Planting potatoes "in the old fashioned way" is not too productive. Well, if planting a bucket of potatoes can get two. But, after all, a potato is a highly productive plant, its harvest should be at least 5 buckets from one (and a record 10 to 12 buckets at all). If you are not satisfied with the meager yields of potatoes, there are several ways to increase yields.
You can experiment with unusual (intensive) growing methods. There are many opinions and ways to properly grow potatoes in order to get a decent harvest. If you are thinking about how to grow potatoes in a barrel, under a black film, in straw, in crests, it is easy to find detailed instructions and descriptions of these methods.
But, nevertheless, you need to start with planting material. Because of the insufficient harvest, most often, the diseases he has accumulated are to blame. Our ordinary potatoes multiply vegetatively for decades, the variety is aging, its qualities are reduced, and diseases accumulate. So, to get a great harvest, you should think about how to grow potatoes from seed. The best result can be obtained by growing your own planting material derived from seeds using intensive technologies (here it is not far from records). Of course, it is easier to purchase elite tubers than toil with seeds. But, in fact, plants grown from seeds are much better adapted to your specific conditions. In addition, when buying seeds, you are not exactly deceived with the variety (which often happens with the purchase of varietal tubers).
Potato seeds are sown at the end of April in a box with a light fertile soil, having pre-watered it well. Potato seeds are small, so they need only a little to cover the ground or sawdust (not coniferous). Cover the box with a film and put in a warm place. Water very carefully, it is better through a spray or other spray, often a little, in no case fill.
Seedlings are subject to “black leg” - a dangerous fungal disease. To combat it use biological products (for example, black yeast, planriz). Before you grow potatoes from seed, it is advisable to stock up on these drugs. In the soil it would be good to add the drug Trichodermin or buy ready-made soil with it.
It is possible to use small sawdust instead of soil, gardeners note that seedlings on sawdust develop a large root system. In this case, plants need to be fed with a solution of complex fertilizer with trace elements. Good results are obtained by adding wood ash to sawdust and disinfecting it before planting with a pink solution of potassium permanganate. Replant them upon reaching a height of 3 cm.
After the appearance of two true leaves, the seedlings are transplanted into separate pots or cups for seedlings. At the age of 40 days, seedlings are planted in the beds. You can plant the plants in the greenhouse immediately in the greenhouse or (if you live in the southern climate) in the open ground. Planted plants still need careful care, it is recommended to install arcs over them and cover them with lutrasil, shade from direct sunlight and water until the seedlings take root. At the end of the first year, these plants will produce seed minitubes - this is a super-super-elite. Of these, the next year will turn out super-elite, and a year later - elite potatoes. From one plant you can get about 150 miniclub, and the next year from one such nodule will come from 1kg or more. Growing potato seedlings is a bit more complicated than tomato seedlings.
Before you grow potatoes from seed, you need to pick the right varieties for you. For the cultivation of seeds, two early and very productive varieties can be recommended - Assol and Empress. Another good early varieties: Ilona, Triumph, Farmer. Good mid-season variety Krasa and Lada f1 early hybrid, with tubers of different colors.
Ways to increase potato yield
The question of how to grow a good crop of potatoes, every gardener is puzzled. Everyone wants to reduce the area of garden crops due to yield. In order to grow a crop of potatoes you need:
- observe crop rotation,
- fulfill agrotechnical requirements
- replace planting material regularly.
With this approach, a ton of potatoes from the weave will become a reality. The property of potato tuber to gradually accumulate diseases, over the years to lose taste and yield, are known to all.
How to grow a good crop of potatoes guaranteed? You can update the seeds by purchasing elite material in seed farms and breeding stations. It is expensive, and some of the nodules obtained will still have to be propagated.
As a result, in three or four years, the harvest will fall again.
After a few years, any potato degenerates and requires new replacement. The best way is to get healthy planting material from seeds.
Growing potatoes from seed can be fun and rewarding. Berries on the bushes contain seeds, but do not carry hereditary diseases. That is, getting a potato bush from a seed, we get super-elite planting material. Only seeds smaller than a pinhead and do not inspire faith in the result.
You can buy seeds in a specialty store, and you can get yourself from your plantation by collecting large balabolks from the bushes in the fall.
Then they need to hold up to the sluggish state on the window and select the seeds in a container, wash, dry and put in a dry dark place until the end of March. And those and other seeds in the berry have a splitting properties.
Healthy bushes will grow from the seeds, but not all will repeat the properties of the mother plant.
How to grow seedlings?
There are several points that should be considered gardener:
- seed germination persists for 2 years,
- sprouts poorly tolerate picking,
- soil should not contain pathogens.
Pre-seed seed preparation consists of treatment with potassium permanganate followed by washing and drying of small seeds. The earth should be a loose nutrient mixture, necessarily sifted.
In the pan several cups with drainage holes are installed. The soil is poured on two thirds of a cup in 100 ml and several seeds are laid out on the surface. It is necessary to lightly sprinkle the surface with sand, sprinkle with a spray bottle to seal.
Glasses to cover. Shoots will appear in 2 - 3 weeks.
Watering the seedlings with a leaf wetting is impossible.
Proper watering of potatoes at this stage through the pan, as for begonias. The earth itself will pull moisture. Of the few seedlings that have appeared, you need to leave one of the strongest, the rest cut off with nail scissors.
Very weak root system of seedlings is poorly restored. Therefore, you should avoid the stages of injury when picking. Seeds are stored in excess, and the bushes are grown to two dozen.
For personal farming is no longer required.
In the future, it will be necessary to transfer to more capacious containers. Thus, the seedlings grow to a steady heat without return frosts. Term rassadnogo growing 60 days plus 2 weeks for seedlings. So, the seed must be lowered into the ground two and a half months before the steady heat in the region. How to care for seedlings grown potatoes?
Seed Potato Care
Planted in the loose fertile land of seedlings will develop rapidly. It should be noted that the bushes will differ in appearance.
The goal of the gardener will be to wait for the harvest and take the seeds from the most successful specimens, to the last smallest tuber. Proper watering of potatoes is not wetting the leaf plate from above, but watering through high furrows.
After the ragging of the potatoes, water runs into the furrows, and conditions are created for soaking the entire stroke. Such watering over the summer need 2.
Over-wetting potatoes is bad. If the ground is wet at a depth of 10 cm, everything is in order.
Potatoes receive moisture from the air through the pubescent leaf plate. After a while, a plantation grown from seedlings will stand out with its healthy appearance. It is important to maintain cleanliness from weeds.
How to weed the potatoes every gardener knows. Here you just need to carefully examine each bush. Such a weed as a quinoa is the place where the phytophthora begins to develop.
And for an elite potato, her presence nearby is completely useless.
Not bad during the summer season to spend 2 - 3 spraying of the plantation with EM-1 Baikal. This preparation creates conditions for better development and filling of the root. Microorganisms have a beneficial effect on plant development and soil improvement.
If you take care of potatoes as your favorite plant, the results will surprise. Each bush will give up to twenty tubers of different sizes. To select from the bush you like you need the whole crop. Do not throw away even the smallest potatoes. To get from it a full-fledged bush, simply save the tuber.
A club with a nail will be a full-fledged bush for the next year.
Rinse all selected material and hold it on diffused light in a cool to light green. Probably, the next year a new grade will be derived from the new material. To fix its properties is the next task.
How often do seeds of potatoes change?
The planting material obtained from seeds for agronomists for the second year is called a super-elite first reproduction. From it the next year, diluted varietal potatoes will become super-elite.
The following reproduction gives ware potatoes and elite seed material. After three years, the yield begins to fall and you need to look again for fresh potatoes for breeding.
It is easier to grow several bushes from seeds every year, and gradually prepare fresh planting material.
The technology of growing potatoes from seeds
We used to grow tomatoes, cucumbers, bell peppers, and other vegetables from seeds.
Why do most gardeners always multiply potatoes with tubers? Yes, this method is simpler and more convenient, but didn't you yourself notice that every year the harvest becomes more modest and the size of the tubers is smaller? Sometimes it turns out that in the spring for planting potatoes takes more than they manage to dig in the fall.
We used to grow tomatoes, cucumbers, bell peppers, and other vegetables from seeds. Why do most gardeners always multiply potatoes with tubers? Yes, this method is simpler and more convenient, but didn't you yourself notice that every year the harvest becomes more modest and the size of the tubers is smaller?
Sometimes it turns out that in the spring for planting potatoes take more than they manage to dig up in the fall. Even if you select the best tubers for planting and add fertilizer to each well, it still makes the potatoes degenerate year after year, it accumulates more and more viral, bacterial, fungal diseases, and tastes noticeably deteriorate.
Sometimes it turns out that in the spring for planting potatoes takes more than they manage to dig in the fall
To restore the yield, you can choose one of two options: once in five years, buy high-quality elite tubers or grow potatoes from seeds yourself.
The second option is preferable not only for economic reasons, but also because under the guise of an elite planting material you can sell ordinary tubers of low quality, and by their appearance you cannot determine whether they are actually elite or not.
about growing potatoes from seeds
Why growing potatoes from seeds is better:
- seed cost is much lower than the cost of tubers,
- Seeds take up very little space, you do not need a basement or a cellar to store them,
- potatoes grown from seeds do not initially have any diseases and are resistant to late blight and adverse environmental factors,
- potato yield is higher than when planted with tubers.
Cultivation of potatoes by seeds: features and difficulties
Propagation of potatoes with seeds will give you the opportunity to feel like a breeder, because potatoes will grow far from the same type.
Potato bushes will vary in yield, color and size of tubers, in disease resistance.
Thus, you can immediately select the best tubers as planting material for the next year, focusing on the desired signs of plants.
Propagation of potatoes with seeds will give you the opportunity to feel like a breeder
However, it is worth noting the main difficulties you will encounter when growing seedlings of potatoes from seeds:
- the root system of potato seedlings is formed more slowly and worse than those of the same tomatoes, it is necessary to ensure the most loose soil, or even grow first on sawdust until the seedlings reach a height of 3 cm,
- seedlings are very capricious, they react to the slightest inconvenience, and when there is a lack of light they are strongly drawn out,
- without regular use of biopreparations (trichodermina, planriz, black yeast), potato seedlings are highly susceptible to diseases, especially black leg,
- potato seedlings are small and fragile, they will have to be transplanted with great care.
Detailed instructions on how to grow potatoes from seed
Because of the peculiarities of the Russian climate, the seeds of potatoes must be grown in a seedling way in a greenhouse, and not in open ground. You can buy ready-made potato seeds or prepare them yourself.
In the summer, many varieties of potatoes form berries, which need to be collected in gauze bags and hung in a bright, warm room for some time for ripening. Ready berries should be softer and lighter, then you can crush them in a cup, the seeds are washed, dried and scattered into sachets.
Since the germination of potato seeds is low, it is better to prepare them more. Seeds up to two years germinate faster than older ones.
Ready berries should be softer and lighter, then you can crush them in a cup, the seeds are washed, dried and scattered into sachets
Before sowing the seeds for two days is recommended to soak in water. Hardening with variable temperatures for 10 days is also effective: at night, the soaked seeds in the trays are in the refrigerator at a temperature of +1 degree, and during the day - indoors at room temperature.
Sow seeds in boxes from the end of March to the beginning of April. Fill the boxes with a wet mixture of 1 part of the earth and 4 parts of peat, adding fertilizer. Place the potato seeds in rows: 5 cm between the seeds and 10 cm between the rows. Top seeds sprinkle with a layer of sand in 0.5 cm, slightly thickening it, so that when watering is not washed off.
Cover the boxes with film or glass and move to a warm place, you can in the film greenhouse. Shoots should appear in a week or two.
When you see two true leaves on the shoots, you will need to dive the seedlings into small plastic cups with drainage holes or into peat pots.
Regularly water and weed potato seedlings, feed the plants with ammonium nitrate during rooting.
Planting in open ground
At the end of frosts, around the third decade of May, seedlings of potatoes can be planted in open ground. Dig holes 10 cm deep, put 300 g of humus into them and pour (half a liter of water per well). Bury the seedlings in the ground so that the stem with three upper leaves is left on the surface.
To protect young seedlings of potatoes from possible temperature extremes, cover the beds with foil. It can be removed when the plants are strong, and the weather is warm. In dry weather, water the potatoes once every two days, weed regularly and loosen the ground. Also for the season you will need to spud potatoes twice.
about seed planting potatoes
Of course, from the very first year you will not get a high crop of potatoes, which would be enough for the whole winter.
In the first season, mini tubers from 10 to 50 g grow from potato seeds (just as they grow from onion seeds onion sets).
With good care, you can get from one bush more to a kilogram of tubers, and some tubers will reach 100 g. Even better will be the harvest when grown in a greenhouse.
From mini-tubers for the next year, you will receive super-elite potatoes of the highest quality (the first reproduction), from which in the third year you will grow super-elite potatoes of good quality, in the fourth year you will get elite potatoes, and from the fifth or sixth year you will already dig up ordinary potatoes, harvest will begin to decline again. Therefore, after five years, you can re-repeat the whole procedure of growing potatoes from seeds.
How to grow potatoes from seed: the main points of sowing and the difference between growing tubers
Relatively long ago, thanks to many years of practice, everyone has developed a strong stereotype - potatoes reproduce exclusively with tubers. As a rule, purchased tubers act as a material for planting, or what is even more common - these are tubers set aside by owners from last year’s collection. But there is another way to grow potatoes. A more detailed description in this article.
Features of growing potatoes from seeds
Despite the fact that potatoes originally belong to the family of nightshade, unlike cucumbers, bell peppers, tomatoes and other relatives, it is not customary to grow potatoes from seeds for some reason. There are several reasons for this:
- firstly, it is, of course, a matter of habit, a stereotype that has been transmitted for many years,
- secondly, planting tubers is much cheaper than buying seeds (and if we consider the option of using our own last year’s crop, we get free potato multiplication),
- At first glance, potato growing from seeds may seem long, laborious, rather complicated and time consuming.
The usual way of growing tubers from many is initially much simpler and more familiar, although in fact it has many drawbacks:
- First, the potato has a not very pleasant property to degenerate - with the onset of each year, the number of planting tubers increases, and the number of potatoes obtained in the fall decreases.
- Secondly, over time, the taste in the circle of multiplied potatoes is much worse.
- Thirdly, the cultivation of tubers leads to a long-term accumulation of various bacterial and fungal diseases in them, various viruses are deposited in the fruit, which are transmitted inside the harvested crop, transplanted and multiplied by planting potatoes year after year.
- The last drawback - along with the acquisition of expensive (elite) planting material, no one gets a guarantee that the quality of the purchased potato tubers will correspond to the money spent.
The advantages of planting potatoes from seed
Contrary to the fact that the method of growing potatoes from seeds is not very common and is rarely practiced, it has a number of its own, strong benefits. Further, they are considered in more detail:
- Storing seeds of potatoes in the winter does not require specially prepared conditions, no need to think about the preparation of a cellar or cellar.
- In fact, the cost of seeds is much less than the purchase of tubers of expensive, varietal or elite potatoes.
- The material, which is obtained as a result of germination from seeds, does not accumulate in itself any diseases and bacteria.
- Since such a planting material is initially completely healthy, it is much more resistant to factors unfavorable for potato growth.
- The amount of the crop, planted from seeds, far exceeds the crop, planted in the usual, usual way.
Regarding the latter advantage, it is worth noting that with proper processing, sowing and planting, more than 1,500 tubers can be obtained from 1 gram of seeds as a result.
Possible difficulties in planting seeds
If it was decided to try planting root crops from seeds, it is necessary to prepare for some difficulties:
- during the initial stage, potato shoots are very capricious and very demanding,
- seedlings are very fragile and during transplantation, they require maximum care and attention,
- requires constant use of various biological products.
If these difficulties do not frighten, then you can consider the process of planting seeds.
As previously mentioned, the easiest way to get seeds is their harvest from your own harvest. But you can buy material for planting and in stores. The following varieties are most suitable for this:
- The Empress, Assol, Milena, Triumph, Farmer, Velina (species are early-ripening).
- Revenge, Lada, Ballad, Ilona, Krasa (mid-season varieties).
- Virgo (refers to the medium late variety).
Various cultivation methods and technologies
There are three standard stages through which it will be necessary to pass to grow tubers from seeds:
- subsequent picks,
- transfer to large capacity
- landing directly in open ground.
There are two main ways of growing - seedling and seedless. The second method may initially seem a lot easier. But if you just put the seeds in the open soil, then as a result only small tubers will grow, they can be used only next year, as a planting material.
Further, the methods of growing in the form of seedlings will be considered. Initially, germinating potatoes for seedlings can also be done in two ways - with soil use and landless sowing.
For the landless method will need:
- a sheet of clean, thick paper,
- plastic bag,
- ordinary thread.
Initially, the paper should be sufficiently moistened with water (you can simply sprinkle it with your hand or use a spray gun). After the paper has absorbed enough moisture, the seeds need to be spread on the edge of the perimeter of the sheet. Then, the sheet must be bent in half so that the seeds are inside.
Further, it twists rather tightly in such a way that a peculiar tube is obtained. This resulting tube is wrapped with thread and placed in a plastic bag, after which the latter is tightly closed. All this is placed in a warm place. Approximately, in two weeks saplings should appear.
Until that time, you need to prepare tanks and the right ground for their transplant. The soil should be sufficiently nutritious and loose, so that the seedlings grow without difficulty.
When the sprouted seedlings are ready for transplantation, the procedure should be carried out carefully, since the roots will be thin and very branched.
Each seedling can be transplanted separately into a regular plastic cup with a primer.
After the entire glass inside will be shrouded in a lump of seedling roots - it can be safely plant in open soil. With this method, as a date for landing it is necessary to focus on mid-June. It is very important that the earth is warm enough.
Sprouting seedlings using soil
There are other, more familiar methods of sprouting seedlings - using soil. With this technology, before carrying out the sowing procedure itself, the seeds should be soaked in the inlet (for 2 days).
Many people recommend a peculiar procedure before sowing. hardening of seeds. To do this, 10 days in a row, day and night, they change the temperature. To do this, overnight, the seeds are stored in the refrigerator, and in the afternoon - at room temperature.
To protect your seedlings from possible future defeat of fungal diseases (including the well-known "black leg"), you can hold before sowing decontamination procedure.
Often, it is recommended to use the Phytosporine solution for treatment, but various treaters are provided in large quantities, and it will not be difficult to purchase any other.
The processing procedure itself is carried out simply - the seeds are laid out on any clean cloth and for half an hour pour a solution of treater.
Before sowing, you also need to prepare boxes for planting. They are filled with a wet mixture consisting of peat (4 parts) and earth (1 part). Adding fertilizer to this mixture will not be superfluous. Potato seeds, which by this time have already been naklyulis, arranged in rows in a box. Everything above is slightly needed sprinkle with sand (about 5 mm).
Thus, the sowing is compacted so as not to accidentally wash it off during the next watering. The very procedure of initial sowing in boxes should begin only in early April.
Next, the box moved to a warm place, having previously covered it with glass or film. Saplings, if everything was done correctly, will grow in about a week and a half. You can dive them further only after at least two leaves appear on the sunrises.
Seedlings are dived to the choice - either in special pots from peat, or in ordinary plastic cups (in this case, a hole must be made at the bottom of the glass for drainage). It is not difficult to care for such potato seedlings - watering should be done regularly and weeded as needed.
During rooting, potatoes can also support by feeding - for example, ammonium nitrate.
You can plant potato seedlings at the end of May (after the final completion of frosts). In the ground, it is necessary to dig holes, about 10 cm deep, add humus to them, water well. In order to properly plant a seedling, on the surface it is necessary to leave its stem with three leaves.
Good harvest potato seed: is it real?
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I think many of you came up with the idea why potato tubers are the main breeding material, but not seeds? Can potato seed multiplication be too difficult for an ordinary person? Or do seeds need any special conditions for growth? However, this method is quite affordable for everyone, and also has many advantages. But in order not to seem empty, we will acquaint you in detail with these features of such a planting and teach you to grow really good potatoes without the use of tubers.
What are the features of potato cultivation by the seed method: we analyze the pros and cons
The main problem that exposes people to the development of a new way of breeding potatoes is the decline in yield. The point is that all potato varieties degrade sooner or later with constant cultivation with the help of tubers. Even with abundant top dressing, the most careful care and selection of the most fertile soil in 5 years you accurately note the reduction in the size of the tubers themselves, as well as their number under One bush. But, this is not the end of the problem of growing potatoes in the old usual way, because the tubers are also carriers of various diseases. Of course, the way out of this situation is usually to buy potatoes first grade, and its cultivation on your land. But still, consider whether it is worth doing if it is more reasonable to purchase potato seeds?
What are the advantages of this method of growing potatoes?
Firstly, buying seeds will cost you a lot. cheaperrather than buying a new variety of tubers. Also, for the storage of seeds you do not have to allocate a whole basement and constantly maintain a stable temperature and humidity in it.
They can simply lie until spring in a box of carrot, cucumber and tomato seeds. When listing the benefits of sowing potatoes with seeds, it is important to mention sustainability of yields. After all, the planting material does not initially have any diseases. It is also noted high stability the resulting potatoes to late blight, as well as various adverse environmental conditions. And most importantly for each gardener: this method of cultivation gives much higher yields.
This concerns both the size of the tubers and their number. In particular, it overcomes such a problem of ordinary planting, when even when using the largest potato for planting, “fraction 16” is obtained at the end.
Are there any disadvantages of seed cultivation of potatoes and what are they?
To be completely honest with you, let’s focus on the shortcomings of this method. First of all, this is the fact that such potato cultivation can lead you into complete confusion. The fact is that the bushes and tubers do not always grow the same type. In particular, each bush can demonstrate its yield, size and color of tubers, resistance to diseases. Therefore, get ready to go into the breeder's shoes, since you will have to select the most liked tubers for planting material for the next year. So, despite the large number of troubles, it is quite possible to bring to the world a new variety of this wonderful culture. However, this is not the main difficulty of this method. It should be noted and such:
- The difficulty is the cultivation of seedlings, since it is characterized by a very weak and unstable root system. In connection with these will have to pick up a very loose soil. Experienced in this business gardeners recommend using sawdust, on which to grow seedlings up to 3-centimeter height. Immediately after germination, seedlings can behave quite capriciously. In particular, it must necessarily provide uniform and abundant solar lighting, otherwise the plants will be very strongly drawn out. Although the fruits of such potatoes have a fairly high resistance, their shoots can suffer very much from various kinds of diseases, the most dangerous of which is blackleg. For this reason, such preparations as Planriz, Trichodermina, and Black Yeast should be used regularly. Seedlings, even before a suitable time for transplantation, remain very fragile, which increases the likelihood of damage. But here it is necessary to try, because the result really will be worth it.
Basic requirements for seeds and their preparation for sowing
It is very important to draw your attention to the fact that potato seeds have a very low germination rate, therefore, the more seeds you prepare, the more likely you will get a good harvest. Also, it is very important to prepare the seeds well before planting, which will increase the probability of sprouting. In particular, it helps a lot soak them for two days in water. Simultaneously with soaking, it is possible to carry out the hardening of seeds with different temperatures. During the daytime, the bowl with soaked seeds can be left at normal room temperature, and sent to the refrigerator at night at +1? С.
In this way, the seeds will prepare for natural changes in the temperature of the soil into which you will sow them. You can proceed to planting only when the seeds show signs of first germination. The fact is that they may not be suitable for growth, and you can simply spend the time to sow them, but do not get a result.
Care of planted seedlings
Next, the bush requires the usual care:
- watering as needed
- regularly need to weed the ground and loosen it,
- during one season - bushes need to spud at least 2 times.
It is believed that in the first year, the high yield from potatoes grown from seeds should not be expected. As a rule, the average weight of a tuber will be up to 50 g. If you create a potato ideal conditions (soil, watering, care), then from one bush you can get about 1, 5 kg of tubers. The result will be even better if you grow crops in a greenhouse or greenhouse.
Most often, the resulting potatoes are left and used as planting material next year. The first reproduction received will be of the highest, posh quality.
Thus obtained potato can be safely called super-elite. The harvest will begin to decline and deteriorate in its taste characteristics only after 5–6 years.
Then it will be possible to repeat the procedure of reseeding from seeds.
The best time for sowing potatoes
Sowing potato seeds is a very early deal. It is best to do this at the end of March or in early April. With that, seeds are sown exclusively in boxes.
We have already mentioned that seedlings are not always very good, and open ground will lower its index even more. It is very important to prepare the right mixture of soil: we take 1 part of fertile land, mix it with 4 parts of peat, add a little fertilizer and thoroughly moisten.
What is the best scheme for sowing seeds?
Potato seeds, which have already managed to "leap up", are planted in rows in rows. The aisles should be wide enough, about 10 centimeters.
This is necessary in order for the plants to have enough nutrients, the number of which in the soil of the box is somewhat limited, and there is room for growth of the aerial part. Between seeds, you can make and not so wide indentation, it will be enough 5 centimeters. Covering seeds with too thick soil is not worth it, since it will be very difficult for a plant to break through to the light.
Optimal use of a 0.5 cm sand layer. It also needs to be tamped down a bit, because when watering small seeds of potatoes it will be very easy to wash to the surface.
Features care for potato shoots
That seedlings need the most care and attention. In particular, immediately after sowing seeds, the boxes with them should be covered with a film (you can also use glass). After that, the boxes are placed in a nice warm place without drafts, you can even use a film greenhouse for this.
At observance of all specified recommendations, the first shoots will be born already 1-2 weeks. But over time, the plants will not have enough space in the boxes, so with the appearance of two leaves on them seedlings swoop down. It is best to replant them in small plastic cups with specially made holes for drainage.
Peat pots will be an even better option. As in the drawers, and in individual cups, plants need to be added regularly not with cold water and weeds that appear weed. When picking is very important feed plants with ammonium nitratethat will significantly contribute to their rooting in a new place. Do not forget to also follow the lighting and temperature of the air.
The first must be constantly uniform and sufficiently abundant, otherwise the seedlings may be very light and elongated. Regarding the temperature, then do not let it fall below 10? С even at night.
It is also interesting to read about planting potatoes in the winter.
We plant potato seedlings in open ground: how not to spoil the future harvest?
Potato seedlings are very delicate. Any damage to it can cause irreversible damage to the plant. In addition, the root system in it is developed rather weakly and it is worth transplanting seedlings only in very loose and light soils. We warn you in advance that some of the plants may die and not yield a crop, but still the main part will surely please you.
Seedlings and the timing of their planting in open ground
When the seedlings grow up, it can be planted in an open field, although the best on the beds. But here, too, can not be ahead of the recommended time. After all, potato seedlings are very susceptible to lowering temperatures. For this reason, it can only be planted with the end of frost, namely in the third decade of May. At what, you need to plant potatoes deep enough: the hole is digging about 10 centimeters deep. Of course, that it will still need to put about 300 grams of humus and pour at least half a liter of water. But the seedling itself must be buried in the soil so that only the stem with its three leaves remains on the surface.
The scheme of growing potatoes from seedlings
Ideal to choose a scheme for planting seedlings 70 to 35 centimeters. And in no case do not neglect this advice, referring to the small size of the seedlings. Believe me, she will catch up with her and completely occupy the space allotted to her.
It is very important that before transplanting seedlings, in about a week, it is recommended to feed them a little with nitrogen fertilizers: to do this, dilute 30 grams of urea per 10 liters of water and add a little to each plant.
It is important to start preparing the soil for potato seedlings in advance. In particular, do not be too lazy to dig it up well. It is good if the soil is highly fertile. When preparing the soil, organic matter does not need to be added to it, it is better to put the humus into the hole simultaneously with the direct planting of the seedlings (see above).
About the first harvests and why not to be disappointed
Growing potatoes from seeds is very similar to applying the same method of growing to onions. In the case of the last of the seeds, a sevok is obtained, which is intended for planting next year. Likewise with potatoes: the first season gives only very small tubers, the maximum weight of which is only 50 grams (in some cases and with good care, 100 grams). When growing seedlings in greenhouses, yields sometimes reach significantly higher levels. Of such small The size of the tubers next year, you can get a real elite potato of the best quality.
It is this kind of potato that is called the first product that you usually buy on the market for big money. Of course, the quality of potatoes will decrease gradually every year. After all, when interacting with the external environment, with various pests, planting material will become their source for future harvests. So, even in the fourth year of cultivation of such potatoes you will receive an elite product, then already 5-6 it will be a regular potato, without record indicators yield. In this regard, gardeners who practice such a method recommend starting re-cultivation of a “potato planting” already for the 5th year. By the way, many enterprising gardeners are earning a lot of money in this way, spending not so much effort.
Rules and features of care for potatoes grown from seeds
If you grow potatoes in your garden every year, then in general you should not worry that you will not cope with this task. The only thing that needs to be considered in advance is a strong one. weakness and vulnerability of seed-grown potato seedlingsIn order to get good planting material for planting next year, you need to try to provide the plants with maximum care.
Advantages and disadvantages of seed-grown potatoes
If you grow potatoes from tubers of the same variety for more than one year, over time, the quantity and quality of the crop will inevitably deteriorate, as the variety gradually degenerates. An excellent harvest can be dug only if you grow potatoes from seeds.
Healthy and smooth seed potato tubers
Plant diseases can be transmitted with tubers, and then the crop ripens not of the best quality. And with the seed method of growing with such a problem you will not encounter. Seeds have a more stable immunity, tolerate conditions that are unfavorable for growth, and quickly adapt to an unstable climate.
Plus, the seeds are much cheaper than tubers, so you have a good opportunity to save on planting material. Even if you do not buy potato tubers, and next year you are going to plant the fruits that you dug this year, you still need to take care of their proper storage. And for the seeds do not need to build a special cellar.
However, the seed method of growing potatoes has flaw: this is a fairly time-consuming process, which not everyone copes with a bang. Seedlings should be regularly treated with biological products to improve the immunity of the plant. The seedlings that are not yet strong need to be watered and transplanted very carefully.
But if it is right to sow the seeds and properly care for the seedlings, then an excellent harvest of potatoes will not take long.
Potato seedlings and cold: how to protect the first from the second?
The seedling is very afraid of temperature fluctuations, so it’s best to immediately cover the bed with potato wrap. It is possible to keep plants under shelters until they adapt to new growth conditions, they will get well and stable warm weather will be established outside. Remember that frosted potatoes will not only be able to give a good result in terms of yield, but also a high probability the defeat of such fruits by various diseases, as well as the occurrence of various mutations.
Watering potatoes: does this plant need additional moisture?
Be sure to not forget that potatoes can be every two days water, especially if the weather is dry, without precipitation. In the first year of growth, the plant is not as adapted to the external conditions as it was during secondary planting. We need more watering if the plants are planted in a greenhouse, where natural moisture cannot enter the soil. But if you yourself see that the soil moisture is high enough, then no watering is needed, because the excess water is also not pathetic for the potato and its harvest. Also, do not forget weed and loosen the soilEspecially loosening is important after irrigation, when a crust can form on the soil surface.
Hilling potatoes: when and how many times to spend?
When the height of the above-ground part of the potato is 10 centimeters, the first hilling can be done, after about 2-3 weeks the second one will be needed. After all, the plant is constantly pulled up, but its thin stalk is not able to hold its own weight. With the help of hilling, we kind of support the plant with earth.
How to grow potatoes from seed?
Many consider the vegetative method of growing potatoes to be the only one and from year to year in the spring in the old manner they plant tubers into the ground, and in the autumn complain of a poor harvest. This method, despite its availability and simplicity, is often the cause of the degeneration of the variety.
The long-term cultivation of potatoes in one place leads to a constant accumulation of infections and bacteria, which significantly reduces the yield. Not every gardener updates planting material every five years, as recommended by professionals. By purchasing varietal potatoes on the market, from friends or in a specialized company, you have no guarantee that the vaunted copies will end up with perfect quality or will not be contaminated by any serious disease.
Rules for growing potatoes from seed
Growing potatoes from seed eliminates all the above nuances, you get the opportunity to harvest a decent crop, several times larger than when planted in the traditional way. Despite the fact that this process is considered to be rather time-consuming, it is much cheaper than buying seed tubers.
It is quite possible to get good seed potatoes, if you follow some simple rules and do everything in stages: - Selection of seeds. It is advisable to purchase several types of seeds with different aging periods, preferring varieties adapted to the climatic conditions of your region. - Soaking seeds in water for up to three days.
Periodically every twelve hours, containers with seeds are put in the refrigerator and left for the same time. This procedure is called hardening. Planting seeds in wooden boxes or special separate containers to a depth of one and a half to two centimeters.
It is advisable to use fertile purchased soil or prepare it yourself from the ground, peat, sand, humus. Seedlings are highly susceptible to a dangerous disease - the black leg. Therefore, to combat it, you should use special biological products (for example, black yeast).
You can also immediately buy the soil that already contains such preparations. - Cover the boxes with a breathable film, after emergence of seedlings, the seedlings should be fed. Moisturize the soil as needed. - To plant seedlings at the age of 40 days immediately in open ground can start from mid-May, covering it with film for the night.
The distance between the rows is normal - from 50 centimeters. Seedlings obtained from seeds have an underdeveloped root system, with a lack of natural moisture they must be watered.
- Hilling of potatoes is carried out twice - 10 days after planting and during the formation of tubers (when buds appear). The first crop potatoes from the so-called true seeds turn out healthy, are not affected by pests, are well preserved until spring, and have excellent taste. Therefore, it is better to leave it as a seed for breeding a new elite variety. From one bush you can grow up to 150 min.
Pros and cons of growing potatoes from seeds
The main advantages of obtaining potatoes from seeds: - Do not require the costs associated with transportation and storage. - Seeds in sachets are much cheaper than tubers for planting. - The yield is several times higher. From one bush receive from 500 grams of fresh potatoes. - They have excellent immunity to many diseases.
Seeds do not contain pathogenic bacteria and viruses. - Resistance to adverse weather conditions. - Potatoes adapt and survive in regions with different climates. To avoid unwanted mistakes and side effects from growing potatoes from seeds, it is important to keep in mind the weak points of this method. The first shoots of potato seedlings are fragile and sensitive to temperature, therefore, when loosening, watering and transplanting, you should act very carefully.
The saplings slowly form the root system, in connection with this it is recommended to seed the seeds initially in the ground with the addition of sawdust, regularly moisten the ground, and ensure good lighting. When growing potato seedlings, it is necessary to carefully treat it with biologics. Otherwise, the seedlings will not be able to get stronger and acquire immunity to diseases.
What is the fundamental difference between potato seeds and replaceable potatoes? And such that when grown from seed, it does not accumulate disease.
We get a healthy planting material. Potatoes belong to solanaceous crops, as well as tomatoes, eggplants, and peppers. Potato seeds are very small, so it seems that there are very few of them. The shoots are also small.
Therefore, there are some differences from growing from seeds, for example, tomatoes. As seen in the picture, potato seeds are sown superficially, they are not covered with soil on top. Sprouts are very weak and they can simply not break through the layer of soil. This must be taken into account when sowing.
Soil for growing potato seedlings
The soil structure for sowing potato seeds should be very fine, loose. This also requires weak shoots. I usually buy ready-made soil. I look for it to be with perlite, which is a good baking powder and a good store of moisture.
Such soil acquires the property of not caking, which is so important for small potato seeds. Choose a small, shallow capacity for germination. I usually use plastic salad boxes with a transparent lid for this purpose.
They will only need up to the stage of picking seedlings. I use two plastic molds. In one I make drainage holes.
I insert it into the whole form.
Seed treatment before sowing
Potato seedlings are often affected by such a fungal disease as “black leg”. Therefore, before sowing the seeds should definitely be disinfected. I advise you to do this with a solution of Fitosporin prepared according to the instructions.
But there are other disinfectants on sale - the choice is yours. I spread the seeds on a rag, pour over the disinfectant solution, leave it for 30-35 minutes. Cloth preferred gauze or bandage.
Seeds are small - they can become entangled in large cells of gauze. By the way, I advise you to pickle the soil for sowing or calcine in a microwave. You can shed it with a solution of Fitosporin. And I put the container with the soil in the microwave for 7-10 minutes.
The soil is usually wet and even steam comes from it when it is heated. It is the steam that serves as a sterilizer. If you choose Phytosporin to disinfect the soil, then spill it well so that excess moisture comes out through the drainage holes.
Why do you need such abundant watering before sowing? Seeds, as I said above, are laid out over the ground. If you then water them from above, then the seeds, laid out at regular intervals, can slip into a handful - it will be more difficult to dive.
Weak, fragile roots will intertwine, it will be difficult for you to remove them from the soil without damaging. Another reason is that watering seeds from above may deepen them - they may not turn up or grow. By the way, I often read reviews on gardening forums that seeds supposedly caught low-quality, do not sprout. Of course, maybe so.
But one more reason - therefore they do not ascend, because they are buried or planted in too dense soil. Almost all of them came up with me - 18 out of 20. By the way, they say that the older the seeds, the better they sprout.
Care of seeds and seedlings sown
After sowing, do not forget to close the lid on top of the mold. If you eat a form without a lid, then an ordinary food film will fit, which will retain a certain moisture content, which is so necessary for the sowing of seeds. About suitable humidity you will be prompted by condensate on the lid or film.
In the absence of it, the seeds may dry up, do not ascend. And one more warning. Do not put a jar of seeds on the window sill. There it can be very cold.
Low temperature is one of the reasons that the seeds may not germinate. They will rather rot in cold, moist soil. One of the tips - until germination, keep the container with the seeds of potatoes in a warm place with temperatures up to 25 ° C.
You can even put on the battery, lay a few layers of newspaper or plywood under the jar. Air the seeds daily before spitting. Once the seeds have been propelled, the lid of the container is opened and placed in a bright warm place. When your seedlings reach a height of 2-3 cm, they are ready for picking.
Immediately in a large capacity to replant seedlings is not worth it, because the soil is not mastered by the roots, sour. In general, before the final planting in the ground, it is necessary to dive, to transfer seedlings more than once - this is a feature of growing potatoes from seeds.
Features of potato seedling picks
What capacities are suitable for the first picking? I believe that special plastic cassettes with cells for growing seedlings are sufficient at this stage. The cells are small, but the seedlings are also not large yet.
Of these, it will be convenient to extract the seedlings together with a clod of earth for transplanting into a large container. The first pick should be done very carefully - the seedlings are very fragile. No crimping of the roots - a slight deepening of the seedlings can be done by irrigating the Fitosporin solution.
When watering, the seedlings themselves will drop a little lower. Any inadvertent damage to the fragile roots can lead to their rotting. The most common mistake is spraying seeds that were hatching with small sprouts from a hand sprayer.
No excess moisture on the sprouts should not be - it can lead to black leg disease. The soil should be wet, but moderately. It should be watered on the edge of the container so that the solution of Fitosporin or water does not fall on the shoots.
As you already understood, growing potatoes from seeds is growing through seedlings. The second is picking into small cells of a plastic cassette. The third one is transshipment into a large container — I use large half-liter plastic cups. Then, as with any seedlings, I transplant it into the ground around the second half of April, when the danger of frost has passed. But do not forget, I live in the Krasnodar Territory, and you look at the climate of your region. In the middle lane, this should probably be done in the middle or even in the second half of May. I am guided by the seedlings of the potato planted with seed tubers. As soon as ordinary potatoes sprout, it’s time to plant potato seedlings.
How to calculate the time of sowing potato seeds for seedlings
The first shoots appear usually in 3-4 days, and by the end of the week almost all the seeds are sprouting. But I read on various forums that shoots may appear in 10-12 days.
It took me 2 months from germination to planting seedlings in open ground — much longer than growing tomato seedlings. That is, if you plant potato seedlings in mid-May (conditionally on May 15), shoots should appear in mid-March ( March 15th). And the seeds should be sown in early March - March 1-5.
Planting seedlings in the ground, especially care
I'll run a little ahead. The bushes from my seeds grew so different in volume, number of stems, height. Then, selecting those that I will plant next year, I felt like a breeder - it is at this stage that we decide which ones to reject, which ones to leave.
The nodules grow small, but anyway among them there are bigger or smaller ones, there are even ones - there are clumsy ones, there are clean ones - there are with incomprehensible specks. Generally, this is an amazing process. Practically full-fledged bushes grow from such a small seed. When planting seedlings in the ground, I buried it a little - only leaves were left on top. For the first time, planting potato seedlings in the soil, it did not take into account that its root system is much weaker than in tomatoes, for example.
Therefore, it was difficult to grow in the dense soil of potato seedlings. I think that next year sand or sawdust should be added to the grooves when planting seedlings. A distinctive feature is that the bushes grown from seedlings are green longer.
Maybe this happens because I watered them, and the main potato grows on my irrigated lands. And maybe it should be. And more. Of course, as with the main potato, my main problem is the Colorado potato beetle.
The leaves of this potato, he ate especially willingly. I had to process it not 2-3 times, but once 5 or 6 - I got off the bill. I read so long ago that if, when planting seedlings, leave a distance of 40-50 cm between plants, and between rows 60-70 cm, then from it is possible to get marketable potatoes. But I did not know that, so I planted the seedlings close to each other - I left 20-30 cm between them, and I placed the rows too close to each other - no more than 30 cm.
The harvest was small, but I was counting on it. Since I planted seedlings very close to each other, it is very difficult for me to say how many tubers one plant gave. It seemed to me that they were lying under the ground. What else to say? Of course, there was a lot of trouble.
Spring and early summer were rainy and cold. There were no frosts, but I still covered the garden bed with potato spunbond - from the wind, from the rain too. Spanbond skips rain, but still raindrops dispel, protects from large drops with the wind.
Already very fragile seedlings were planted. In May and early June, there was enough moisture in the soil, it rained regularly, so I did not water the seedlings. Only fed, as advised the regulars of garden and garden forums - organic - not watered, and sprayed with homemade green manure from grass and weeds.
Here in this article - “Feeding tomatoes in the open field and greenhouse” - described in detail how I was doing it. And then the seedlings grew. I was even surprised by the size of the potato bushes - well, maybe a little less than ordinary bushes. I dug it in early August - when the tops just started to turn yellow. The main harvest of potatoes a month before was already removed.
What does the reproduction of potatoes from seeds?
Does a simple gardener need all these reproduction experiments? We are not breeders, not Michurins, we need a good harvest from potatoes every year and nothing more. And planting tubers in each market can be bought.
What are the advantages of growing potatoes from seeds?
Firstly, potato seeds are many times cheaper than mini-tubers or elite tubers. High-quality seed potatoes cannot be cheap, because obtaining meristem tubers, from which super-elite and elite planting material later grows, is a costly process. Moreover, in appearance it is impossible to distinguish elite tubers from ordinary seed, which gives all unscrupulous sellers the opportunity to call everything they want to be “elite”. In the markets, as a rule, seed potatoes are sold in the best case of the third reproduction, and maybe the fifth, and the tenth.
Secondly, potato seeds, unlike tubers, do not require a cold cellar for storage, take up little space and remain viable for a long time (6-10 years).
Thirdly, potato bushes and tubers grown from seeds are not susceptible to viral and bacterial diseases and are more resistant to unfavorable growing conditions.
Fourthly, the yield of potatoes from seeds is higher than that of those planted in the usual way. Of course, if you want to upgrade the variety as soon as possible, then leave all the potatoes grown from seed to be planted next season. However, this is not necessary at all: even when sowing seeds, the potato bush is able to grow tubers weighing 80-100 grams.
Finally, once-grown potatoes from seeds allow for further 5-7 years to get good yields, selecting seed tubers as usual. Because in the first year after planting, they receive mini-tubers, in the second year - the super-super elite, in the third - the super-elite, in the fourth - the elite, in the fifth - the first reproduction, etc.
Growing potatoes by seed: instructions
Propagation of potatoes by seed, as a rule, implies a seedling method of cultivation. This means you will need additional containers, soil, a place on the windowsill and time.
Like any other seedlings, potatoes are best grown with a pick. At the first stage, in small plastic cups (for example, from under yoghurt), then in half-liter glasses (for example, from sour cream).
The soil for potato seedlings should be loose and fertile. It is best to take four parts of the peat to one part of the land and add a biological product for diseases - trichodermin (5 grams per 5 liters of soil mixture). As an option - it is possible a few days before sowing to shed the soil “Fitosporin”. Unfortunately, potato seedlings are very sensitive and are easily affected by the “black leg”, so it is better to be safe.
Some gardeners recommend growing potato seedlings in wetted sawdust before picking, so that it grows its roots better and faster.
Sowing seed potatoes for seedlings produced in late February - early March. First, seeds are germinated on a damp cloth in a plastic container with a lid. The cloth should always be kept wet, and the container lid should be opened from time to time for airing. For about 5-7 days the seeds will sprout.
Germinated seeds gently spread on wet compacted soil and sprinkled with a layer of sand in one centimeter. Then carefully sprayed with a spray bottle, covered with foil and sent to the sunny windowsill. The soil (sawdust) is kept moist until germination.
Potato seedlings are much more capricious than tomato and even eggplant - it needs more light (it is very quickly drawn out with a shortage), more nutrients (slowly increases the root system), a very loose substrate (the roots tend to “choke” in dense or overmoistened soil), it has more chances of getting a “black leg”. Therefore, potato seedlings are watered very sparingly, from time to time they are sprayed with “Epinom”, once a month they are fed with complex fertilizer, and if possible, they are illuminated with fluorescent lamps.
25 days after planting, the potato seedlings dive into large pots, deepening the cotyledon leaves. Toward the end of April, when the weather is warm, pots of potato seedlings can be moved to the balcony.
Planting potato seedlings in the ground and further care
Ideally, young potato seedlings should be planted in a greenhouse or greenhouse, and only in the second year to “relocate” the tubers in the open ground, but not everyone has this opportunity. Therefore, in mid-May, when the soil is already well warmed up, and frost is no longer foreseen, potato seedlings from seeds are usually planted in open ground. As usual, on an overcast day or in the evening, the plants (perhaps already with small nodules) are planted in holes filled with ash with humus and spilled 40 cm apart from each other. With such a planting scheme there is a chance to get large tubers in the first year.
It is better to make the wells for potato seedlings long, lay the stem horizontally and cover it with earth so that only the tops of the plants remain on the surface. Then the potato bed is mulched with straw or last year’s leaves, arranged in arcs and covered with spunbond or other covering material. Potato seedlings are a big sissy, the shelter can only be removed in June, when the summer weather is finally established.
Further care for potatoes does not differ from the usual: hilling or mulching, watering, feeding. Feed the potatoes should be twice: the first time - a couple of weeks after planting infusion of mullein (or grass) with ash, the second time - before flowering with potassium sulfate.
How to grow potatoes from seed without seedlings
If you live in a southern area with a long summer, you can not bother with the seedlings on the windowsill, and try to grow potatoes from seed in a seedless way. Most likely, there will not be large harvests, but it is quite realistic to get small tubers for seeds. In regions with a short summer, this method, unfortunately, does not work.
In mid-May, sprouted potato seeds are planted in a fertilized bed with loose soil (even better - in a warm garden bed). At a distance of 30-40 centimeters from each other digging holes with a depth of 10-12 centimeters.2-3 seeds are planted in each hole and sprinkled with sand or coconut substrate or loose soil half a centimeter.
As the plants grow, soil is poured into the wells, and then the hilling is carried out twice, as with ordinary potatoes. All other methods of farming are common: mulching, watering, feeding. After yellowing the tops, the potatoes are dug up and stored until the next spring as seed material.
We wish you success and great harvests!
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Where to get potato seeds?
Quality seeds can be bought at a store or collected from a potato bush. The fruits of the plant are small green berries that look like tomatoes, which in summer form on a bush, mostly in wet weather. Inside there are seeds that can be used as planting material.
But note that after removal from the bush, they must be placed in a bag of thin fabric or gauze and left to ripen in a warm and well-lit place. When the berries are soft, they should be crushed in an enamel pot, clean the seeds from the pulp, rinse thoroughly with water at room temperature, dry and place in a thick paper bag. In the spring they can be planted.
Note that the germination of such seeds is low, so they should be harvested for future use.
Growing potatoes in seedlings
In late March - early April, sow the germinated seeds in rows in a container (at least 10 cm high) with a mixture of peat, sand, soil and humus. Planting depth - 1-1.5 cm, the distance between the seeds - about 5 cm. Moisten the soil with a spray bottle, cover with polyethylene and place the container in a well-lit place (for example, on a window sill).
Check the seedlings daily and wet it in a timely manner so that it does not dry out. Note that potato seedlings are prone to rotting and the formation of a black leg, so it is important not to pour the plants.
Be careful: young seedlings are very fragile, so the first time it is better not to water it from a watering can, but to use a spray bottle.
After the seedlings appear, feed them with urea at the rate of 10 g per 10 liters of liquid and pour water at a temperature of about 25 ° C.
In the second half of May, carefully transplant the seedlings into open ground in the pits 10 cm deep, after introducing 300 g of humus into each of them. After that, seedlings sprinkle 1 cm of soil and moisten with a spray bottle. Remove weeds in a timely manner and protect plants from the invasion of the Colorado potato beetle.
10 days after planting and during the budding period, potatoes should be rounded up. When the tops turn yellow and dry (usually in August-September), the potatoes need to be dug.