Two to three weeks before sowing seeds need check for germination. They take 10 pieces of pepper seeds and eggplants and put them in fabric bags in warm (25 ° C) water for a day, then removed from the water, put in a flat plate and put in a warm place (30 ° C), constantly keeping the fabric bags in the wet condition. After 3 - 4 days, the nested seeds give an idea of germination. Even if out of 10 seeds of these crops, only 5 of them were bred, the seeds are suitable for sowing.
Seeds are disinfected in a strong solution of potassium permanganate (pharmaceutical manganese) for 30 - 40 minutes. Seeds after disinfection are washed with water and soaked in nutrient solution: In 1 liter of water dilute ¼ tablets of trace elements. If there is no such pill, then take 1/3 teaspoon of complex mineral fertilizer. Such a solution is no less effective: dilute 1/3 of a teaspoon of nitrophoska and half a teaspoon of wood ash or one teaspoon of a mushy (green) mullein and 1/3 teaspoon of nitrophosphate (or nitroammophore) in 1 l of water.
In any selected solution with a temperature of 25 - 28 ° C, seeds are dipped in tissue bags for a day. Such nutritional treatment of seeds contributes to their rapid and amicable germination, as well as accelerating and increasing the early yield of peppers and eggplants.
Next, the bags of seeds are removed from the nutrient solution, lightly sprayed with clean water and placed on a saucer for 1 to 2 days at a temperature of 25 ° C, before the seeds are deposited. Sowing seeds naklyunuvshimisya shoots already on the 5th - 6th day.
Some gardeners spend hardening seedsby acting on them with variable temperatures for 5 to 6 days. To this end, take the seeds after treatment with nutrient solution and put in the lower part of the refrigerator for 2 days, where the temperature is 2-5 ° C, then removed and put for 1 day in a warm place with a temperature of 18 ° C, and then again for 2 days in fridge. From the refrigerator, seeds are immediately sown in seedboxes. In this case, the seeds, both in the refrigerator and in a warm place, should always be moderately moist.
Getting an early and large harvest depends on the timing of sowing seeds for seedlings. Sowing dates, both for greenhouses, and for open ground under temporary shelters with foil, February 1 - 15, no later. But many gardeners, not knowing the biology of pepper and eggplant, sow the seeds late, in late March, as a result, the plants begin to bloom only at the end of summer. This results from the fact that from the moment of shoots before flowering these cultures need more than 100 days.
You can sow the seeds in mid-March, if immediately after sprouting, the seedlings will have artificial lighting up with fluorescent lamps for a month while the seedlings are in the box, that is, before picking them in pots.
It is necessary to take lamps with a capacity of 40 or 80 watts, they are horizontally suspended at a distance of about 12 cm above the plants and switched on from 8 am to 8 pm, at night the lamps are not turned on.
Soil mixture for sowing seeds:
- one part of sod land and two parts of manure,
- two parts of peat, two parts of humus and one part of small sawdust,
- two parts of humus and two parts of peat,
- three parts of humus and two parts of turf land,
- ground for seedlings of pepper (bought in the store).
In any selected of the four nutrient soil mixtures (except the last), add 2 tablespoons of wood ash and 1 tablespoon of superphosphate to the bucket, mix everything well and put it in a box. So that during irrigation there is no washing out of soil, from the surface of the mixture to the upper edge of the box leave a side up to 2 cm high.
The soil mixture poured into the box with a layer of 6–8 cm is watered with potassium permanganate solution (red), after 10–12 hours the surface is well leveled, slightly compacted and grooves are made with a distance of 5 cm between them. another to a depth of 1.0–1.5 cm. The grooves are filled with the same soil mixture, the crops are slightly compacted and watered with warm (25 ° C) water from a small watering can with a fine sieve (watering must be done very carefully so as not to wash the seeds).
Preparing eggplant for sowing seedlings
We will begin work before mixing the soil, as the seeds need to be strengthened and help them to germinate. Preparation is carried out in several stages: To begin, we will do everything possible to avoid the appearance of the disease. Prepare a weak solution of potassium permanganate and drop seeds there for about twenty minutes. This will avoid infection. After processing, planting material is washed with warm water.
If you do not yet consider yourself to be a master of the seedling business, and you only master the sowing of pepper and eggplant seeds on seedlings, it is better to reinsure yourself. This means that it is worthwhile to wake up the seeds. This is best done using a solution of trace elements. Put the seeds in a small bag, then dip it into the liquid. In any specialized store you will be offered several such mixtures. After processing, put the planting material to dry, the seeds should be scattered again. This treatment gives you a guarantee of friendly shoots two weeks after disembarkation.
Sowing eggplant seeds on seedlings is good to conduct after hardening. Temperature fluctuations during the week will help make the planting material stronger. Simply put the seeds on the bottom shelf of the refrigerator for a couple of days, and then transfer them to a warm place for a day. So alternates during the week.
And finally, just before sowing seeds of eggplant for seedlings, we will necessarily process them with a prestige preparation. All this painstaking work will be fully justified in the future.
Methods of sowing pepper seeds on seedlings
For work use both containers, and tablets or cartridges. Regardless of which method you prefer, the work should be started in a certain period. Terms of sowing pepper and eggplant seedlings depend on the conditions that you can provide. If it is possible to provide 24-26 ° C, you can begin work from February 20 to March 5. If you cannot provide temperature control, it is better to move the dates by mid-end of March.
Now go to the main points of the correct sowing of pepper on seedlings:
- the prepared container should be filled with soil so that there is still about a couple of centimeters to the edge,
- with a wooden stick we make holes in centimeter, between rows in the container we leave about five centimeters, and between holes in a pair,
- in each well we drop by seed and sprinkle with soil on the left two centimeters,
How to choose an eggplant variety
When buying eggplant seeds, pay attention to our tips:
- Remember that hybrids - F1, as a rule, give stronger, resistant to pests and disease plants. But such eggplants can not be left on the seeds.
- Buying eggplant seeds, give preference to varieties for your area. What you should pay attention when buying seeds.
Please note that eggplant varieties differ in ripeness and are divided into early-ripening, mid-ripening and late.
The best varieties of eggplant include: Adamant, Diamond, Bard F1, Bombovoz, Bagheera F1, Bull forehead, Crow, Globus, Dolphin, Don Quixote and others.
Seed preparation for sowing
You can read how to prepare eggplant seeds for sowing in our separate article - Preseeding preparation of seeds.
You can spend the heating of the seeds, dressing for disease, hardening. And just before planting, eggplant seeds can be soaked in melt water.When you have carried out all these operations, you can start planting seeds.
When to plant eggplant seeds for seedlings. Terms and preparation of soil mixture
Before planting seeds, prepare a soil mix and pots for seedlings. Eggplant - demanding plants to the soil. It should keep water well, be fertile enough and not acidic, and do not contain pathogens.
For growing seedlings eggplant suitable following mixture:
- 0.5 parts of boiled water sawdust,
- 1 part peat or turf ground,
- 2 pieces of humus.
For growing eggplants in greenhouses - the best time for sowing seeds is the end of February. A landing in the greenhouses you spend in mid-May.
If you grow eggplants in the open ground, the seeds are sown on seedlings in mid-March, and seedlings are planted in late May.
For those who love gardening in accordance with the lunar cycles, we suggest to turn to the Lunar sowing calendar.
Proper cultivation of eggplant seedlings
Good seedlings are half the success, so consider the basic tricks of caring for eggplant seedlings. Bearing in mind that eggplant has a long growing season, we plant seedlings at the end of February and March.
Seeds can be immediately planted in separate pots or planted thickly in a large bowl, followed by picking. Eggplant seeds sprout about 10-14 days. The temperature should be quite high - about 24-26 degrees. After the seedlings have germinated, you need to slightly reduce the temperature - up to 16-18 degrees.
Eggplant seedling pick
As soon as the first leaflets appear in the eggplant seedlings, a pick should be carried out. Each plant is transplanted into a separate pot, trying not to damage the roots. The first two days after picking the seedlings need to pritenyat. As soon as the plants get stronger, you can begin to harden the seedlings. For this, containers with plants are carried out to the open air, each day increasing the time for “walking”.
If the weather is overcast, then it will be nice to arrange eggplant seedlings before light. The plants then turn out to be less elongated and stronger.
Planting eggplant in the ground
As soon as the time of planting seedlings in the ground, the plants are transferred to a prepared place. Note, by this time, the plants should have 7 true leaves.
If your seedlings are in heated greenhouses, you can not worry about the return frost, but in open ground eggplants need to be planted only when the threat of freezing of the plants has passed.
Eggplants are particularly demanding on soil fertility, humidity and temperature. Planting should be carried out in cloudy weather (or prepare shading). The soil in the beds should be well moistened. Each plant is planted in a separate well. If possible, eggplant transplantation should be carried out without destroying the soil coma.
Between plants, leave a distance of at least 40 cm between plants and 60 cm between rows.
Care for transplanted seedlings eggplant does not differ from other cultures. Timely watering, loosening of the soil and top dressing will give you strong plants and a good harvest.
Remember about top dressing: 1 spend not earlier than 2 weeks after disembarkation of seedling, 2 top dressing - in three weeks after the first. As feed you can use a solution of superphosphate, urea
Eggplants are grown through seedlings and directly in the garden, depending on the temperature regime of the region. When planting eggplant seeds it is necessary to take into account that even with the right care, it growth takes a long time. Therefore, most often the plant is planted through seedlings.
Plant seeds are sown 2 months before direct transplantation into open groundi.e. in February and early March.
If you planted eggplants in mid-March, after the shoots appeared, they need to provide additional light with fluorescent lamps up to 80 watts in power before the dive (about a month).
They are hung horizontally at a distance of 50 cm from the seedlings and connected from 8-20 hours, and at night they must be turned off.
Early ripening varieties mature on average after 90 days. Flowering occurs at a temperature not lower than +20 degrees comes after 40 days, and you can harvest the first crop in another 30-32 days.
Popular ways to grow this culture
In this publication, you should learn about the preparation of eggplant seeds for planting on seedlings. Eggplant came to us from India, but very fond of and became widespread. Since this culture is southern, it is thermophilic and does not tolerate even a slight cooling, and also likes abundant watering. The soil respects light and rich. Therefore, to create all these conditions for the cultivation of an Indian guest is your task for obtaining a rich harvest.
Like any vegetable, eggplant can be grown in the following ways:
- Sow the seeds into the soil.
- Grow seedlings from seed.
But since eggplant develops of any varieties, including hybrid ones, for quite a long time, almost nowhere in our country, planting seeds in open ground is not practiced. But to grow it for seedlings - this is exactly what we will continue to tell you about.
Since his seedlings do not tolerate lowering the temperature below 10-10 ° C, do not even think of growing it at + 15 ° C.
From the first shoots to fruit ripening, it takes an average of four months, and this is when the soil is properly prepared. So an open way to grow eggplants is possible only in the southern regions of Russia. And even there, many gardeners still prefer to start growing seedlings, bearing in mind the capricious nature of this vegetable.
So how do you prepare the right seeds for growing
Note is to take a few options for disinfecting and soaking the seeds, although each experienced gardener may have their own characteristics and secrets in this matter.
Interesting fact: The technique of growing eggplant and bell pepper is almost the same; they can even grow on neighboring beds, but you shouldn’t put them in each other’s place. The quality of future seedlings directly depends on the quality of the preparatory work.
What time to sow.
If we consider the appropriate time, you should not trust the instructions on the package in such a case. Climatic conditions across the country are different, and cultivation and harvest directly depend on them. Therefore, not trusting the instructions and the Internet, we look at:
- Features of the climate in the region.
- Terms of ripening of this variety.
- Outdoor or indoor growing methods are recommended for this variety.
From planting seeds into the ground to planting seedlings in a prepared place, an average of 60 to 70 days passes. Therefore, it is very important to comply with certain conditions. Experts believe that seedlings planted in a permanent place after 70 - 80 days, ovaries more, and therefore, the overall yield will be higher, so the seedlings are planted better at this age. But also pay attention to the rate of maturation of the selected variety.
We select capacities for seeds and we select the correct soil.
Above, we have already mentioned the demanding of this vegetable to the soil. So for the seedlings should prepare a special mixture. Now peat tablets have become especially popular with gardeners. They are very convenient, especially if you choose the right size and pH, and prevent drying.
The best acidity for eggplant is 6.0 - 6.7. So for the soil, it is also worth adhering to these parameters.
And you can also mix the soil according to the following scheme:
- 2 pieces of quality commercial soil.
- 2 parts peat.
- 1 part of calcined river sand.
- 2 pieces of compost.
You can add a little bit of ash and superphosphate to it as a fertilizer. All this is thoroughly mixed and laid out in prepared forms. The form can even be ordinary plastic cups.Of these, it will be very convenient to transplant bushes, the root system of which does not tolerate damage that can happen by transplanting from a common container. Different varieties need to be isolated from each other, since the timing of seedlings they may vary.
We are preparing the seeds for sowing.
The best season for buying seeds is January - February - months. In February, it is already possible to plant seeds for seedlings. Before buying, you should carefully familiarize yourself with the characteristics of the variety and the method of its cultivation.
At bona fide producers, seeds are already qualitatively processed and it is not necessary to soak them at home again. You can immediately plant them in a moist soil and irrigate from the sprayer as needed. But just in case, we will analyze the process of preparing seeds, who knows, it will suddenly come in handy.
If you yourself are harvesting seeds for later planting, be sure to point out the year of collection. If the seeds were stored for more than four years, then you should not plant them, because their germination is in question.
The preparation of seeds for planting seedlings includes the following steps:
- Growth stimulation treatment.
The third point can not be used if you are confident in the seed producer and the quality of its products. But in any case, we begin the preparation with disinfection. Consider a couple of the easiest and most common ways.
The first. We give a scheme of thermal and chemical treatment.
We place our seeds in very warm water (+50 - 52С) and hold there for at least 25-30 minutes, without removing the dishes from a warm place, so that the water does not cool with time.
- Then we immediately place the seeds for 2 - 3 minutes in cold water.
- In a 0.01% solution of potassium humate or sodium, we withstand them for at least a day at room temperature.
- Second. It was used by our grandmothers, so it is most common.
- In a solution of 1.5% potassium permanganate, soak the seeds for 30 minutes.
- We wash the seeds, doing all this at room temperature.
- You can additionally place them in the “Epin” solution, acting according to the instructions. But still, with the second method, the infection inside the seeds may remain.
After disinfection of our seeds, you can do their further processing for better growth and development.
To improve the growth of seedlings eggplant, you can apply the following tools:
If these are not available, then they will definitely recommend their counterpart in the store. If the seeds have been treated with a growth stimulator, then they can no longer be germinated. Otherwise, put the seeds in gauze and wait for their seedlings.
Eggplant seeds have one curious feature - in addition to a hard shell, they also have a protective film that prevents germination. Otherwise in nature, once in the ground, they would germinate in the fall. But it is this film that does not make progress on this process. And so in February and March, you can wait for shoots for a very long time, and the treatment with growth stimulants makes sense.
Next, plant each seed in the grooves according to the instructions on the package. Landing depth, as a matter of fact, 2mm., It will be especially convenient to use a toothpick for this.
Practical tips on how to grow seedlings
Now you know how to prepare eggplant seeds for planting. But in addition to the above information, it is recommended to consider some more tips.
The abundance of light is an important factor for the germination and further growth of seeds, so we put our cups with planted seeds in a lighted place for 12 hours (usually artificially), and for the next 12 hours we remove them in a shaded place with a slight decrease in temperature, all this imitates them further stay in a permanent place with more natural environmental conditions. Phytolamp for lighting will be most welcome. You will understand that your seedlings do not have enough light along thin, sprouting stems high in height.
When watering can not use cold water.Only a warm and separated day! Observe the irrigation regime, as the dried soil and flooded with eggplant like death! And cold water can be a source of infection for fragile plants.
Despite the fact that eggplant is considered a capricious plant, if you follow the instructions on the packaging and advice of experienced gardeners, do not be lazy to maintain favorable conditions, then you will succeed and the harvest will appear before you in the best possible way!
You need to choose the seeds depending on the area in which you are going to grow the crop.
- First, it must be zoned varieties. Because only they can mature under the climatic conditions given by the nature of your area.
- Secondly, it is always better to purchase hybrids. This seed is characterized by accelerated germination, it can resist diseases and pests.
- Third, be sure to look at the timing of packing of seeds and their shelf life. Do not waste your time and effort on sowing material with an expired date - germination will be low and seedlings will not be viable.
- Fourthly, choose seeds prepared for planting in a special way - coated, granulated, glazed, inlaid. Around such seeds there is a special shell, in which there are all the substances necessary for the seed to germinate. This is a real "energy bomb", which is enough only to sow and water. In addition, the treated seeds do not need to be prepared for sowing.
A full cycle of preparation ensures good germination.
But, as practice shows, the majority of summer residents prefer to act using classical methods and prepare seed material for sowing on their own. For them - a full cycle of preparation, the observance of all stages of which guarantees good germination, strong seedlings, enduring healthy plants, a great harvest.
Eggplant seeds are medium in size compared to seeds of other garden crops. They are distinguished by relative "sameness". Seeds are not one to one, but close to it. Such a difference in size, as, for example, in cucumber seeds, is not observed. But seed calibration is still necessary. For what? Seeds of the same size, planted in one capacity, will give friendly shoots, will develop at the same speed, at the same time will be ready for planting and will not drown out and suppress each other in the process of growth.
Seeds of the same size, planted in one container, will give friendly shoots
Tip! This does not mean that small seeds should be thrown away, but only large seeds should be sown. Both large and small, and medium ones are sown, but in three different containers (if they are containers) or in different cups in groups.
What is subject to mandatory culling - deformed seeds, painted in a different, unnatural color, with stains, moldy. Typically, the calibration of seeds that are sold in the store, is carried out already at the stage of packing.
Like cucumbers, eggplants are tested for seed material suitability for planting by soaking in 3% saline solution. A glass of water is about a teaspoon with a slide. Stir the salt thoroughly so that no precipitate is left. Then lower the seeds into the solution in a free wide container (not in a glass). You can mix if air bubbles are formed to get rid of them. Seeds that floated are empty - they do not contain plant germs and are not suitable for planting. The rest are washed with water, dried and sent to the next preparatory stage.
Seed germination test
Tip! It happens that absolutely all the seeds emerge. Vinya unscrupulous manufacturers, gardeners throw them away and go for new ones. Do not hurry. Perhaps due to non-compliance of storage conditions, the seeds are overdried. Try them to germinate.
This method of preparation is usually applicable to tugovshy seeds larger than average, to which the eggplant does not apply. But if there is a desire to germinate them, you can use the same method as in the germination of seeds of all garden crops. The seeds washed from the salt solution are placed on gauze. Gauze is placed in a flat container (tray, saucer) and is abundantly moistened with water. The seeds should be inside the gauze, the fabric should not dry out, the germination temperature is high (it is best to place the container on or near the heater), but not above + 45 ° C. When sprouts appear (or do not appear), check germination at the same time.
Sprouting eggplant seeds
If the seeds are not processed by the manufacturer and do not have a special shell, disinfection is mandatory. There are many methods for this. The most proven and traditional of them is potassium permanganate. Several misconceptions about this and mistakes that inexperienced gardeners make.
- The more saturated the solution, the better the disinfection. Not. The solution should be one percent. It has a rather rich, but not dark purple color. Otherwise, the embryo inside the seeds just die.
- The longer to keep, the more germs will be destroyed. Not. Eggplant seeds in the solution should be no more than twenty minutes.
- If the soil is disinfected, the seeds do not need to be decontaminated. Pathogenic bacteria often carry the germ of a plant. Therefore, tillage will protect only the surface of the seed, which is not enough.
One-percent solution of potassium permanganate for disinfection of seeds
If you do not want to bother with sprouting, it makes sense to use growth stimulants. Yes, stimulants are “chemistry”, but they cannot be classified as aggressive chemicals. These drugs contribute to the accumulation of nutrients for better germination of seeds. They do not harm plants. But the benefits of them can be huge and multifaceted.
Heteroauxin for growth promoter
WITHwill gain potassium salt. Available in tablets. It promotes the rapid germination of seeds, the growth of new roots and adventitious roots, the appearance of bulbous flowers in bulbous flowers, the formation of new tubers in bulbotubes.
Root growth root stimulator
Similar to heteroauxin, can also be produced in tablets or powder. This drug is actively used when planting young saplings of fruit and ornamental shrubs, trees, roses. Also root helps to get accustomed to any cuttings and removes from the rest bulbs of hyacinths, tulips, daffodils, gladioli, begonia tubers and dahlias.
Contains hydroxycinnamic acid. It not only stimulates the energy of the seed, the formation and growth of roots, but also contributes to abundant flowering, and also increases the disease resistance of plants. Zircon protects plants from phytopathogenic bacteria and viruses. When zircon is used, the synthesis of chlorophyll in plant tissues is activated, and it also protects cells from harmful ultraviolet radiation. For the best effect, zircon is used together with heteroauxin or root. C and B1 and charcoal are added to the solution.
Epin growth stimulator
Alcohol solution of epibrassinolide, the action is similar to plant phytohormones. It is very good to soak the seeds for further cultivation in adverse conditions or on controversial soils.
Processing plants with stimulants occurs in two ways. If the drug is in powder, the roots, the bulbs or the cuttings are dipped in water and then in powder. Seeds are poured powder. From tablets (as well as from powder) it is possible to prepare a solution, and immerse the plants in it for the time specified in the table.
Choice of varieties
Over the past few years I have grown three varieties and one hybrid:
Sometimes I add the fifth for the sake of experiment, but in 2018 I will not, because a large crop of barberries is planned, and the area is not rubber. By the way, not a single “fifth” has yet turned out to be better than those listed above.
Capacity for planting eggplant seedlings any suitable.
Air and moisture pass through the peat base well, which does not allow remaining moisture to remain.
Also for planting eggplant seedlings make good use of plastic cups or special cassettes. Convenience lies in the fact that each seedling is in a separate section and it does not need to dive, it is safe to transfer from the house to the garden, the same conditions are created for each plant.
If there is none of the above, then planted in trays or boxes with a further dive. It should be borne in mind that this operation leads to inevitable damage to the underdeveloped root system and slow growth, as long as the plant does not get sick.
Soil mix preparation
I am preparing the soil for planting eggplants on seedlings in the fall. The mixture consists of humus, compost (actually leafy ground), coarse sand and neutralized peat in a ratio of 1: 1: 1: 1. In fact, it is not because it is the only possible option, but because I have these components. Compost can be replaced with turfy ground, and peat with peat compost. If there is no humus, you can add instead a similar amount of humus.
The resulting mixture is best left in the open air until spring. It will freeze, thaw, it will go normal processes for the soil, etc. In such a frozen mixture, seedlings grow better than in the prepared immediately before sowing.
Two weeks before sowing eggplants on seedlings, the prepared soil should be transferred to a heated room. Before distributing the soil to the boxes, I add mineral fertilizers - ammonium sulfate, potassium sulfate and double superphosphate. All in the amount of a tablespoon with a slide on a large bucket.
Can I use the finished soil?
You can, if you are confident in its quality. With this, domestic manufacturers have problems.
The same soil mixture is suitable for sowing seedlings of sweet and hot peppers. In principle, seedlings of other vegetable crops also grow well in it. This is a universal light mixture - it provides a favorable air and water regime, has optimum acidity and contains everything necessary for the development of young plants.
Selection and preparation of capacity
Eggplant seedling container should have a depth of not less than 10 cm. Drainage holes should be made in the bottom. If it is impossible to make holes, a layer of drainage is placed at the bottom with a thickness of 1.5 ... 2 cm. It is best to use expanded clay, but gravel or coarse sand are also suitable. I still make holes.
So, we pour the soil into the container - it is necessary to fill in so much that about 2 cm remains up to the edge of the pot or box. Two days before sowing the seeds, I pour plenty of water into the soil.
On the day of sowing, the soil must be mixed again, then gently level and slightly compacted. For this purpose, you can use the usual plank.
Eggplants seed dressing
I have not found any scientific work in which the effectiveness of different methods of etching would be evaluated. Vegetable books and reputable publications recommend the following options:
- Soak in a 1% solution of potassium permanganate for 20 minutes, then rinse with clean water and dry.
- Soak in a solution that contains 1% potassium permanganate and 0.5% boric acid for 20 minutes. After soaking, the seeds are washed and dried.
- Soaking in a 3% solution of hydrogen peroxide at a temperature of about 45 ° C - it is believed that the peroxide not only disinfects the seeds, but also increases the germination and germination energy. For tomatoes there really are such publications. Rinse does not need peroxide quickly collapses.
- Soaking in a solution of fitolavin with a concentration of 0.3%.
I use potassium permanganate, simply because it is more affordable and guaranteed to be effective.
Eggplant Seed Warming
Dry warming of seeds is carried out for 30 minutes at a temperature of about 45 ... 50ºС. After that, the seeds are cooled indoors at room temperature.
Wet heating is carried out in water with a temperature of 50 ... 55 ºС for 30 minutes. After that, the seeds are cooled with water at room temperature and dried. It is advisable to warm up the day before sowing or soaking.
Is it possible to check the germination of eggplant seeds by immersing them in salt water?
It is believed that the full-weighted seeds will sink, and empty, unfit for planting float. This is not quite true. Firstly, in my experience, a substantial part of the seed that emerges also germinates - simply because they can be light for various reasons. Secondly, the density of the seeds of the second and subsequent years of storage varies, and often almost everything floats. In general, if you need to check the germination of a batch of seeds of eggplant, it is better to simply germinate them on gauze.
Termination depth and landing pattern
The seeding depth is 0.5 ... 1 cm. You shouldn’t definitely embed deeper than 1.5 cm.
The planting scheme is 2 x 4 cm. If you plan to sow eggplant in common crates, the seedlings will later have to be planted (so-called picking). You can immediately plant the seeds in individual pots with a volume of 0.5 liters. Smaller capacity tanks are inconvenient because loose soil dries them too quickly.
Eggplant is a heat-loving plant: at temperatures below 15 ° C, its seeds do not germinate at all, and the optimum temperature for seed germination is 25 ... 27 ° C with soil moisture of about 80%. If you just put the box with the future seedlings on the window sill, such conditions are not achieved. Therefore, after sowing, the seeds should be sprinkled with soil and watered with warm water from a spray bottle.
Then the boxes and pots are covered with glass or film and put in the warmest place - in a regular city apartment it is located in the bathroom under the bathroom.
In the future, the boxes open daily to wind the soil and, if necessary, water it. After the appearance of the first shoots (usually they appear on the 8th ... 12th day after sowing), the boxes are transferred to the brightest place and supplemented by additional light.
Preparing seeds for planting: stock check
There is a sowing characteristics of seeds, including a number of characteristics, some of which must be controlled without fail. First of all, it is about germination. This is especially true if the seeds were purchased from a seller who did not impress you as a reliable person, and also if they were stored incorrectly or for too long. Germination energy is also a property that testifies to the quality of seeds and their vitality.
These parameters are determined simultaneously, and this cannot be done immediately before sowing. Check the stock in advance so that if necessary it is time to replace the seed.
So, prepare the seeds for planting according to all the rules. Fine seeds (onions, carrots, radishes, tomatoes, turnips, parsley) should be 100-200 pcs., Medium (cucumbers, melons, watermelon, beets, peas) - 50-100 pcs., Large (pumpkin, beans, patissons , squash, beans) - 20-50 pieces. With such a sample, the result obtained can be considered quite reliable. But the package does not always contain the right amount of seeds, so, despite the reasonableness of this requirement, it will be necessary to limit to 10 seeds.
When preparing seeds for sowing, use a plate to check stocks (it is very convenient to use Petri dishes), cover it with filter paper or gauze folded in several layers, moisten. Make sure that during the test the substrate remains constantly wet, there should be enough water so that the seeds can swell, but they should not float in it. Spread the seeds and cover with glass.
Different crops require a certain ambient temperature:
- for seeds of sweet pepper, eggplants and cucumbers - from 25 to 30 ° C,
- 18-20 ° C is sufficient for the remaining seeds.
After the entire inspection during seed preparation for planting is done, record the number of seeds and the date of the beginning of the inventory. Every day, inspect them and remove the sprouted, while making sure to fix their number and current date.
Determination of germination of seed germination in preparation for planting
Each culture is characterized by a certain germination and germination energy. They are expressed as a percentage of seeds that sprouted or nod in the time allotted for this, to their total amount of seed. For example, if 90 out of 100 seeds adequately reacted, then germination will be 90%. If their number does not exceed 40-60 pcs., It is necessary either not to use such material (if there is a substitute), or to increase the seeding rate, although it must be borne in mind that numerous non-germinated seeds rot in the soil, which, in turn, will seedlings disease. If you still have to sow poorly or poorly sprouting seeds, then pre-germinate them, and for sowing, select only those that have been planted.
Determination of germination and germination energy of vegetable seeds:
The dates presented in the table may vary, since it is intended to create an optimal regime for germination. But in any case, do not sow the seeds that were not laid at the specified time.
After the situation has been clarified with germination, the time has come for the preplant preparation of seeds. The purpose of this procedure is to rid the material of pathogens, increase its viability and reduce the time of germination.
Methods of pre-sowing seed preparation and selection of planting material
There are several ways of preplant seed preparation. The main ones are:
- selection and calibration of seeds,
- processing with microelements and biologically active substances,
To get a high yield in optimal time, you need to seriously address the problem of presowing seed preparation. Seed preparation for planting should begin with the selection of planting material, which must be calibrated, that is equally large and well executed. Only such material will give the expected result.
If few seeds are needed for sowing, it is easy to manually pick up damaged or empty seeds. With a lot of it is much harder to do this. In this case, resort to a simple preparation procedure: seeds intended for sowing on seedlings or in open ground, immerse in 3% (for cucumbers) or 5% (for tomatoes, sweet peppers and eggplants) salt solution ( use and ammonium nitrate). Pour them in portions, stirring to remove air bubbles, then leave for 3-5 minutes. You will see that some of them have sunk to the bottom, while others, on the contrary, have risen to the surface. The latter are of no interest, since, most likely, they are frail and it is highly doubtful that they will ascend.
Carefully collect them, then strain the solution together with the remaining high-grade seeds through a sieve, rinse them under running water and dry. It is advisable to evaluate the seed in terms of size, since it is possible that both small and large seeds will be valuable. In this case, before preparing the seeds for sowing on seedlings or in open ground, calibrate them.
You can add the following:
- about cucumber, it should be noted that the use of saline solution is possible for the analysis of extremely fresh seeds.The fact is that during storage they dry up, losing their original density, and therefore float in solution, although they actually have high sowing characteristics. If this is neglected, you can remain seedless,
- pea seeds more than others need to be selected, as they often turn out to be infected with pea weevil. They just need to pour in cold water, mix and after some time, remove the surfaced. The same should be done with the seeds of corn and beans.
Seed preparation before planting: disinfection
After the completion of the first stage of seed preparation for sowing in open ground or seedlings, proceed to the next. All seeds (both purchased and own) must be disinfected, since it was found that in 80% of cases infected seeds are to blame for vegetable diseases and only 20% of them are transmitted through the soil. Externally, the ideal seeds may well be a source of dangerous infections. Therefore, when selecting, pay attention to the color (for example, usually light seeds can change their color) and the presence of any dark spots. It is best to get rid of everything suspicious (including packaging), so that you do not have to deal with diseases and pests later.
The method of disinfecting seeds in preparation for sowing involves heat treatment and chemical dressing. In recent years, seeds that have undergone special training (as a rule, sellers warn about this) are often found on sale, and often coated seeds, such as carrots, are often sold. Both those and others do not need disinfection.
Heat treatment is a simple and effective method of preseeding seed preparation. Warming up, carried out according to the rules, guarantees complete purification of seeds from harmful microorganisms. First of all, it is shown for those who lose their germination more slowly than they get rid of the infection. These include cabbage seeds, tomatoes, eggplants, Physalis and beets. Despite the fact that the latter does not have a high heat resistance, it is necessary to resort to warming up, since chemical dressing is less effective because of the uneven surface of beet seeds.
Gardeners are available only one method of heat treatment in the preparation of seeds for sowing in the ground or on seedlings - keeping in hot water. So that you do not have to choose the seeds from the tank one by one, put them in a gauze bag and put them in a thermos with hot water. The disadvantage of this treatment is that complete disinfection requires a sufficiently high temperature, as a result of which up to 30% of seeds may lose germination. But this can be considered the selection of the most viable material. To reduce the risk, you must strictly adhere to the recommended mode, so you will need a thermometer and a clock.
Warming mode of vegetable seeds:
To avoid irreversible effects after being in hot water, immediately immerse the seeds in cold water for 2-3 minutes.
Warming is recommended for those seeds that were stored in the refrigerator. This will significantly increase the rate of their germination.
Another available method of disinfection is seed dressing in potassium permanganate solution, although it is not able to rid them of the infection that has penetrated inside. Therefore, seed treatment with a solution of potassium permanganate ensures the destruction of only those pathogens that are on the surface.
Before you prepare the seeds for planting seedlings or in open ground, keep in mind that seeds of different vegetable crops require different processing modes. But regardless of this, it should be carried out at room temperature and be completed by washing the seed with clean water.
The mode of disinfection of vegetable seeds with potassium permanganate solution:
Before you prepare the seeds for planting, you need to prepare a solution. To prepare a 1% solution in 1 liter of water, dilute 10 g of potassium permanganate, for a 2% solution, 20 g. In order not to spoil everything and not be left without seeds at all, greater accuracy must be observed. In this regard, it is desirable to have a pharmacy scales in the house, so as not to increase or decrease the concentration of the solution, since increasing the dosage will destroy the seeds, and a decrease will not allow to achieve the expected result. But there is a way without weighing to prevent mistakes in the calculations. Potassium permanganate can be measured by volume, for which you should use a regular teaspoon, which holds 6 g of the substance. To get 1% solution, 1 tsp. without top (remove a hill with a knife) dissolve in 3 glasses (600 ml), and for 2% - in 1.5 glasses of water (300 ml). The liquid will be almost black, but this is exactly what you need. Otherwise, decontamination will not take place.
Attention should be paid to the following: there is no complete disinfection even when stuck material is processed, which is particularly susceptible to tomato seeds. To ensure a full result, separate them by rubbing the lumps in their hands. For this reason, a more efficient way to process the seeds of tomatoes is to warm up.
Seed preparation for planting seedlings: soaking in water
Having disinfected the seeds, dry them and can start sowing on seedlings or in the ground. But for greater reliability, it is worth making a soak. It is shown for plants whose seeds germinate with difficulty. These include onions, sweet peppers, parsnips, carrots, parsley, etc. When soaking, the seeds swell from moisture, causing the shell to burst easily, and germination and germination accelerate.
If you seriously approached the operation called “Preparing seeds for seedlings or for planting in the ground”, you must adhere to the following rules:
- Approximately two-thirds fill a gauze bag with seeds and dip it in water, the amount of which is determined by the culture. For plants such as carrots, parsley, beets, beans, peas, parsnips and celery, the amount of water should be 80-100% of the seed mass, for cucumbers and melons - 50-55%, for watermelon and cabbage - 50-60% , and for tomatoes - 70-75%.
- Quickly germinating seeds (peas, beans) soaking is enough for 2 hours, slowly germinating (parsley, carrots, onions, celery) - 36-48 hours, and most other crops (tomatoes, cucumbers, all kinds of cabbage) need 8-12 for swelling hours Keeping seeds in water for a longer time is not recommended.
- The water temperature should also be determined: for heat-loving plants - 18–20 ° C, and for cold-resistant plants - 15–18 ° C.
- In the process of implementing this method of preparing seeds for sowing, mix planting material and change water 3-4 times, especially if its color changes.
- After completing this stage, dry the seeds, and then you can sow them in the seedling boxes or continue the preparation and put them in germination.
Preparing seeds for sowing seedlings: soaking in solution
Soaking seeds will be even more useful if you do not fill them with water, but with a solution containing biologically active substances (epine, humate, zircon, aloe juice).
Epin is a substance of plant origin that combines the properties of a growth stimulator and a universal adaptogen. After treatment with this solution, plants more easily and quickly adapt to such adverse factors as lack of light, lack of moisture, excessive moisture, overheating, overcooling, etc. Epin is sold in 1 ml ampoules (50 drops), which must be stored in the refrigerator.
It should be used as follows, and more than 10 times to heat and pour the drug is not strongly recommended. So, prepare the seeds for sowing by soaking in a solution of epin:
- Remove the vial and hold it at room temperature for 20-30 minutes (you can warm it for several minutes in your hand).
- When the contents of the ampoule become transparent, shake it, pour 2 drops of the solution into 100 ml of water, mix and fill it with seeds that must be disinfected beforehand.
- Leave the seeds in the solution for 12-24 hours, stirring occasionally.
- After this time, drain the solution, then dry the seeds and sow or germinate them.
In its chemical composition, humate is a sodium or potassium salt of humic acid. In its action, it resembles epin. They are united by the fact that in plants after being in a solution of epine or humate, sensitivity to negative circumstances that may accompany the process of growing vegetables decreases, and their resistance to diseases increases.
Usually, potassium or sodium humate is sold as a powder, but sometimes there are solutions that vary in their concentration. The most suitable is ballastless humate produced from peat, as it is completely dissolved in water. Such a tool should not be prepared in advance, it is better to do this immediately before use, after reading the instructions. The solution for soaking seeds may have a concentration of 0.01% or 0.005%. First you need to prepare a 1% solution, for which, in 100 ml of water, dissolve 1 g of dry matter, put it in a refrigerator and use as needed. To prepare a 0.01% solution of 1 ml of the liquid obtained (for convenience, take a syringe), pour in 100 ml of water, and if the amount of the latter is increased 2 times and pour the same amount of humate as originally, you will have 0.005% - niy solution.
As in the treatment with epin, the seeds soaked in humate must be pre-disinfected. The dwell time is 24 hours, and the optimum temperature is 26-28 ° C. In order for the seeds to be uniformly moistened with the working solution, sometimes mix them. After the expiry of the due date, pour them into a sieve and rinse them under running water. Then proceed as follows: either dry them and sow in the seed boxes, or put on sprouting.
The humate is suitable not only for preparing seeds for planting seedlings or planting them in the ground, it works well if you water the crops, and be sure to take a fresh solution, and not the one in which the seed has been soaked.
Zircon is called a drug that is made on the basis of chicoric acid, derived from echinacea. It stimulates rooting and accelerates seed germination.
Prepare the solution according to the enclosed instructions and dip the seeds into it. For sweet pepper, 2 drops per 300 ml of water and 16–18 hours of exposure are sufficient; for cucumber, corn, and pumpkin, 2 drops per 300 ml of water are also needed, but a 10-hour soak is required. The water temperature should be 23-25 ° C.
Of course, the list of various growth stimulants is not limited to the presented substances - there are more than 50 of them (solutions of heteroauxin (0.03-0.06%), succinic acid (0.001-0.002%), gibberellin (0.001-0.1% - ny) and others), but a characteristic feature of epin, humate and zircon is their environmental friendliness. Moreover, they are not only safe, but also useful for plants.
Aloe juice has the same properties, but, unlike the above preparations, it is not compatible with all vegetable crops. It is recommended to soak the seeds of tomatoes, eggplants, lettuce and various types of cabbage for 24 hours. However, for the seeds of onion, celery, sweet pepper or pumpkin crops, this tool is not suitable.
For processing, select the leaves of a three-year plant. If there are even minor defects (yellowed or dried out tips, not enough intense coloring) they will not work.Cut off the lower leaves and keep them in the refrigerator for 3-7 days, then chop and squeeze the juice, which then pour the seeds (as in previous cases, they must be decontaminated beforehand). When the allotted time expires without rinsing, sow them in boxes or in the ground or leave for germination.
Some growers prefer to soak the seeds in a solution of wood ash. To do this, first prepare the hood, the gulf of 160 - 200 g of dry ash 10 liters of water. After two days of exposure, carefully drain the liquid, while ensuring that the suspension remains at the bottom. This solution can be used by placing the seeds in it for 4-6 hours. After processing, they will be ready for sowing after a little drying.
When soaking seeds in a solution of biologically active substances observe a certain mode. For example, the air temperature should be above 20 ° C, since as it decreases, the treatment efficiency decreases.
How to prepare seeds for planting seedlings: bubbling
The effect of soaking can be enhanced by further enriching the water with oxygen. This type of seed preparation before planting is called bubbling. It has a positive effect on the seeds, accelerating germination and enhancing the growth of seedlings. To the greatest extent, this procedure is recommended for slowly germinating seeds, in particular for crops such as carrots, dill, parsley, onions, celery, spinach, leeks.
At home, for this purpose, you can use a conventional compressor, through which air is injected into an aquarium with fish. Prepare a sufficiently tall vessel, fill it halfway with water, pour in the seeds, lower the compressor tube to the bottom.
Using this method of preparing vegetable seeds for sowing, pay attention to a number of important points:
- water cannot be replaced by another liquid, in particular a solution of epine or humate,
- bubbling always precedes seed disinfection,
- if the water gets a different color when bubbling, it is necessary to replace it,
- processing efficiency increases if water is used for the first 2-3 hours, and then replaced with a 0.4-0.5% solution of potassium nitrate and phosphate (take the substances in equal proportions), but 1-2 hours before the end of the procedure, instead of him in the tank again fill the water
- after bubbling, treat the seeds with potassium permanganate solution (it is not recommended to warm them up), dry to a flowability state and sow. If for any reason this is not possible, sprinkle them in a thin layer in a well-ventilated room. The effect of bubbling persists even after several months. But keep in mind that seeds treated in this way (this applies equally to wetted ones and to sprouted seeds) cannot be sown either in overmoistened or dry soil, because tender seedlings will die due to lack of oxygen (in the first case) or water ( in the second).
Some technical details:
- The ratio of seeds and water in the vessel should be 1: 4 or 1: 5.
- The water temperature should be from 20 to 24 ° C.
- The time of bubbling is reduced by 30%, if not ordinary air is supplied to the container, but oxygen (working with it, care should be taken; moreover, this option is not recommended due to its insecurity).
- The optimal duration of the bubbling of seeds of various crops varies:
- watermelon - 24-48 hours,
- eggplant - 24-27 hours,
- peas -8-12 hours
- melon - 15-18 hours
- onions - 14-24 hours
- carrots - 15-18 hours
- cucumber - 15-18 hours,
- sweet pepper - 24-36 hours,
- radish -8-12 hours
- parsley - 12-18 hours,
- tomato - 10-17 hours,
- leaf lettuce - 10-12 hours,
- beets - 12-13 hours
- celery - 18-24 hours
- dill - 12-18 hours
- spinach - 17-24 hours.
The main methods of presowing seed preparation: germination and vernalization
Wet seeds are ready for germination.Spread the seeds in a thin layer on a moistened cloth, cover with a napkin and leave in a room in which the temperature is maintained at 25-30 ° C. When the seeds are folded, be careful not to break the seedling, take each of them with tweezers and put them in seedlings or the soil. This process is quite laborious, but thanks to it you will select only the most viable seeds that will sprout quickly.
Another of the most basic methods of presowing seed preparation is vernalization (cooling). This, of course, will require a sufficient amount of time, but will provide an increase in the cold resistance of plants and the production of an early harvest. Place the container with sprouted seeds scattered in a thin layer (do not wait until everything germinates - 3-5% is enough) put in a refrigerator (you can bury it in the snow or put it on ice). For different crops, appropriate regimes are recommended, for example, for cabbage is 10-15 days at a temperature of 0-3 ° C, and for carrots, onions and parsley - 10-15 days at a temperature of -1 - + 1ͦ С,
When preparing seeds before sowing, it is necessary to pay attention to the fact that vernalization is recommended for a limited list of vegetables, in particular for the named ones. This is explained by the fact that some crops (radishes, beets, radishes, etc.) are susceptible to marksmanship, and cooling down can intensify this negative phenomenon.
The method of preparation of vegetable seeds for sowing: hardening
Increased cold resistance and plant resistance (especially heat-loving) to temperature differences, which are often noted in spring — during active seeding, are hardened seeds.
To prepare the seeds for sowing, hardening can be done in two ways:
- Maintain seeds at variable temperatures. To do this, put them in bags, cover with water and leave for 6 hours (for cucumbers) or 12 hours (for tomatoes), then let the liquid drain and put the seeds of cucumbers for 12 hours, first in heat (15-20 ° C) and then in the cold (—1— + 3 ° С). If positive temperatures are the same for all crops, then negative temperatures vary: for tomatoes 1 - + 5 ° С, for eggplants, sweet peppers, melons, watermelon - -1-2 ° C. The processing time is also different: for cucumbers, this is 5-7 days, and for the rest - 10-12 days.
- Subject short-term freezing of seeds: for cucumbers enough stay in the cold (2-5 ° C) for 2-3 days, and for the rest - 3-5 days at a temperature of +3 - -3 ° C.
Plants grown from hardened seeds begin to bear fruit 12-15 days ahead of time, and, as a rule, the crop is more abundant.
How to prepare seeds for sowing seedlings: drazhirovanie
There are many advantages of such methods as drazhirovanie seeds, the essence of which lies in the fact that they are covered with a special mixture of adhesive component and nutrients. To do this, use peat, humus and sod land, which must be pre-dried in the sun or in the oven on a baking sheet (moisture should not exceed 10%) and sift through a sieve with 3 mm cells.
Before preparing seeds for seedlings or for planting in open ground, use a strained aqueous solution of mullein (1: 4) as a glue component, polyacrylamide of 0.02% concentration (sold in the form of gel or powder, additionally included in 16% nitrogen), 2% starch paste, 0.5% sugar solution. To enhance the efficiency, mix it with potash and nitrogen fertilizers (1-2 g each of ammonium and potassium nitrate and potassium sulphate per 1 liter), add the following microelements (40 mg manganese sulphate and boric acid, 10 mg of copper vitriol, 300 mg of ammonium molybdate acid , 200 mg of zinc sulphate per 1 l).
For 10 g of seeds, take 40-100 g of dry mix (particle diameter for carrot seeds should not exceed 0.15 mm, for tomatoes - 0.25 mm, for beets and cucumbers - 0.5 mm) and 300-500 ml of adhesive solution .At the enterprises for drazhirovanija special installations intend, and in house conditions the usual glass jar will approach. Calibrate and decontaminate the seeds before proceeding to the coating. After that, sprinkle them with adhesive. So that it evenly covers the seed from all sides, vigorously rotate the can, placing seeds and liquid in it. When they begin to separate from each other, pour in small portions of the dry mixture, without ceasing to rotate the container, so that the substance covers the seeds from all sides. After 2-3 minutes, moisten them again and powder them again. Continue to do so, until the seeds turn into 3-4 mm pills sized for small seeds, 5-6 mm for medium sized seeds and 10 mm for large ones.
In conclusion, scatter them in a thin layer and dry if you plan to sow immediately, or leave at a temperature of 30-35 ° C for 5 hours (avoid direct sunlight, otherwise the shell may crack) if you intend to store them for a long time. In addition, it must be borne in mind that pelleted seeds require light, aerated, well-warmed and optimally moistened soils. Compliance with these conditions is very important, because in dry soil the seed coat will not collapse for a long time, and in too moist soil there will not be enough oxygen for germination. In both cases, seed germination will suffer. The coated seeds have several advantages: firstly, the seeding rate is reduced, therefore, the seed is saved (by about 30-40%), secondly, it is much easier to do, that is, sowing becomes less laborious, which is especially important for small seeds parsley and carrots, thirdly, shoots will be uniform.
Some seeds, such as parsley, carrots, onions and beets, difficult to germinate (for this reason, they are called torso) due to the fact that they are covered with a very strong shell, which is hardly destroyed.
Methods of preparing seeds for sowing: sanding (with video)
To facilitate this process, the seeds can be subjected to sanding (stratification), which is carried out in the following sequence:
- Pour the seeds into gauze bags and immerse in water (temperature 15-20 ° C) for about 1 hour. Stir them several times during this time so that the wetting proceeds evenly.
- After that, remove, gently squeeze out the excess liquid, sprinkle into the sowing boxes or on plates with a layer of 3-5 cm, cover with a wet sacking and leave for 4-5 days to swell. The room temperature should be 15-20 ° C.
- Mix the seeds with dry sand in a ratio of 1: 5 or 1: 7.
- Fill the boxes 1-3 cm with moistened sand, cover with linen or burlap. Distribute the seeds evenly (layer thickness - 2-3 cm), cover with a cloth and pour lightly moistened sand with a layer of 1 cm. In this form, place the box on ice or in a refrigerator. The ambient air temperature should be approximately 0 ° C, but fluctuations from -1 to 3 ° C are possible.
- After 3-4 days, remove the cloth with the sand and sift the seeds. If they are too wet, dry them and start sowing.
Remember that when sanding, the weight of the seeds increases due to the absorbed moisture, which must be taken into account when determining the seeding rate.
All of these methods, how to properly prepare the seeds for planting, are not strictly mandatory. For each culture, you need to choose only those that are really necessary. It is easiest and quite effective to combine disinfection with any kind of stimulation.
Watch a video of seed preparation for sowing, where all the basic techniques are shown:
Planting technology for eggplant seedlings
Slow growth of eggplant occurs when excessive acidification of the soil, dense planting, lack of sunlight and heat, low humidity. Early ripening varieties of eggplants reach technical maturity in 85-100 days after transplanting.Planting eggplants for seedlings is usually carried out in February or March (early ripe varieties of eggplant).
Preparing for planting seedlings
Growing eggplant seedlings has its own characteristics. This culture is characterized by a long period of growth. Of all the nightshade they are the most demanding of heat and light. Eggplant seedlings with too thick planting, acidified soil, prolonged cloudy weather, insufficient humidity and other adverse conditions slow down their growth.After picking, containers with seedlings are placed in the shade for 4 days, and then transferred again to a bright place.
If roots do not grow well in seedlings, then it must be fed with this solution: 2 tablespoons of superphosphate and 1 teaspoon of potassium sulfate per 10 liters of water.
- Watering rules:
- Temperature condition:
- Processing the prepared land with boiling water,
Planting dates differ
The package should not indicate the weight of the seeds, but their number.
Varieties to diseases, pests and bad weather. Only hardy varieties of eggplants can give a guaranteed stable yield.Eggplants have long become very popular both in the world and in our country. Eggplants are used to prepare various tasty dishes, and eggplants are also very beneficial for human health. But the benefits will be even greater if you grow your own eggplants. But, as in any kind of activity, you need to know what to do and how, and first of all, where to start.Eggplant seedlings need to be planted in prepared soil mixtures. To prepare the soil for seedlings, you can use a mixture of sod land and humus (in a 1: 2 ratio). It is permissible to apply the soil mixture of peat, sand and sod land (in proportions 5: 1: 4) for planting seedlings of eggplant. Peat, fermented sawdust, diluted mullein (ratio 3: 1: 0.5) - this mixture is also used for planting eggplant seedlings.
The technical ripeness of even early ripening varieties of eggplants is 85-100 days. Planting eggplant seedlings (mostly early ripening varieties) begins in February or early March, depending on the region.
Seedlings are planted in open soil when seven true leaves appear on sprouts. By this time, the seedlings should grow to a height of 20-25 cm.
To improve the growth of eggplant seedlings and disease prevention in the container with sprouts
Water once every 5–6 days with warm distilled water (temperature about 30 ° C).After the appearance of sproutsBut, of course, it is best to purchase the prepared soil mixture from a reliable manufacturer.
From each other. Below are data for central Russia.
Selection of seed manufacturer
On the package should be the date of collection of seeds, and not their expiration date.
- If it is necessary that eggplants can be stored for a long time without loss of quality, then the seeds should be selected by this criterion.
- And we must begin with planting and growing seedlings. Growing eggplants without seedlings even in the south of Russia is very problematic - after all, eggplants are very thermophilic plants.
- In any soil mixture, you must add a few mineral fertilizers: potassium salt (40 g), ammonium sulphate (12 g), superphosphate (40 g). All mineral components are added per 10 kg of soil mixture. The land a day before sowing eggplant poured into the seedling boxes.
- For seedlings eggplant should use the following soil mixture:
- 20-30 days before planting, seedlings begin to harden. Eggplant seedlings are accustomed to open air (taken out onto the street or balcony, if the temperature is not lower than 10 ° C) and gradually reduce its watering. During hardening, it is necessary to protect seedlings from wind and direct sun.
How to prepare the soil for eggplant seedlings?
In order to prepare the soil for further planting of seedlings, it is necessary before the autumn digging garden to make it into on 1 sq.m. 4 kg of humus and 500 g of superphosphate.
Add 100 - 150 g of potassium chloride.
It is recommended to land at the past landing site not earlier than two, but preferably three years.
Soil for seedlings with their own hands
Based on one bucket, four parts of peat are mixed, three parts of humus or compost, river sand is used to put one part. When the mixture is ready, 3 matchboxes of superphosphate and a glass of wood ash are added to it (half a cup of potassium sulfate will also work). Then mix the resulting mixture thoroughly.
In order to watering does not wash the soil, from the surface of the soil to the upper edge of the box leave a gap of up to 2 cm.
Preparing eggplant seeds for sowing seedlings
Consider in more detail how to prepare the seeds for planting eggplant seedlings?
Before planting seeds pretreatment is requiredto enhance germination. First you need to carry out the procedure of disinfecting seeds. It is carried out using a solution of manganese-acid potassium for 25 minutes.
Then the seeds are washed with clean water and laid out in fabric pockets in a bowl with a nutrient solution for one day. It includes: 1 liter of water, heated to 25-28 degrees, 1 tsp. nitrofoski (if not, then you can replace the nitrophore with wood ash or liquid sodium humate as well).
When the seed pockets undergo the soaking procedure in the nutrient solution, they need to be removed and slightly sprayed with water. Then for 1-2 days at a temperature of 30 degrees before the germination of seeds to shift on a plate.
Bags must be kept moist. In the case when eggplant seeds are planted on seedlings already germinated, then shoots can be expected already on the 5th or 6th day.
Seeds if necessary can be hardened. To do this, they need after the nutrient solution to shift to the bottom shelf of the refrigerator (2-5 degrees) for 2 days, then for 1 day to place in a warm place (18 degrees), then move again to the refrigerator for 2 days.
If the preparation of eggplant seeds for planting on seedlings was successful, then the chances of getting a good harvest increase significantly.
Eggplant seedlings can be grown with or without a dive. Eggplant seedlings heavily transfers pick, as the root system is very delicate and poorly restored. But if there is a need for a future dive, for example, there are no additional pots for individual planting, then some rules must be followed.
While the seedlings are at the growth stage, its watered a little fertilizer at the root instead of water.
With a dive of seedlings, the dishes for planting are filled with 7 cm of soil mixture, then leveled and compacted a little. Furrows are made at a distance of 5-6 cm from each other by 1-1.5 cm in depth, they are shed with water, then seeds are placed in them at a distance of 2 cm from each other.
Next, the grooves fall asleep and slightly compacted. Top crops covered with glass or film to preserve moisture and temperature (on average, 20-26 degrees). Sprouts will appear on the 6-10 day.
After sprouting germs, glass or film must be removed and the air temperature in the room should be reduced. During the day during the week support is on average +17 degrees, and at night +14 degrees.
Then the temperature is raised during the day to +27 degrees, and at night to +14 degrees. This climate is favorable for the development of roots and prepares seedlings for the outdoor climate. Hardening will help the plant to experience less stress and easier to settle down.
Watering, dressing and lighting
The first ten days you need to do watering no more than once a week, frequent watering it will weaken. Water is preferably heated to 25-28 degrees. If possible, before the first shoots, use a sprayer so as not to wash the seeds and not bare the roots.
Required avoid watering leaves on wateringIt causes fungal diseases. Shoots for prevention need to pour a pink solution of potassium permanganate. In the future, eggplant seedlings need to be watered more often as the topsoil dries.
Lack of moisture leads to early lignification of the stem and a decrease in yield. Peat pots are best placed in coasters that need to be replenished periodically with water as it evaporates.
The first feeding is carried out on the 7-10 day after germination, and in the case of a dive - 10-12 days after this procedure. Fertilizers must contain phosphorus to form the root system. Then fertilize the seedlings no more than 7-10 days to stimulate the plant during the growing season. Fertilize necessary with watering.
So that the seedlings grow well, do not overly stretch and do not weaken, she extra light needed. You can use phytolamps or luminescent. It should be switched on from 8–20 pm at a distance of 50 cm.
To seedlings eggplant in the future could enjoy the crop, alternate watering with fertilizer, once a month, sprinkle with wood ash. Water in the morning, give hardening seedlings.
Planting seedlings on the street is more favorable in May or early June - this directly depends on the planting of seeds. Understand that it is ready when you have about 12 real sheets formed on it. It is planted in the garden with a nutritious clot of earth from the pot.
If done correctly, then 3 months after the emergence of seedlings, the seedlings are ready for planting in open ground.
When watering should be moistened all the soil.Film must be removedWhen sowing with picking, seed boxes are used, and without picking, individual plastic cups or pots are made of material that dissolves in the soil (peat pots are most convenient) or special cassettes with sections for shoots.
In the case of growing eggplants in the greenhouse, sowing should begin closer to the end of February or in early March and then the seedlings will be planted around the beginning of the third decade of May.
During preparation, the seeds are sequentially heated, pickled, hardened, soaked and dried.
Choice between hybrid or regular varieties:
Selection of seeds for planting
Eggplant seeds for sowing
It is recommended to choose cups or pots with a size of 8 × 8 or 10 × 10 cm. The same dimensions are optimal for sections in cassettes.If eggplants are planted in open ground, then sowing should begin in mid-March, and then the seedlings will be planted at the end of May or in case of cold weather - until 10 June.Correctly done
The fundamental difference between these varieties is that eggplant hybrid varieties can not give offspring.
- This is a very important and crucial stage in the cultivation of eggplants, and in order to do everything correctly, we must take into account some factors.Must be well prepared. They are disinfected, which requires a one percent solution of potassium permanganate. Eggplant seeds need to be immersed in the solution for 15 minutes, then - get and dry. Eggplant seeds also need to harden. For 10 days, the seeds need to warm up during the day at a temperature of about 30 degrees. And for the night, the seeds of eggplant are placed in the refrigerator, kept at a temperature of 5-7 degrees. After a ten-day hardening procedure, the seeds of eggplant are germinated for two days in a damp cloth or gauze. It is possible to plant the seeds after 5% of their total quantity has been filled.Turfy ground, peat and sand (4: 5: 1),
- Warm without frosts
- Picks are carried out when growing seedlings in boxes.
To prevent water stagnation, it is necessary to make holes in the bottom of the tank.
The first seven days after emergence of shoots it is necessary to provide such conditions: in the afternoon of 15. 17 ° C, at night of 12. 14 ° C. Compliance with this temperature regime will contribute to the normal development of the root system of seedlings.
Soil for sowing
But if there is no such goal, then it is better to chooseVariety selection by criteria:Eggplant seedlings can be planted in two ways: with a pick and without it.If there is a process of picking when planting seeds, it is necessary to initially plant the seed in the seed boxes, to a depth of 1.5-2 cm.
Peat, rotted or fermented sawdust, mullein water diluted with water (3: 1: 1: 0.5).
The weather. Planting should be done or in the late afternoon or in cloudy weather.
About a month after the emergence of seedlings on sprouts, two true leaves appear (that is, those that grow after cotyledon leaves). This means that
Watering is necessary only in the morning.
In the future, it will be necessary to change the temperature regime: on sunny days - 25. 27 ° C, on cloudy days - 20. 21 ° C, at night - about 14 ° C. Such a difference in temperature hardens the seedlings and does not allow the sprouts to stretch too much. Lack of heat, drafts and direct sunlightThe method of sowing seeds depends on how the seedlings will be grown - with a picking (that is, with a further transplant of eggplant sprouts into separate containers) or without a picking.Must be
Significantly improves the properties of seedlings and reduces the number of diseased plants by more than 50%.
Eggplant hybrid varietiesYield,A distance of 6 cm must be maintained between rows. After sowing, the beds are covered with film or glass, and a temperature of 25 degrees must be maintained under such a coating. Germinated eggplant seeds give the first shoots five days after planting.
In any of the listed mixtures (10 kg), add 40 g of potassium salt, 40 g of superphosphate and 12 g of ammonium sulphate. Pour the prepared land a day before sowing the seeds into the seedling boxes and pour it.The day before planting eggplant soil needSeedlings ready for picking
Do not forget that it is unacceptable as an insufficient and excessive amount of moisture in the soil.
Destructive for seedlings
Experts recommend growing
- : Fertile and friable, have neutral acidity, be clean, i.e. without harmful microorganisms - pathogens.
- Eggplant seeds are heated by dry or hydrothermal methods. With the dry method, the seeds are heated in an oven (temperature not higher than 60 ° C) about half an hour before sowing.
- (On the packaging of seeds should be the designation - F1), which are distinguished by higher yields, precocity and endurance, and the fruits look more attractive.
- If seeds were not germinated before planting, the first seedlings may appear ten days after sowing. Eggplant seeds can be planted in cups, which will not spike. In each cup should be 3 seeds, after germination, you need to reject the weakest sprouts.
Seed preparation for sowing involves disinfecting them in a 1% solution of potassium permanganate for 15 minutes, and also hardening. Hardening occurs as follows: 10 days in the daytime, the seeds are heated at a temperature of 25-30 ° C, and placed at night in a refrigerator (5-7 ° C). Then wrap the seeds in wet gauze for a couple of days and germinate. When 5% of the seeds come, they can be planted.
Thoroughly moisten.In order for eggplant seedlings to develop normally you need to use
Seedlings without picks
It is recommended to add vermiculite (a mineral used to improve the structure of the soil) to the soil, which helps to create an optimal environment for nourishing the moisture of the plant roots.
In the hydrothermal method, the seeds are placed in a thermos with water heated to 50 ° C. Warming up time - no more than 5 minutes. Seeds are etched for 20 minutes in 10% hydrogen peroxide solution.
Seed varieties adapted to the conditions of the area - this is an additional guarantee of a stable yield.Suitability for long-term storage.Eggplants tolerate replanting very poorly, so the pick method is rarely used.For half a day eggplant seedlings should be saturated with sunlight. Before planting in open ground, it is recommended to keep the eggplant seedlings at a daytime temperature of 25 degrees, and a night temperature of 12 degrees.
Preparation and planting seedlings in the ground
A few days before planting the eggplant seedlings into the ground, it is necessary to stop watering, hardening the shoots more often and airing.
It is important to water the seedlings correctly. The lack of moisture leads to premature lignification of the stalk of eggplant and a significant decrease in yield. Waterlogging can cause seedling diseases. The irrigation scheme for seedlings is approximately the following: 1-2 irrigations (7 liters per m2) and 2-3 irrigations (14-15 liters per m2) are carried out before the first true leaf. If seedlings
On the prepared bed it is necessary to make holes in which the seedlings will be planted. It is planted in rows, between which there must be at least 70 cm, and between plants it is necessary to maintain a distance of at least 40 cm.3 hours before the start of the picking, the seedlings of the eggplants must be watered, otherwise during the transplantation the dry soil may fall off from the roots.. This is best done with phytolamps, but it can also be fluorescent, and the distance from the lamp should be at least half a meter.
Melted or deflated waterBefore sowing seeds, the soil should be moistened.Soil disinfection
Seeds are soaked in a glass jar 3 days before sowing. Soak better thawed or rainwater, but, incidentally, suited and suitable water from the tap. Seeds should not be completely covered with water - otherwise they may suffocate.
When to plant eggplants for seedlings?
Grown in the apartment, you must ensure that the humidity is 60-65%. Perhaps you should use a humidifier or put a bucket of water near the radiator. Also important is regular airing with preliminary shelter of seedlings.
In order for eggplant seedlings to settle down better, the wells after planting
Sowing eggplant seedlings
The tanks for transplanting seedlings are filled with a prepared soil mixture identical to the one into which the seeds were sown.
- Additional lighting of eggplant seedlings is carried out in the morning and in the evening, the total time for “additional lighting” is no more than 12 hours per day.
- When sowing, the seeds are sown in boxes to a depth of approximately 1.5 cm. The distance between the seeds is about 2 cm, and the row spacing is about 6 cm. 1.5 cm
. This can be done in the following ways:
Seeds are dried to a loose state.
Sowing eggplant seedlings.
When there is insufficient light, the eggplant sprouts become thin and weak, they are sick more often and do not tolerate planting on open ground.
On the third day after sowing, the soil should be moistened. Two days after the emergence of seedlings do not water the seedlings, but if the soil is dry, then it must be moistened with a sprayer.
Preparing eggplant seeds for sowing.
Further, the containers are covered with film or glass to ensure optimum humidity and are placed in a room in which the temperature is maintained at 25 ... 28 ° C. During this period, sharp fluctuations in temperature are contraindicated, and lighting does not play a special role.Steaming the soil in a water bath for about 40 minutes,
Features planting eggplant seedlings.
In different climatic zones
For Russian manufacturers must be specified GOST.
Vitality and sustainability
Pepper seeds and eggplant, unlike tomato seeds, have a denser husk and usually sprout longer. Therefore, sowing them dry is quite risky, waiting after sowing for two weeks or even more, there will not be enough patience. My site: http://svoitomaty.ru/ E-mail address for contact: [email protected] E-mail address for contact: [email protected]
Eggplant seedlings are grown according to certain principles. Eggplants have one peculiarity, compared to other vegetables - they grow much longer. Eggplants are very demanding for lighting, heat.
. Seedlings need to be watered 2-3 days after planting.
Preparing seeds of peppers and eggplant for sowing
Picks should be done very carefully, so as not to damage the young tender roots of eggplant seedlings.
With the slow development of eggplant seedlings, it is necessary to feed it: 1 cup (200 ml) of mullein and 1 tsp of urea per 10 liters of water.
Regular watering should begin immediately after the cotyledon leaves unfold.