.
The second important condition for keeping chicks is light. Duration of daylight depends on the age of the young.
Since the first days of the chicken's life, it is necessary to maintain the duration of daylight at least 18 hours. This value is then reduced to 10 hours before the chicks reach 4 months of age.
These figures do not depend on the type of breed of chickens.In addition, it is completely unimportant what the bird is grown for - for eggs or meat, this indicator should remain unchanged. The length of daylight in the winter time can be maintained by the presence in the room where the individuals are kept, additional lighting.
Temperature for breeding healthy individuals
Temperature parameters depend on the age of the bird:
- For diurnal individuals up to 5 days of age, a suitable temperature regime in the room is considered to be +32 degrees Celsius,
- With the onset of 6 days of life and up to 9 days, the temperature gradually drops to +28 degrees Celsius,
- From day 10 to day 20, the temperature regime decreases by another 3 degrees +25 degrees Celsius,
- In the subsequent period, the temperature should be maintained from +20 degrees to 24 degrees Celsius.
Maintaining the optimum temperature level can be achieved by lighting lamps. In winter, you can additionally install heaters.
What to give in the first days of life
Feeding the chicks should be started immediately after hatching.. But still, it is worth waiting for some time to dry, to get a little stronger.
In the feeder with a flat base or just at the bottom of the box should be poured a small amount of corn grits. This croup has a small structure, so this feed will be most suitable for newborn chicks.
It is not necessary to give chopped yolk to newborn chickens. This product has a high fat content. Also, many veterinary experts say, this food does not exert adequate load on the muscular structure of the stomach of a newborn chicken. As a result, the formation and structure of the stomach walls is disturbed. If after this food to give a rough feed, it can cause digestive disorders.
Feeding day-old chicks
Nutrition of diurnal individuals, unlike newly hatched chicks, is already more diverse. In addition to corn grits, individuals can be given other types of feed:
- Barley grits,
- Oatmeal in the form of a hammer,
- Wheat groats.
The feeding process of day-old chicks should be carried out every two hours.. Feed should be given in small portions. It is advisable not to mix cereals, otherwise some individuals will start to choose the most favorite food and will eat only it. Therefore, it is best to give the feed mixture separately and in dry form.
For full growth and development, in addition to croup, chicks should be given other components. Cottage cheese is very useful for young individuals. Thanks to this product, the chick's body is saturated with nitrogenous substances and calcium. Cottage cheese can begin to give from 2-3 days after the appearance of chicks in the morning, pre-mixed with cereals.
Feeding Chickens Organization
It is worth remembering that dairy products provide high value for babies. Instead of water in the drinker you can pour whey, liquid kefir. On the third day, individuals can be fed greens. For feed, you can use plantain, clover, dandelion, nettle, snapper. On the 5th day should enter the green onions. Chives have a beneficial effect - it provides high protection for the body against various intestinal diseases.
Individuals of a week old can already begin to give a mixture of corn, barley, oat and wheat cereals. Cereals are mixed in equal proportions - 1: 1.
Additionally, you can add chopped greens and dairy products to the mix. During this period, individuals can already be fed less frequently, but the portions should be large. Up to 4-5 feeds should be received per day.
From a month and more, chicks are released outside for walking. For this reason, the diet during this period is green. During the use of herbs and other greens, individuals receive vitamins necessary for their growing body.
Besides coarse grain is introduced into the ration. From one and a half months, adults should be fed whole grains. You can give meat and bone meal and food waste.
How to determine the sex of a chicken: chicken or rooster?
How to determine the chicken from the cock in the egg? Not many poultry farmers will be satisfied when, after hatching, the percentage of males will be almost 80-90%. Therefore, in these cases, the method of determining the sex of a rooster or hen by egg is used. It would seem that this task is difficult and almost impossible, but this is far from the case.
To determine the sex of the egg recommendations will help:
- First you need take the egg in your right hand, while the sharp end of the egg should be pointing up,
- Further hold the finger of his left hand on its top,
- If there is a ring and tubercles at the upper end, then these criteria indicate that a cock appears. If the top of the egg has a smooth structure - chicken.
Hatching chickens with chickens
In 2 months
How to distinguish a rooster from a chicken in 2 months? At this age, gender can be determined using several methods:
- By plumage. Individuals with abundant plumage are females, and those with poor feathering are males,
- By this age, the cockerel has a scallop, the beard is red, and the face is rounded,
- In males, legs are longer, you can already see spurs on them,
- The males on the tail appear regrown braids.
At 3 and 4 months
How to distinguish a rooster from a chicken at 3 or 4 months At the age of 3 months, the sexing of individuals occurs much easier, with the roosters you can see the following external characteristics:
- Scallop gets a bright color,
- Comb, beard and earrings become large,
- Paws are high
- On the legs are already clearly visible spurs
- On the tail there are long braids.
How to distinguish a rooster from a chicken by this method? This method is based on determining the age from the karyotype of a fast-acting cell of the pulp pen. Usually in males that do not yet have a month, the Z-chromosome acts as the longest metacentric.
In females, the number of these chromosomes is 10 times smaller, the W chromosomes - submetacentrics - dominate in their bodies. If, during analysis, it was found that the Z chromosome is present in the body in a single copy, then this is a chicken, if there are many of these chromosomes, then it means a cockerel.
Determining the sex of chickens by different methods
This method of how to distinguish chickens chickens from cockerels allows you to determine the sex of chicks most likely. It is based on blot hybridization of blood DNA with primer.
The young individual can be determined with high accuracy by using a sample analysis or whole blood of washed red blood cells. The disadvantages of this method include the high cost and complexity.
Determining gender using this method:
- The first way is to inspection of the color of the wings. At the age of 2-3 days, the wings of the chicks are examined — in the males they are slightly lighter than in the females,
- The second way is in counting feathers. It is necessary to delay the wing of the chick and straighten it. Chickens feather first, for this reason, 6-7 primary feathers are large in size, unlike others. But the male feathers are all the same.
How to distinguish the sex of chickens in color?
Determination of sex by plumage color is mainly applied to pedigreeds:
- Crosses. Approximately at the age of 1 day, sexual characteristics are determined: beige color is characteristic for females, and white for cockerels,
- Autosox breeds. Chickens have a monochromatic color - gray, white, black, and males have stripes,
- Brahma. Females have clear stripes on the back and points on the head. Males also have stripes and dots, but they are slightly blurred,
- Rhode Island and New Hampshire. On the second day after hatching, females can see dark spots and stripes on the head, the males do not have these characteristics,
- Adler silver. The females are yellow and the males are lemon-colored with a black stripe on their heads.
This method of determining the sex of chickens is used in many poultry farms. The accuracy of this method is almost 95%. However, to implement this method, you need to have special skills.
Before you begin to determine the sex with the help of this method is to understand the structure of the genitals of chicks and find out their differences.
Males can be separated from females by detecting a tubercle in the anuswhich is absent in future chickens:
- First of all, the cesspool of the chick is cleared of traces of droppings,
- Next, the individual should be taken in the palm, turn, spread the legs so that the cesspool can be clearly seen
- The hole must be moved apart, at the same time it is necessary to press the abdomen. As a result of these manipulations, the internal cloacal device will be clearly visible.
External differences of cloaca females and males:
- In females, the cesspool looks like a neat knot with no bulges,
- In males, a sexual knob is found quite often.
To avoid unpleasant consequences, this method should be carried out only by an experienced poultry farmer or farmer.
Organizing a place for newly hatched chicks
How to distinguish chickens by sex by this method? This method of sex determination is performed using two methods:
- The chick should be taken by the scruff of the neck and some time to look behind the legs. Usually chickens try to twist their pawsand pull the claws. The paws at the same time it raises a little. And on the contrary, cockerels do not curl the legs, and do not move them, they hang in an even position,
- It is possible on the contrary to take the chick by the paws and look at the position of the head. Chickens usually raise their head up, and on the contrary, males hang without moving.
How to determine the age?
Usually the age of chickens is determined by the plumage. It is desirable to remember the features of plumage depending on age:
- At the age of between 8 and 12 days the plumage appears in the shoulder area,
- In the period from 12 to 16 days, feathers appear on the goiter and breast,
- In chicks of three weeks of age, the first molt is observed, with all the fluff falling out of the tail,
- At the end of the fifth week fly feathers grow and feathers appear on the back of the body,
- At six weeks of age, the head and lower body are covered with a feather,
- Full plumage is observed at the age of 3 months.
Chickens, as well as chicks of other species of birds, are prone to various diseases. The most common diseases are:
- Digestive disorders,
- Typhus and many others.
In order to properly cure diseases, it is worth knowing what symptoms are characterized by diseases in chickens.
Broiler White Diarrhea: Can It Cure?
Chickens often have white diarrhea. It is also called pullorosis. This disease usually proceeds in an acute form and quickly affects the weak intestines of chickens. The causative agent of this disease is a bacillus called salmonella. The disease usually spreads at a high rate., in a few days, almost all bird stock can get sick.
White diarrhea in broilers
How to cure diarrhea in chickens? For prevention, you need to clean the room from debris, all sanitized. Also be sure to check the temperature in the room and ventilation.
Sick individuals must be destroyed. The meat of sick birds should not be used for human consumption.
Yellow diarrhea in broilers: why it occurs and how to treat?
This diarrhea can occur during infectious diseases, as well as non-compliance with the conditions of detention. Sometimes yellow litter is observed in Gumboro disease. In these cases, the survey, testing.
Besides yellow diarrhea can result from stress, hypothermia, due to poor-quality feed.In these cases, use of folk remedies for treatment and disinfect the premises.
Yellow diarrhea in chickens
Bloody diarrhea in chickens: a symptom of what diseases?
Bloody diarrhea usually occurs with coccidiosis. This disease is dangerous and often leads to the death of all bird livestock. This disease arises due to poor hygiene, namely the untimely cleaning of the room. This disease affects the intestines. In addition to diarrhea, the following conditions are observed:
- Loss of appetite,
- Lethargy, inactivity,
- Ruffled plumage,
- In the litter there are impurities of blood and mucus.
How to treat if the chickens have diarrhea with blood? For treatment and prophylaxis, it is necessary to clean and disinfect the premises in a timely manner, to vaccinate and give appropriate chemicals.
Light brown diarrhea in broiler chickens and its treatment
Brown diarrhea in broilers observed with amerioze. This disease is caused by various parasitic protozoa that accumulate in the intestines of chickens or hens. Infection usually occurs through feed, dirty litter, gadfly.
- The individuals sit in one place with their eyes closed,
- Ruffled plumage,
- The wings are hung to the floor,
- Lack of appetite,
- Brown diarrhea with mucus.
The disease is determined by the research process. Treatment is best done at the initial stage. For the treatment of drugs used - coccidiostatics.
Light brown diarrhea in chickens
Chickens diarrhea green
Green diarrhea can occur with the disease of pasteurellosis. In this case, surveys, analyzes are conducted. If the diagnosis is confirmed, then appropriate treatment is prescribed.
In the absence of pasteurellosis, green diarrhea can cause poor quality expired feed. In this case, the treatment is performed using adsorbing agents (activated carbon). Suspicious feed must be disposed of and given only high quality.
Green diarrhea in chickens
Often in chickens there is such an unpleasant disease as helminthiasis. This condition is particularly dangerous, and in almost 50% of cases, late treatment leads to death. Signs of worms in chickens - severe exhaustion.
The main danger of this disease is that it affects all individuals in the same room. Worms are excreted along with the droppings of affected individuals and together with food they enter the body of healthy individuals.
What to do if the worms appeared worms? In order to save all the livestock of birds, it is necessary to sow infected chicks in time, clean the room, clean all bedding and disinfect everything. Infected individuals should be watered with antihelminthic drugs and fed with nutritious food. Medicines against worms for chickens should be given as soon as possible.
The following recommendations apply to pre-tactical measures for various chick diseases:
- Timely cleaning and disinfection of the room salt solutions, caustic sodium, bleach,
- Observance of the density of livestock in the house. It is desirable that the number of chicks in one room was moderate,
- Quality feed with high nutrient content,
- Be sure to equip the room ventilation
- Compliance with the temperature of the room,
- Otpaivanie birds preparations against infectious diseases,
- Timely vaccination.
Breeding chickens is a rather laborious process that requires a lot of responsibility. In order for the livestock to be healthy, it is necessary to follow all rules of keeping. The main condition for the full growth and development of chicks is care and care!
Now you know how to grow chickens at home, how to treat chickens, what to do if chickens have worms and how to treat diarrhea in chickens and adults. Follow all recommendations and watch for chicks.
And the video on the topic of how to feed the chickens:
Chicken and eggs are the most demanded products in the daily diet. Therefore, the cultivation of chickens for their own consumption and for sale occupies a leading position in the farm. Against the background of a wide variety of breeds, the choice depends on the target destination. Only for beginning poultry farmers, complexity is manifested not only in technical aspects. If it is easier for professional breeders to start, as there are enough laying hens, then novices have no such possibility. So the only way out is to purchase eggs for incubation or young.
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1 How to choose chicks?
In order to start a business from scratch in the hope of success and a long-term perspective, the farmer should take a responsible approach to the choice of breed. Depending on the desired result, chickens are divided into meat, universal and egg. The first category is grown in order to get a tasty dietary meat. Egg production at the same time suffers. Beginners, it is desirable to stay on the egg-meat variety. In the future, you can expand and diversify livestock.
It is recommended to acquire chickens only from reliable suppliers or at large poultry farms.
Among the egg breeds, the most popular are: Brown, White Russians, Kuchinskaya Jubilee, Orlov, Rhodonite, Leggorn. They start laying eggs from 6–7 months and give about 300 pieces per year. The weight gain is small, on average 2-4 kg. Meat harsh, suitable only for broths.
Meat representatives include Brahma, Kochinquin, Orpington, Cornish, Dorking. Rush a little, but the output of meat is solid, 4-7 kg. Brahma is distinguished for its resistance to cold climatic conditions, which is important for medium-sized regions. The best option is meat and egg breeds, such as Kuchinskaya, May Day, Plymouth, Sussex, Bress-Gal.
Buying chickens, first of all pay attention to external indicators. Healthy youngsters:
- agile, lively
- reacts to external stimuli,
- firmly on his feet
- has a neat appearance, soft down,
- knows how to drink and peck,
- the belly is tucked up, the umbilical cord is clean,
- eyes are shiny, black,
- wings fit snugly on the calf.
For transporting the brood to the place of detention, a cardboard box is taken, a soft litter is lined to the bottom. The optimum temperature inside is not lower than 26 ° C.
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Gender chicks determined depending on their size. Typically, high-precision scales are used for this method. If an individual has a large enough mass for its age, then it is a cockerel. If the mass is small, then it is a female. Usually the weight difference is about 5 grams.
On the subject of growing chickens, read the following articles:
2 Care at first
The first days of maintenance impose a special responsibility on the poultry farmer. In order to keep the entire composition intact, it is necessary to adhere to certain conditions:
- temperature conditions
- quality feeding,
- enough water to drink
- comfortable conditions.
At first, chicks are kept in cardboard or wooden boxes, where it is dry and warm.. If earlier they were used for their intended purpose, then they are disinfected before a new settlement. Something non-slip is lined to the bottom so as not to injure the chicks. Maintain environmental humidity in the range of 60–70%. Since babies lack thermoregulation, after an incubator they create approximate temperature conditions. Gradually lowering it for a painless adaptation.
Necessary to create a clock lighting and heating. This will help artificial incandescent bulbs. They are set at a height of 40–50 cm so that the chicks are free to stand under them or move aside if it is hot. To control the microclimate fix thermometer.How the birds feel can be assessed visually. If they huddle together, it means they are cold. When calmly move, they eat with appetite, everything is normal. Feeders and drinkers regularly clean and change the contents so as not to carry the infection into the fragile body of the chickens.
At the initial stage, the temperature in the brooder must be at least 36 ° C. Every 3 days lower by one degree. At the age of 7 days, chickens calmly tolerate temperatures of 30–31 ° C. Weekly brood can be transferred to a common chicken coop, in a specially equipped place. The temperature continues to drop, and by two months they stop at 18–20 ° C. Heated up to one and a half months, if necessary. To accustom chickens to the dark, carry out a daily blackout for 15–20 minutes. So go on an 18-hour day light.
Clean chickens will be the key to the health and full development of birds. Overcrowding, per 1 sq. M. m place no more than 12 goals. After 7–8 days after birth, the young can already be released for a walk. Sun baths have a beneficial effect on growth, prevent rickets.
The first runs last no more than 30 minutes. Subsequently, the young will be able to spend on the air most of the day. For convenience and safety, construct a fenced pen with a canopy.
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3 Incubating Eggs
If you wish to self-withdraw chicks from purchased eggs, an incubator is needed - a special unit in which acceptable conditions are created for the formation of chicks. For the development of egg contents without deviations, not only a certain temperature and humidity is important, but also a regular change in the location of the egg. The hen rolls eggs up to 10 times a day. In small incubators, there is no such function, so you have to resort to the manual method. For home use, it is enough to purchase a device for 40-50 eggs.
Conditions for proper breeding of chickens in the incubator:
- In order not to confuse the sides in torsion of eggs, put marks.
- An egg that is not older than three days is suitable for incubation, otherwise the success of the enterprise is uncertain.
- On the first day, the eggs are placed in a warm incubator and do not turn over day.
- Periodically shift the eggs from the edges into the middle. This is due to the lower temperature on the sides.
- On the 19th day, the temperature is lowered from 39 ° C to 37 ° C, ceasing to turn.
Chicks hatch on the 20–22th day after laying. Even if there are layers, the incubator in the farm will not be superfluous. Then do not have to distract chickens from carrying eggs.
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A complete and balanced diet plays a key role in the subsequent growth and development of birds. Independently pecking chicks in the state already on the eighth day of life. Menu for the first days:
- For 4 days give finely chopped boiled egg.
- Boiled millet is gradually introduced, which is ideal for grasping with small beaks. First, it is mixed with an egg, then - in its pure form.
- In the mash is added wheat and corn. Do not recommend oats and barley, which is difficult to digest at the age of 1 month. It can be a source of gastrointestinal disease.
- High-quality feed formulations are valid from the third day after birth.
- Green vitamin dressing - alfalfa, nettle, clover, carrots.
- Sour milk products - cottage cheese, whey, dry milk.
- Meat and bone meal, alternative to which are meat waste and earthworms.
- Wood ash is mixed in an amount of 0.5 g per unit.
For better digestion, a container with pebbles and crushed shells is placed in the chicken. The initial 10 days are fed at intervals of 2 hours, then increased to 4, then up to 6 hours. In order not to create a crush, they are taught to take food by placer in the right place. If the chickens are in good health, after eating they tend to sleep.
When the chicks feed, it is necessary to observe.Weakened individuals are deposited separately, so that others will not oppress them. So they quickly come back to normal and you can return them. To drink boiled water is poured. Drinking bowls are equipped with an edge restriction so that the down does not get wet. A cropped plastic bottle that is installed upside down will do. As the water level drops, it refills.
5 Growing Broiler Chickens
Caring for broiler-looking chickens is different. Here the emphasis is on intensive feeding. Already in 2 months, chickens gain 1.5-2 kg of live weight. From birth, chickens are kept in heaps, per 1 sq. M. m space accommodate about 15 heads. Up to slaughter the size of the room remains unchanged. Feeders are distributed with regard to 3 cm of free access to one chick.
The temperature regime is left the same for the entire growing period, since broilers are particularly demanding to heat. It is equally important to regulate the illumination correctly: 5 days of the lamp are on day and night, gradually starting to reduce the daylight hours to 18 hours. Food in the feeders is constantly needed so that the young can eat at any time. Balanced feeds are suitable, with sufficient inclusion of vitamins and mineral supplements.
This method is called intense. With extensive broiler breeding at home, feeding alternates with walking in the summer. Use standard feed.
6 Under the hen
Growing a bird's offspring under a hen is a proven and effective way. Chicken mother cares better for babies, always warms and feeds. It is more convenient for a farmer, since it is much easier to care for chickens.
For such purposes, acquire adult adults, with experience and a good instinct for incubation. If you plan to lay eggs from the incubator, pre-lay the hens. At night, when she sits on her eggs, lay 1-2 strangers. If she did not refuse to sit on them, the rest of the day is added.
The heated quantity depends on the season: in the spring, 15 eggs are enough, in summer, in hot weather, it will be able to sit through 20.
Newborns are left for a short time near the mother, then carried away under the lamp. After complete drying and acclimatization, they return it back or grow it independently. The first days of feeding at least 5 times.
Breeding chickens in private is beneficial for rural residents, since summer residents are outside the city only in summer. It will not bring profit, although it will allow to pamper the family with tasty and fresh products. In addition, to raise young animals uncontrollably will not work. Even with modern equipment, the presence of a farmer is required. With a responsible and competent approach, appropriate care and feeding of the chicken livestock business will only flourish.