Garden

How to deal with potato nematode in the garden?

Nematodes are microscopic roundworms, of which there are more than 25,000 species. Some nematodes are completely harmless and feel great in the land, sea or fresh waters, others are parasites and infect animals or plants. They live in moist soil or right inside the plant. If the potatoes grow slowly, the lower leaves of the tops turned yellow and they dry up, all these signs indicate the presence of nematodes.

In the video, potato nematodes:

Nematode on potatoes: how to prevent the appearance in the soil?

Prevention is needed to prevent the parasite from appearing on the backyard:

  • For planting, it is necessary to choose varieties with sufficient resistance to nematodes,
  • Constantly apply the alternation of culture through crop rotation,
  • Control the irrigation process, in cool time, the soil should not be too wet, use steam sterilization,
  • Spray up to six o'clock in the evening, for complete drying of the leaves before nightfall,
  • In the summer of plants should receive a sufficient amount of ultraviolet radiation, since it has a detrimental effect on parasites.

Methods of fighting the nematode

Fight against stem nematode are carried out manually. In most cases, they suffer from all sorts of decorative flowers, such as tulips, hyacinths or carnations. To prevent the spread of worms, you must:

  • Get rid of the affected plants along with the root system, then you need to burn them,
  • To conduct heat treatment of the bulbs. Hold them in hot water for 10 to 15 minutes, then clean and dry before planting,
  • Pots and other containers should be doused with boiling water,

  • Planting repellent plants will perfectly repel pests, and also promotes the development of organisms that help the development of the soil.

How to get rid of her?

Root worms cause yellowish or brown galls on the root system of plants. They must also be fought with the help of preventive measures:

  • During planting (succulents and shade-loving plants), use disinfected garden tools,
  • It is not necessary to plant all the plants in one tank, each bush should be planted in a separate pot for a small quarantine,
  • Heat or heat the soil with hot steam for at least 40 minutes,

  • Inspect each plant for possible diseases or abnormalities,
  • The root system of the newly purchased plant is thoroughly rinsed and left for 15 minutes in a special solution. A 0.5% phosphide solution or a 0.5% parathion insecticide solution will do. At the end of the procedure, rinse the roots again, let them dry and transplant into new soil.

How to deal with potato nematode?

Nematode traces on the root system and potato tubers should be reported to local regulatory agencies or other specialists. They will be able to identify the problem. Sick bush dig and burn. How to fight:

  • The chemical agent percalcite (ameliorant) is allowed to apply in Russia. It has a detrimental effect on the eggs and individuals of the imago. Seven days before planting potatoes, the drug is introduced into the soil in a ratio of 200-300 g / cm2 to a depth of 10-15 cm,
  • The use of karmida (urea) will be no less effective in combating the golden nematode of potatoes. As a prophylactic use 100 g / m2 for a month before planting potatoes.

Stem potato nematode (Ditylenchus destructor Thome):

Prevention

Preventive actions:

  • Mulching promotes a significant increase in nutritional qualities. With the breezy hay, it is possible to feed the beneficial microorganisms in the soil, which will later become the protection of the root system of the plant from roundworms and other parasites. A coating layer of approximately 10 centimeters,
  • Disinfect all garden tools with formalin
  • Potatoes are well planted in the beds after rye, because it perfectly repels nematodes. After cleaning the area from infected tubers and tops, it is necessary to plant winter rye on it to prevent the spread of pests,

  • The alternation of planting resistant and nematode-resistant potato varieties, it will not allow the nematodes to get used to. As a fertilizer, use wood ash or granular superphosphate.

Means and drugs: how to get rid of?

There are many systemic and contact poisoning agents that are sprayed on plants. Solutions of mercaptophos, lindane, methyl bromide, chloropicrin, carbathion and organophosphorus compounds are very popular. Systemic preparations enter the plant through the root system, and nematodes poison the leaves and stems. Organophosphorus compounds (phosphamide, karbofos, methyl mercaptophos) are sprayed on plant bushes or fruit trees to remove leaf and stem nematodes. For complete disposal of adults, 3-4 treatments of plants per week should be carried out.

How to handle:

  • Phosphamide is a moderately hazardous substance for humans and animals, but rather toxic for pollinating insects. The tool is effective in combating garden mites and aphids, as well as roundworms. Spraying of fruit trees (pears, apple trees) is carried out with a 0.1% or 0.2% solution at a rate of 0.8-4.0 kg per 1 hectare, while cherries and plums require 0.8-3.0 kg. Handle stopped a month before harvest. Experts do not recommend spraying near greenery, vegetable and berry crops,
  • Environmentally friendly and safe BAC "Ekogel" contributes to the protection of plants against all sorts of diseases, including gall nematodes. The product introduced into the soil has a detrimental effect on eggs and on adult nematodes. The protective effect lasts from 3 to 9 weeks,

  • The basis of the drug "Nematophagin BT" are predatory fungi. Application is to introduce it into the ground to a depth of 15 to 20 centimeters. Unlike chemical preparations, it is completely safe, and fungal mycelium causes nematode death after 24 hours,
  • Fytoverm helps fight roundworms. Its release form is 0.2% powder. Acting on parasites and their larvae, does not allow them to eat normally. Bring into the soil directly under the infected plants.

Compliance with all recommendations for sanitation and fertilization of the soil, carrying out constant heat treatments of the soil, roots and seeds will help protect the crop from the spread of nematodes. For planting choose plants with high immunity, plant a number of plant-repellents to scare away roundworms.

Pest description

The group of nematodes has more than 24 thousand species already described. Scientists suggest that in the future their number could reach as much as 1 million. This species diversity brings nematodes closer to insects. Most of them are parasitic on plants, feeding on their parts.

Potato bushes are attractive for several species of nematodes:

Having common features for all members of the group, they differ from each other in their habitat and damage caused.

The procession of the golden potato nematode in the world began more than a century ago, and this was due to the import of tubers infected by it to Germany. In the people it is also known as soil. The victims of the golden nematode variety - potatoes, tomatoes, peppers - belong to the family of the nightshade. The pest has a tiny (0.3-1.3 mm) body. In the larval stage, it is milky white, and in an adult the worm becomes golden. Habitat and food pest - the roots of plants. Piercing them with their mouths, the worms suck nutrients and juices from the tissues.

Female nematode cyst forming nematode. After fertilization, it increases in size to 0.5-0.6 mm, acquiring the shape of a ball, and is covered with a dense shell of caramel color. Inside the cysts contains eggs and larvae of the pest. Their number can reach up to 200, and in some cases, up to 600. The larvae, who had winterized in a capsule in spring, come out of it and strike the roots of new potatoes. In the southern regions, 2 generations of pests can be released in a year.

The destruction of cyst nematodes is a difficult task. Embryo-protecting capsules easily withstand frost, drought, flooding, exposure to poisons and radiation. In the soil they remain viable for 10 years. The larvae can leave them gradually, between the first and the last out of the cysts takes 3 to 6 years.

A pale potato nematode is also a cyst-forming species. The shell of the capsules that contain its embryos is brown. The body of the pest is white and small (0.6-0.8 mm in females and 1 mm in males). Habits and habitat - as in the golden cyst nematode. Against both pests use the same methods of control and prevention.

The stem nematode threatens potato tubers in the first place. As a result of her livelihood, the ripening harvest already harvested spoils. Worms are also dangerous for other vegetable crops: cucumbers, tomatoes, beets, pumpkin, legumes. Their body is thin and elongated, its length is 0.4-1.4 mm, it is slightly bent and painted in a milky color. The main source of infection is seed tubers and soil.

Pest eggs are frost resistant. Females lay them in the tissues of the tuber, their number can reach up to 250. In warm weather, the larvae leave them in 20-25 days. The stem nematode loves high humidity, so in the rainy summer the damage from the pest can be enormous.

Symptoms of infection

Signs of infection are found when the worms have already stuck to the roots or tubers of the plant. This is usually the 40–50th day after landing.

The presence of a golden nematode at the site is indicated by the following symptoms:

  • lag of potato bushes in growth,
  • rapid wilting of the lower leaves,
  • premature yellowing of the leaves,
  • curvature of the stems
  • twisting leaves
  • poor flowering (up to its complete absence),
  • general underdevelopment of bushes,
  • plant death,
  • insignificant tuber size
  • dyeing the roots brown
  • their strong branching
  • the appearance on them of balls of yellowish or brown hue.

Similar symptoms manifest themselves pale cyst nematode. Plants affected by worms are located on the site in a chaotic manner.

It is rarely possible to understand that a stem nematode started in planting potatoes during the growing season. In some cases, the plants become too curly. Another symptom is the thickening of their stems.

The most obvious signs of infection are stem varieties of nematodes on tubers:

  • the appearance under the skin of white spots and loose structure. It looks like clusters of parasites
  • quick wrinkling and drying of the skin,
  • the presence of dark spots on tubers with metallic luster and gradually increasing in size,
  • peeling and cracking of the peel,
  • the transformation of the pulp of the root into a crumbling mass.

When infected with a nematode potato yield is steadily declining. In advanced cases, gardeners lose up to 80% of tubers. The soil in which parasite worms live is unsuitable for growing solanaceous crops. Return them to their original place without the risk of infection will be possible only after 10 years. The pest is also dangerous because it weakens the plants, and pathogenic microorganisms easily penetrate through the damage it leaves on them. Rot and fungal diseases - true companions of parasites.

Potato nematode

- This is a microscopic worm, which is one of the most dangerous quarantine pests. Lives on the roots of plants of the nightshade family (on vegetables - potatoes, tomatoes, peppers, and on weeds - black nightshade, henbane, etc.).

Nematode parasitizes tubers and roots of potatoes.It is almost invisible to the naked eye. Under a magnifying glass you can see that these are spindle-shaped microscopic worms about 1 mm long. Moreover, the females have a spherical body, a little smaller, and the male - a worm-like form.

Nematodes can be found on the roots of a plant if a sick potato bush is dug out of the ground after flowering. From the roots you need to gently shake off the soil, after which small rounded "grains" are visible on them. These are females that have a milky white color in summer.

By the fall, females turn into cysts (shells) the size of a poppy seed of a golden brown color. In cysts under adverse conditions, eggs and larvae can persist for very long.

For reproduction of nematodes sandy, moist soil is favorable. This pest inflicts especially great damage on personal plots and in collective gardens, where potatoes, as a rule, are a permanent culture, and there is practically no fight against the nematode.

The exceptional treachery of the nematode is that that in the first years after infection of the site in the conditions of an amateur garden, it is almost impossible to detect it. That is why this underground pest is very dangerous, because we do not see our enemy and cannot detect it at the initial stage of soil contamination.

The presence of nematodes in the infected area is difficult to detect at first. It seems that planting is healthy, and only a few potato bushes are oppressed. But this does not attach much importance. Who knows what the reasons may be. In the bushes affected by the nematode, the lower leaves quickly die off, the others turn yellow. Such plants may die far to fall. Namely, they are beeping about the impending big trouble.

Nematode larvae that appeared in spring, moving in the soil, find potato roots, penetrate into them, and here they develop to the adult stage, feeding on the sap of the plant, causing deformation of the leaves and stems. And The larvae do not leave the cysts at the same time, but gradually hatch within 3-6 years.

Signs of damage to the plant nematode appear 40-50 days after planting tubers. Usually infected plants have very few stems and an underdeveloped root system, forming small tubers. These plants begin to lag quickly in growth, their upper leaves turn yellow, and the lower ones wither completely. When the temperature rises and the humidity of the air and soil decreases, the plants dry out and die, and not yielding a harvest.

Golden Potato Nematode

- a microscopic worm, lives and develops in the soil and on the roots of the host plant. In an unfavorable period, the pest remains in the cysts stage for many years. In the spring, with the onset of heat and sufficient moisture, as well as under the influence of substances secreted by the roots of potatoes, up to 200 larvae emerge from cysts, which attach to the roots of potatoes and feed on their juice, acquiring a spherical shape about 1mm in diameter. By the time the potatoes are harvested, ripe cysts are easily shaken off the roots and fill mostly the arable layer.

External signs of damage to the plants of the golden potato nematode can be observed shortly after germination. The manifestation of the disease is focal in nature, manifesting itself in the form of bald patches of heavily depressed bushes that are stunted in growth, with a few frail stems that are beginning to turn yellow prematurely. Flowering is usually absent or very scarce. The number of tubers is sharply reduced, they are small (15-45g), and with a strong nematode damage, tuberization does not occur, only a mass of small, fibrous roots are formed.

The spread of the golden potato nematode occurs when transferring cysts nematodes with soil, tools, planting material, rainwater, wind.

The potato nematode is particularly harmful in home gardens, private landings, where potatoes have been grown continuously for a number of years. Tomsk Rosselkhoznadzor recommends planting potatoes in one field for no more than 2 years in a row to prevent infection by planting with a golden nematode and then replacing it with crops that are not susceptible to the nematode (for example, cereals, legumes). At the same time, nematode-resistant potato varieties are used for planting: Pushkin, Zhukovsky Early, Prolisok, Lukyanovsky, Pomegranate, Aspia, Belorussky-3.

In the event that a golden nematode potato infection has occurred, it is necessary to apply the following pest control measures:

1. Before planting potatoes in last year’s foci of infection, urea is introduced, then the infusion of potato sprouts is shed: 1 kg of the sprouts is passed through a meat grinder and 10 liters of water are poured (consumption per 100 m²). This stimulates the release of larvae from cysts and their death.

2. During planting, 2 - 3 handfuls of rotted manure or compost, one handful of ash, one tablespoon of bird droppings powder are put into the hole. All this is sprinkled with soil and planted tuber sprout up.

3. Immediately after planting the potatoes, liquid chicken manure is introduced into the soil from 4 to 10 liters per 1 m² (at a dilution of 1:10 or 1:20). The solution destroys up to 90% of the larvae.

4. When hilling, mineral fertilizers are introduced between the rows, departing 5-6 cm from the stems, and then buried.

5. For dressing potatoes well use fresh and dried chicken manure, mullein, liquid manure. At the same time, raw manure and mullein are diluted with water 1:10, insist 5 to 7 days, dried manure insist 2 to 3 days at a ratio of 1:30. Top dressing is carried out on wet soil after rain or watering.

6. After harvesting make lime, evenly scattered, and when digging - close up in the soil. With increased acidity of the soil, the disease increases. Apply rotted manure, compost, and other organic matter. The use of non-rotted manure is unacceptable, as it can have a toxic effect on the root system, contributes to the contamination of the soil by weeds.

Stem Nematode

- These are round microscopic worms, 0.3–0.4 mm long. Male and female do not differ much from each other. The larva looks like an adult, but smaller.

Stem nematode intensively developed in rainy years. However, vegetative potato plants affected by this nematode do not differ in appearance from healthy ones, only sometimes there is a thickening of the stem with cracks on it and shortened internodes.

The first signs appear on the tubers for the harvest period.. Under the peel in the place of penetration of the nematode are visible small brown spots with a powdery fabric. As the disease progresses, lead-gray spots appear on the peel of the tubers, the peel exfoliates and brown ruined tissue (rotting mass) is visible under it.

The whole development cycle of this nematode takes place inside the tuber, therefore, seed potatoes are the main source of spread. During the year several generations of the pest develop. The female lays about 250 eggs and more.. The larvae that came out of eggs go through several stages of development and turn into adult individuals. The high fecundity of the stem nematode leads to its massive accumulation in tubers.

When planting infected tubers, nematodes from the uterine tubers pass into the stem (no higher than 10 cm above the ground), then enter stolons, from which they pass into young tubers. Another source of infection is the soil, where nematodes fall upon decomposition of post-harvest residues and royal tubers. In soil, the stem nematode can persist for several years, affecting other crops, weeds and falling into a state of suspended animation under adverse conditions. During storage, the tuber nematode rarely passes from a tuber to a tuber. Late-ripening varieties are less affected than early ripening.

Among the multi-pest pests, the common bear, wireworms and bare slugs damage the potato.

Control measures.

Sick potato bushes, as well as healthy plants growing next to it, need to be dug up and buried with a clod of earth in a deep hole that has been dug beforehand, after throwing them into bleach. The hole from the dug bushes is abundant (I repeat - very abundantly!) Covered with urea. Place a hole for the destruction of infected bushes need to take somewhere in the far corner, and it is best to make it outside the garden.

If there is no crop rotation at the site, the soil is depleted, and the plants develop slowly, then this is a clear sign that the nematode has settled at the site. It's time to plant marigolds on the beds. Nematodes cannot eat their roots and die.

It has long been observed that after sowing of winter rye, the infected area is also significantly cleared of pests. Perhaps rye adversely affects the nematode with the help of root excretions, or for other reasons, but the main thing is that the outbreak of the pest on the site fades out. For the same purpose, it is useful to plant beans, calendula and sweet clover around the potato field.

And if the presence of nematodes on your site has already reached the size of a natural disaster, then it is necessary to apply a special preparation “Basudin”, which simultaneously destroys another underground “pirate” - the wireworm. The effect will be much greater if at the same time your neighbors are engaged in this work.

You can get rid of pests and with the help of predatory nematode "Nemabak", which is usually sold in the ground "Protection". When planting make a little of this soil for each tuber.

Who are the nematodes

Nematodes, or roundworms, are a type of living organism that includes a huge number of species, many of which are parasites of both animals and plants. As a result of their vital activity in the garden and on the garden (both in open ground and in greenhouses), germination is reduced in plants, growth and development slows down, multiple deformations are formed, flowering and fruiting are weakened, resistance to most diseases decreases, many of the young plants just don't survive.

These worms exist on the roots as ectoparasites or penetrate into the plant through the organs of the root system and already behave as endoparasites of leaves and stems.

In this regard, herbivorous nematodes are divided into three large groups:

  • Stem nematodes especially harmful to vegetable and flower crops. In the process of feeding, they actively release toxins, clog up the vessels of the plant and strongly affect the stems, leaves, buds and flowers. You can see them by cracking and deforming the stem, spindle-shaped thickenings, corrugation and dark leaf spot, loosening the tissues of succulent scales in bulbous. Their favorite objects are hyacinths, begonias, daffodils, carnations, phloxes, tulips, onions, garlic, tomatoes, cucumbers, parsley.
  • Leaf nematodes - rapidly moving endoparasites. Recognize their activity by the appearance of pale yellow spots, thinning, browning and further drying and leaf death. They live on a variety of ornamental plants, like strawberries, chrysanthemums, nephrolepis.
  • Root (gall) nematodes so named because they parasitize on the root system of plants, forming growths (galls) on it of various sizes and shapes that impede normal feeding and water absorption, as a result of which plants wither and die. Greenhouse tomatoes, eggplants, cucumbers suffer from them especially - you can lose 30-80% of the harvest! These parasites feel great in the open ground, hitting beets, potatoes, oats. Ornamental cultures are also in danger - lilies, rubber plants, asparaguses, begonias, cyclamens ...

A great danger of nematodes is also that they are carriers of phytopathogenic organisms, contributing to their penetration into plant tissue through the resulting damage and further viral diseases.

Nematodes on plants extremely actively feed and multiply, creating whole colonies. And the features of their biological development (several intermediate forms with very different characteristics) lead to the fact that conventional pesticides do not have any toxic effect on them.

The most common on our summer cottages are such representatives of the type as the golden potato nematode, beet nematode, onion nematode, strawberry nematode, chrysanthemum leaf nematode and others.

How to deal with them that helps from nematodes?

Folk remedies for nematodes

The main and, perhaps, the only effective folk remedy for the fight against the nematode "cheap and angry" is spilling the soil on the eve of planting boiling water.
High temperatures are detrimental to tiny nematodes, and after such a procedure their numbers in the area are indeed noticeably reduced. It only needs to be remembered that for this effect the ground should be soaked with hot water with a temperature not lower than 50-55 ° C to a depth of at least 15-20 cm. After that, it can also be covered with polyethylene so that it cools slower.

Alas, the measure is not effective until the end. Although a significant number of nematodes live in the surface layers of the substrate and, as a rule, die during such thermal disinfection, some pests can migrate to deeper soil layers and escape.

In addition to the soil, the affected plants themselves can also be treated with hot water - this mainly applies to the bulbs and roots affected by the gall nematode. They are washed from the ground, and then soaked in hot (45-50 ° C) water for 10-30 minutes. Formalin at a concentration of 0.06% can be added as a useful additive to this water.

Agrotechnical methods of getting rid of nematodes

Conventionally effective and other preventive measures and means of combating the nematode without the use of chemicals. It:

  • Compliance with crop rotation.
  • The choice of varieties and hybrids that are relatively resistant to nematode damage (for example, for tomatoesNagano F1, Eupator F1, Malik F1for garden strawberriesFestival, Pearl oyster, Dessert, Saxon, Rocketfor potatoScarlet, Fresco, Picasso, Diamant).
  • Careful selection of healthy seed.
  • Warming up the bulbs of tubers and corms before planting for 15 minutes at a temperature of about 45-50 ° C or 3-5 minutes at a temperature of 55-60 ° C.
  • Pre-plant soil disinfection with hot water, removal of the top layer, digging and mandatory mulching.
  • Regular care of planting - weeding and thinning.
  • Neat watering - on the stems and leaves should not be a long drop of water, because This contributes to the development of nematodes.
  • Planting in the row-spacing of phytoncidal plants that help repel pests, such as marigolds or calendula.
  • Upon detection of infection during the growing season - timely cleaning of affected and weakened plants.
  • After harvesting, harvesting all plant residues from the site, removing (burning) all the remaining infected plant material, together with the surrounding soil.
  • To increase fertility and partially destroy nematodes, the site vacated after harvesting in August - early September should be well sown with grain crops (better than winter crops). Initially, the plot is cleared of weeds and plant debris, the soil is loosened and only then sown with grain "randomly" to a depth of 2-3 cm. When steady frosts occur, the soil is dug over with winter crops, making a complete revolution of the reservoir. So it is enriched with organic matter and is released from the most dangerous pest - a nematode, which in such adverse conditions for it simply freezes.

Nematode control chemicals

Alas, to truly effectively deal with this pest in the garden and garden today is possible only with the help of nematocides - a group of chemicals that destroy herbivorous nematodes.

Some of them can be used as fumigants - toxic gases that poison pests when they enter their respiratory system (carbathion, chloropicrin, nonmagon, methyl bromide).

Others (phosphoorganic compounds, derivatives of carbamoyloximes and carbamates) are like contact poison, which poison the worms by being absorbed directly through their integuments (methylmercaptophos, karbofos, phosphamide, lindane) or systemic actions that make the plant poisonous to nematodes (for example, dimethoate).

Nematocides-fumigants are used by introducing them into the soil, as well as for pre-sowing treatment of seeds, bulbs, tubers or roots of seedlings in the fight against worms parasitizing on the roots of plants. Organophosphate nematocides - by spraying plants to destroy leaf and stem nematodes.

Some nematocides (for example, chloropicrin) have a complex effect, being both fungicidal, insecticidal and herbicidal agents. They lead to the complete sterilization of the soil (sowing on it is possible only 20-50 days after treatment, and for particularly toxic soil it can only be done in the next sowing season).

In general, all the above chemicals should be used strictly according to the instructions and following all the rules of TB - the methods, norms and terms of their application vary greatly and depend on the types of nematodes and the plant to be protected, on the form and properties of the preparation, on the soil type and environmental conditions on the site.

As a rule, organophosphorus compounds are less toxic than fumigants-nematocides, moreover, they have significantly less consumption rates.

It is also known several biopharmaceuticals-nematocides, which are based on either predatory nematophagous fungi (Arthrobotris, Paecilomyces), or waste products of microorganisms, or plant extracts (garlic, marigolds, calendula, neem). This, for example, Nematophagin BT, Basamil, Aversektin S, Metarizin, Petsilomycin, Narcissus, Phytochite and etc.

These drugs are environmentally safe, but often very narrowly focused - before you buy, be sure to read the instructions.

As you can see, effectively fighting a nematode at the site is difficult, but possible. Before you grab chemicals, do not forget to carry out preventive measures carefully and on time - these dangerous pests are easier and cheaper to prevent than to stop.

Fighting Golden Potato Nematode

The golden potato nematode is a worm that is visible only through a microscope, which parasites on the roots of potatoes and tomatoes, causing the most harmful disease of these crops in Russia (globoteroses). Infected bushes grow slowly, the lower leaves turn yellow and dry out.

In Russia, the golden potato nematode was first discovered in 1949 in the territory of the Kaliningrad region. At present, it is distributed almost throughout the entire territory of the Russian Federation.

For humans, it is not dangerous, at the same time it can destroy up to 90% of the potato crop, and also have a negative impact on other crops.

Nematode cysts are very small, therefore they spread from infected sites not only with tubers, seedlings, seedlings, garden tools and agricultural machinery, but also clods of earth adhering to shoes on human feet and animal paws, flood waters and even wind.

But not so scary. Europeans, for example, have not only learned how to protect potatoes from nematodes, but also receive remarkable harvests. The main thing is to be able to identify the danger approach in time and, of course, prevention.

If a stain of dying plants appeared on your plantings at the end of June, this should alert you. Carefully inspect the plants.

If the cultivation of the land was carried out manually - with a shovel, then after the occasional drift of single cysts, narrow-limbed rounded foci are formed with a sharp decrease in the inhibition of plants from the center to the periphery. Affected plants lag behind in growth and development, have a depressed appearance. Stems are few and frail, prematurely yellowing.

Since a similar picture can be observed for other reasons, for example, drought or low soil fertility, accurate pathogen detection is possible only in a special laboratory in a quarantine inspection or at a plant protection station. But the owners themselves should not be inactive.

What to do if there is a suspicion of infection with a nematode? Immediately restrict access to the detected hotbed of strangers. Dig up the dubious plant, carefully along with the root soil and carefully inspect the roots of the affected plants and the ground adjacent to them.

The presence of white or yellow grains of sand is something that may turn out to be cyst nematodes. It is best to carry the infected plant along with the root soil and show the experts. If there is no such possibility, report your finding to any official body associated with agriculture.

If your site is not completely infected with a nematode, but has only a few small foci of infection, you can try to fight the nematode in cardinal ways. To do this, dig the affected plants, without shaking the soil from the roots, put them in a bucket, tank or basin, and then remove them from the field and burn them in a strong flame.

After work, the shovel and other agricultural implements, as well as the sole of the shoe, must be cleaned of the soil and treated with 4% formalin or at least thoroughly rinsed, and drain water away from the places of solanaceous growth. Leaving plants affected by potato nematode is not worth it before harvesting.

The potato crop from the site where the lesion has been found will have to be thoroughly washed from the ground in which the cyst may remain, and used only for food purposes in its own farm. About any sale, of course, there can be no question. Burn the harvested tops and roots. Do not leave tubers on the field, even small ones.

To reduce the harmfulness of the parasite is possible only with strict observance of the rules of quarantine. One of the basic rules of which is quality planting material. That is why you should not buy planting material (seed potatoes, seedlings, seedlings) of unknown origin.

In the extreme case, if the planting material without documents confirming its safety has already been acquired, the tubers should be thoroughly rinsed in running water, dried and greened before planting. It will not save from disease, but nematode eggs that stick to the ground can be destroyed.

If your site is heavily infected, the more you should not sit back: the situation itself can change, only for the worse (for example, the loss of 90% of the yield of the nightshade). In the contaminated areas, the first thing to do is to stop planting solanaceous crops (potatoes, tomato, eggplant, sweet and bitter pepper, shed, cocoon, naranhila, physalis, nightshade).

For two, three years, take infected areas with non-affected crops, for example, beans or vegetables. Then two years to cultivate resistant varieties to the nematode. They, by the way, are not few - in the State Register more than a third of potato varieties have this property.

What happens when planting resistant varieties? Potato plants, germinating, stimulate the release of larvae from cysts, which are introduced into their roots. And then in the root cells of the nematode-resistant variety, substances are formed that contribute to the formation of necrotic (dead) cells around the head end of the larvae.

The supply of food ceases - and nematodes die without completing the development cycle, or turn into males or immature females.

As a result, the parasite population is reduced by 40-80%, depending on weather conditions, soil type, agricultural practices. However, nematode-resistant varieties can be grown on the same plot for no more than three or four years in a row.

Then, an unstable variety is planted for one year, and then resistant varieties are cultivated again. Such alternation of varieties is necessary so that new, more durable types of parasite do not appear. In the future, this alternation of varieties follows.

The pre-sowing introduction into the soil infected with the golden potato nematode of increased doses of organic fertilizers (rotted manure, chicken droppings) activates the activity of the enemies of the nematodes (predatory fungi and nematodes, ringed worms).

On the other hand, the presence of a balanced set of nutrients in the soil will increase the endurance of the plants themselves.

A similar effect is achieved by the introduction of mineral fertilizers, which use granular potash fertilizer with the addition of copper, zinc, boron, potato Kemira, nitrophoska, universal organic fertilizer with the brand "Potato", humatized urea, granulated superphosphate.

Wood ash remains a valuable fertilizer for potatoes. Humate fertilizer based on ash - “Bulba” - is used in the treatment of tubers before planting (dusting at the rate of 80-100 g per 10 kg of tubers).

Of the chemical nematode control agents, the following can be advised:

  1. Before planting potatoes in last year’s foci of infection, urea is introduced, then the infusion of potato sprouts is shed: 1 kg of the sprouts is passed through a meat grinder and 10 liters of water are poured (consumption per 100 m²). This stimulates the release of larvae from cysts and their death.
  2. During planting, 2 - 3 handfuls of rotted manure or compost, one handful of ash, one tablespoon of bird droppings powder are put into the hole. All this is sprinkled with soil and planted tuber sprout up.
  3. Immediately after planting the potatoes, liquid chicken manure is introduced into the soil from 4 to 10 liters per 1 m² (at a dilution of 1:10 or 1:20). The solution destroys up to 90% of the larvae.
  4. When hilling, mineral fertilizers are introduced between the rows, leaving 5-6 cm from the stems, and then they are buried with soil.
  5. For dressing potatoes well use fresh and dried chicken manure, mullein, liquid manure. At the same time, raw manure and mullein are diluted with water 1:10, insist 5 to 7 days, dried manure insist 2 to 3 days at a ratio of 1:30. Top dressing is carried out on wet soil after rain or watering.
  6. After harvesting make lime, evenly scattered, and when digging - close up in the soil. With increased acidity of the soil, the disease increases.

It is necessary to bring in only rotted manure. The use of non-rotted manure is unacceptable, as it can have a toxic effect on the root system, contributes to the contamination of the soil by weeds.

It should be ruthlessly dug up and together with the roots destroy all the sick, not varietal plants, and when planting and harvesting, discard the sick, deformed spindle-shaped tubers.

Once again we recall that the golden potato nematode is absolutely not dangerous for humans, so the harvest from the infected sites can be safely used for food purposes or technical processing.

Types of parasite

There are a lot of various diseases and pests affecting potatoes, and among them there are parasitic nematodes - worms. Infection of nematode potatoes is very difficult to detect in the initial stages. Usually, the gardener can see that his potatoes are infected with a nematode only during the harvest.

There are three main types of potato nematode. Each of the species of this pest parasitizes on certain parts of the solanaceous plants. The main types of nematodes include: stem, golden and gall nematodes.

This type of pest can affect both potato stalks and tubers. The main signs of infection of potato bushes with this type of nematode are:

  • potato stalks become thick and begin to bush intensively,
  • the presence of small distances between the nodes on the stems,
  • small and pale leaves, the edges of which have a wavy shape.

The potato potato nematode causes the greatest damage to the tubers, especially during storage. The main stages of infection of potato nematode tubers are as follows:

  • At the first stage of infection of tubers, they can see spots that have a lead-gray color.
  • In the second stage, the peel will crack on the tubers in the places where the spots appeared at the first stage of infection. At this time, the infected tubers have a light brown flesh that looks rotten.
  • At the third stage, bacteria fungi and various pathogens of rot can get into the potato through cracked peel.

In the future, pests in the form of roundworms, which have a length of up to 1 mm and a body diameter of up to 0.3 mm, will move from infected tubers to healthy ones. Nematodes spread very quickly to potatoes, which are not properly stored.

The most common infection of potatoes is manifested in the spring, when the symptoms become better, as the air temperature rises.

Symptoms, prevention and control of potato pest

The potato nematode is a tiny, up to 1mm long, round worm, which can be fully described by a popular saying: “It does not sink in water, it does not burn in fire”. This pest really seems invulnerable: its eggs hibernate in the soil and do not die even in the most severe frosts.

Homeland potato nematodes - South America. This parasite has got to Europe a little more than 100 years ago: in 1913, - and on the territory of the Russian Federation and even later, in 1949, from Germany. The first foci of infection originated in the Kaliningrad region.

Now there are areas at risk that border Ukraine and Kazakhstan, as well as the Leningrad Region. Once a potato nematode is found in any locality, quarantine is immediately announced. Thanks to this, the spread of the pest was slowed down. Most of the contaminated land (90%) - personal plots.

Golden nematode. This pest penetrates the root of the bush and feeds on its juices, preventing access of beneficial substances to other parts of the plant. As a result, the potato dries prematurely, starting from the lower leaves.

Males of golden potato nematode are similar to ordinary tiny worms. They do not eat at all and live only 10 days. Their task is to fertilize the females. In females, the body is spherical; within a few days after fertilization, it begins to fill with eggs. By autumn, the female's body darkens, acquiring a golden brown hue.

Root system of the affected bush

In autumn, females die, turning into cysts capsules, each of which contains up to 800 eggs. Cysts can lie in the ground for even 10 years. Larvae hatch from the same cysts at the same time: sometimes this process takes up to 6 years. The capsule shell is strong enough, and cysts without any damage to the eggs are transferred with the wind or with streams of rainwater.

The golden potato nematode parasitizes on the roots of all plants from the family of nightshade: on potatoes, tomatoes, eggplants, physalis, peppers.

Pale nematode. It differs from the golden nematode only in color: as it develops, the female's body turns white from brown.

Pale nematode under the microscope

Stem nematode. This worm up to 1 mm in size infects the stems of a plant, tubers. It is easy to recognize the tuber in which the parasites have settled: tiny dark specks are clearly visible on the peel. Directly beneath the peel are areas of light, but loose pulp. In the case of severe damage, the peel cracks, and under it is formed the dust (dry rot).

Stem nematode intensively multiplies in a humid environment. Especially the parasite "loves" raw basements, where it crawls from one tuber to another, gradually infecting all the seed material.

Stem nematode appears on tuber

Gall nematode. This species of nematode parasitizes on potato roots and tubers, but does not hesitate to pumpkin (pumpkin, zucchini, squash, melons). The symptom of a gallic potato nematode is tuberous tuber. Sometimes growths (galls) with a diameter of up to 3 cm form on the roots of plants. The pest prevents water and nutrients from accessing the plant stems.

Signs of appearance

Often the nematode is found on the plots only when the contamination of the soil reaches a critical value. One of the indirect signs of the appearance is the presence of “bald spots” on the potato field: when, among the green leafy tops, several bushes turn yellow and dry for no reason.

But even if no cysts are noticeable, the unjustifiably faded bush should be carefully taken along with tubers and a clod of soil (approximately 1 kg) to the laboratory. There, specialists will determine the presence and concentration of the potato nematode.

The affected bushes are small and quickly turn yellow.

Ways to prevent and combat

Potato nematode is an insidious enemy, and it can only be defeated using a whole range of methods. Effective and safe for humans methods of complete destruction of the potato nematode does not exist.

However, you should not despair. In Europe, this parasite appeared much earlier than in Russia, there are almost more quarantine plots there, but local potato harvests (especially Dutch ones) are quite high.

In order to finally cope with the potato nematode, it will take more than one decade of hard work, but it is possible to significantly reduce the number of its population within one to two years.

If the number of nematodes does not exceed 3-5 cysts per 100 cm³ of soil, then the pest has almost no effect on the potato. The yield significantly decreases in the case when 10-16 or more cysts are found in 100 cm³ of soil.

There are several simple and affordable ways to combat potato nematode.

Crop rotation. Potatoes can not be planted year after year on the same plot. Even if you do not use other methods, but simply plant potatoes in one place no more than once every three or four years, the site will be seriously infected with the potato nematode no sooner than after 45 years.

But pests adapt very quickly. Therefore, it is recommended to plant nematode-resistant varieties only for three years in a row, and for the fourth year - to use seed material of the usual variety. There is another option: grow only nematode-resistant varieties, but change them once every four years.

In autumn, all tops and weeds from the infected area should be burned. Care must be taken: all working tools after harvesting must be disinfected with 4% formalin solution.

Nitrate fertilizers for potato nematode - poison. Therefore, in the fall and in the spring urea can be added to the soil.

If the area affected by a nematode is small, it is recommended to dig a hole 1 m deep, collect in it the infected tops and weeds, and then fill it with urea at the rate of 5-6 kg per 1 m³ of green. Sprinkle everything from above with a clean area.

Before germination, carefully select only healthy tubers, wash them and disinfect them in a solution of potassium permanganate (0.5 grams per 10 liters of water).

When planting, use bird droppings (pigeon, chicken, quail) as a fertilizer. If the litter is dry, then about one tablespoon should be added to each well. Fresh litter is bred in a ratio of 1:10 and watering already planted potatoes.

For nematodes, the allocation of rye roots, marigolds, calendula, legumes (beans, beans, peas), mustard, and clover is destructive. Up to 90% of the larvae can be destroyed if in the middle of September rye is sown on the plot. Before the frost, the field should be dug up, and the rotted straw will serve as an excellent fertilizer in spring. Legumes, on the roots of which nodules containing nitrogen are formed, are often planted between rows of potatoes.

If the concentration of the nematode is very high, you can use potent toxic chemicals, such as thionazine. However, these funds must be made strictly according to instructions no later than 6 weeks before planting.

Worm life cycle

Potato nematode belongs to the round parasitic worms that inhabit the roots of plants of the nightshade family. Rounded white grains of sand, as if stuck to the roots, are females that destroy up to 80% of the crop.

The appearance of nematodes in potato tubers is characteristic of waterlogged soils, especially in those fields where the same crop is constantly sown. The difficulty of dealing with a worm is the absence of signs of infection in the early stages.

A dangerous representative of the fauna has already penetrated the beds, settled on the roots and continues to populate neighboring plants, and the landlord does not even suspect anything.

Signs of illness

The defeat of the potato nematode at first practically does not manifest itself:

  • the bush looks depressed
  • on the bottom of it, the leaves die off,
  • tops turn yellow.

If these symptoms of the disease are ignored, then further events will develop, like a snow avalanche, rushing off a cliff. The source of the problem are cysts safely hibernating in the soil.

If the culture fell ill at the beginning of summer, then, most likely, it will die without waiting for the autumn, without having pleased the hosts with the harvest. Later infection may allow the plant to form tubers, but the number and size of them will be very small.

Ways to fight

Fighting a nematode on potato beds primarily consists of the destruction of roots infected with cysts.

If in the autumn the main breeding ground of the infection is not removed and destroyed, then in the spring the hatching larvae penetrate the tubers, begin to feed actively, remaining there until the adult stage. Hatching of larvae from a single cysts can last up to 6 years.

Ways to combat the nematode are numerous, the offensive is carried out systematically and, preferably, on all fronts at the same time.

You can not rely "at random", do not pay attention to the signs of the disease. The most effective methods are:

  1. mechanical,
  2. chemical,
  3. biological,
  4. bacterial,
  5. agrotechnical.

Mechanical. It is recommended to fight potato pest at the stage of infection of one specimen. Sick stalks stand out sharply against the general background. As soon as even a single affected escape appeared, it must be removed from the rows.

Agrotechnical. This method of war against nematodes in potato beds is perhaps the most effective. Correct crop rotation and agrotechnical measures are guaranteed to save from the microscopic aggressor. Crops alternate, taking into account previous cultures, observing the proximity of plants, returning to their former place after 3-4 years.

Healthy plants are more resistant to the potato nematode. Strengthen the immune system of plants with the introduction of the necessary complex of micronutrients with fertilizers:

  • "Potato" universal
  • the composition of Kemira,
  • ash,
  • superphosphate,
  • trace elements Zn, Cu, B,
  • potassium in granular fertilizer
  • pollinate planting material means "Bulba".

To suppress infection alternate resistant and nematode-resistant potato varieties. In a resistant variety, dead spots form in the place of introduction of the larvae, violating the flow of plant juice. The larva is starving and eventually dying.

Resistant to roundworm varieties:

  • Aspia,
  • Impapa,
  • Red Scarlet,
  • Panda,
  • Carlin,
  • Sante and others

In order not to grow "super parasite", which can not be overcome even with the help of chemistry, it is impossible to grow only sustainable types of vegetables. Once every 4 years they plant an unstable variety, and then return to their previous choice.

Chemical. Immunity to the pest of potatoes provides treatment of seed tubers with growth stimulants:

If the focus of infection behaves aggressively, steadily expanding, planting treated means "Basudin", which at the same time put an end to the wireworm. It is also necessary to use formalin solution to disinfect the instrument. Do not pour out the solution after processing.

When digging, they try to grab a sufficiently large clod of earth so as not to leave the potato nematode a chance to wait out the trouble on the nearest healthy plant. Urea can serve as a reliable way to neutralize the enemy. It should be spared without spilling around the dug hole and falling asleep in the hole itself.

Bacteriological. The Nemabak predator nematode predator will be relieved of the potato disaster. She does not offend her relatives, but displaces them from their homes. In order to get rid of the worm, and at the same time from the wireworm, it is poured during planting means "Protection" or the drug itself.

Biological. It is recommended to bring organic matter into the soil in spring in order to activate the ringed worms - natural nematode enemies, as well as plant low-growing marigolds on the site. The Tagetes erecta variety can destroy up to 95% of parasitic worms.

Active substances are released during growth. It is useful to plant nasturtium, calendula, beans, sweet clover.

It is very difficult to fight a pest such as a nematode, since only strong poisons can cope with it. Instead, chemistry can be planted in the fall on the affected area of ​​winter rye. This grass is an unpretentious green manure with a powerful root system. In spring, the soil is dug up with rye.

Features of prevention

The best prevention of potato nematode damage is strict compliance with crop rotation: solanaceous plants are re-planted at the site after 4 years. If, however, from year to year, there is no change in place for the crop, then the healthy green of lush bushes will cause serious damage. Deformed shoots appear 1.5 months after sowing.

To protect potatoes in the garden from nematodes will help:

  • crop rotation,
  • digging the soil in the fall on the bayonet of a shovel,
  • selecting healthy seed
  • disinfection of garden tools,
  • the use of biological means of control: landing in the spring of marigolds, in the fall - winter rye.

It must be remembered that the nematode is a quarantine pest, it is recommended to report cases of infection to phytocontrol. Quarantine stations are professionally engaged in the destruction of a parasitic worm that spreads at the speed of a forest fire.

One of the dangerous pests

Nematode is one of the most dangerous pests of potatoes. Moreover, it spoils all the plants of the genus of nightshade. Both larvae and their eggs, which can be up to 600 pieces from one female, are dangerous. In appearance, the Nematode at first resembles worms, then bugs.

How the potato nematode looks like a photo can be seen on the gardeners 'forums, gardeners' websites and other resources dedicated to gardening. If nothing is done the pest can destroy up to 70% of the crop.

There are three types of insects: pale nematode, root nematode and stem nematode. Each pest species damages its part of the plant. The root system usually suffers. Females settle in the roots, because they need a lot of nutrients. From food and it depends on how many eggs will be delayed.

The pest digs into the potato stalks and sucks all the juices that were supposed to go to the development of the crop. The affected crops smell of damp and rot.

If you run the site, signs of damage can not be seen. At the same time the plants will die. Pay attention to the potato stalks. Yellow leaves, wilting at noon, dry areas at the bottom of the bush - the first signs of infection.

Early potato varieties can suffer up to 80%, as well as moderate ripeness, crop types. Losses in the harvest of late ripe potatoes are usually 30%.

What can be done as a prevention?

Change the soil for solanaceous plants every 3 years. If Nematode is found on the plot, plant there plants that it does not eat.

In autumn it is necessary to dig a lot deep. If suspicious bushes and tubers are found on the site, they are dug up and destroyed with the nearest layer of earth.

New varieties of potatoes and seeds are bought only in specialized stores. Be sure to save the check.

How does a nematode affect humans

For a human Nematode, the potato danger is not dangerous. You can eat these plants without excitement. The bottom line is that it kills the entire crop. From the infected site you will not get more than 3 potatoes from a bush. Considering how difficult it is to care for a plot, and what expenses for it - this is not enough.

Watch the site carefully, do preventive measures in time and the harvest will always be rich.

Fight for the harvest

Even if the potato nematode is still not fully settled on your site, do not lose vigilance, this can happen at any time. To fight for the harvest with the potato nematode is not easy. Chemical means of struggle in this case are powerless.

The way out of this situation is the restoration of top soil fertility. Only depleted soil and the lack of crop rotation create favorable conditions for the emergence of such a misfortune.

In the fight against the nematode, modern man called for the help of EM technology together with such popular folk remedies as rye and marigold. Their complex use has become an effective and safe action against the disease. It helps the plant to cope with the disease, and at the same time cares for the soil.

Slow growth and poor development of the potato bush in most cases indicates that the nematode has settled in it.

Plant roots penetrate deep into the soil, and nematodes do not tolerate them and die. Thus, marigolds effectively disinfect the soil.

Phytoncidal properties of this flower can be successfully used in the fight against aphids. In this case, effective action has a spraying infusion. First, it is necessary to prepare a plant “EM-5” for the protection of plants, and then infuse marigolds with this solution.

Spray the plants every morning and evening for fifteen days. At the same time try, in order to avoid burns on the leaves, to do it in cloudy weather.

When harvesting the land before frost, the tops and roots of flowers are cut, crushed and embedded in the soil. Right there, marigolds are sprayed at a dilution of 1: 100 with the Baikal EM1 bio solution, sprinkled with EM-Urgasa and mulched.

Among sideratov rye is considered the most effective plant from nematodes. The roots of the plant emit into the soil "Komeny", namely, these substances kill the nematode. After sowing winter rye, the field is cleared of it by 70-80%.

As soon as you remove the potato field in the fall, sow it with rye. For convenience, it is better in rows, and, preferably, no later than September 15. Before frost, rye still has time to grow and branch.

The best siderat at a nematode is winter rye. Before frosts, it is cut down, and the green mass is placed between the rows. Roots are not dug out, and are cut by a shovel together with greens.

The moment of penetration of Effective Microorganisms into a fresh slice is very important. Immediately begins processing green mass. The effect will intensify with the addition of EM-Urgasy and mulching on top of EM-compost or earth.

The introduction of "Baikal EM1" and Urgas restore the structure of the earth and increase the immunity of plants. It is known that pests and diseases attack weakened bushes. A healthy plant, no infection, including the nematode, is not terrible.

Therefore, it is recommended to take some preventive measures when preparing potatoes for planting. For example, before germinating, wash the tubers.

Sprouted tubers to stand before planting for two hours in a solution "Baikal EM1" in a dilution of 1: 1000 or sprinkle them. Plant endurance will increase the soil, with a balanced microelement composition. Therefore, when planting potatoes in the wells, it is useful to add a handful of EM compost, a pinch of zeolite or wood ash. Tubers are well treated with fertilizer "Bulba".

The visible effect is provided by planting around the potato field of sweet clover, beans and calendula. In order for the royal tubers to no longer be a breeding ground for the disease, when harvesting potatoes, fold them in a separate container and bury them outside the site.

It is recommended to grow relatively resistant to the nematode disease potato varieties, such as Sante, Crystal, Alvar, Anosta, Frigate, Lukyanovsky and others.

Signs and symptoms of the parasite

A striking sign of a pest infestation is slow growth, the lower layer of leaflets and tops turns yellow and then dries out completely. Quite easily, it is possible to infect a culture through working tools, seed or dirty shoes.

At the beginning, the symptoms of a potato infection are completely invisible:

  • the bush has a sad appearance
  • below the leaves begin to die off,
  • haulm becomes yellow.

If all these phenomena are ignored, further infection of the entire site by the nematode will occur rapidly. The cysts who had a wonderful winter in the ground are the main cause of this problem.

Parasite control methods

There are a lot of ways to fight the nematode. The main thing is to approach this issue in stages and, if possible, from all sides at the same time. The most common methods include the following:

  • mechanical,
  • chemical,
  • biological,
  • bacterial,
  • agrotechnical.

Agrotechnical method of dealing with the disease

In case of observance of rational crop rotation and agrotechnical methods, you can save 100% from the pest. It is necessary to alternate crops. Be sure to pay attention to the plants planted last time, and the neighborhood of crops. Vegetables can be planted back to the original place after 3-4 years.

Tip # 1. The soil enriched with various and useful microelements significantly increases the resistance of crops.

Fertilizers used in the fight against parasite

The use of bait has a huge impact on the level of resistance of potatoes to diseases. Root bait used in the nematode:

To prevent infection by the parasite, it is necessary to periodically change nematode-resistant and common varieties of potatoes. Thus, the number of pests is reduced to 80%. It is worth holding this event once every four years.

Potato varieties with good resistance to roundworms:

The chemical way to get rid of nematodes

In this case, immunity to the plant disease is achieved by treating the seed with growth stimulants:

Tip # 2. During harvest, infected brood tubers are put in a separate container and buried away from the site to avoid spreading the pest for the next year.

Biological method of getting rid of the disease

It is necessary to add organic substances to the soil in spring. They increase the number of annelids, and they, in turn, are the main enemies of the pest. You can also plant low-growing marigolds in the garden. Variety Tagetes erecta able to eliminate up to 95% of nematode worms.

It is highly recommended to cultivate nasturtium, calendula, beans, sweet clover. It is not recommended to use tubers taken from affected areas during planting. They can only be used for food or as animal feed.

Treatment plan by day

If you find on your site at least one affected bush do not even think, immediately proceed to its destruction. This is exactly the time when it is worth planting marigolds. These parasites are not able to use their roots for food, after which the nematode dies.

  1. The first day. First we seize the infected plant.Often used heat treatment of rhizomes to destroy the parasite. Thus, the root system is washed from the ground. Then it is briefly (permissible and the whole plant) immersed in water with temperature indicators 50-55 ° C.
  2. Second day. In case of its expansion, the infected area is treated with the “Basudin” preparation. It is advisable to use a formalin solution for the purpose of disinfecting garden tools. A very effective way is to destroy the pest in the chlorine pit. For this, bleach is plentifully poured into a deep pit. They put the diseased bushes along with the dug out lump. It is also possible to defeat the enemy with the help of urea. In this case, it is scattered around the perimeter of the excavated fossa, and also poured inside it.

Answers to frequently asked questions

Question number 1. How to learn about the contamination of the golden potato nematode infield?

Visually, this quarantine view is not detected - soil sampling and research is needed, which is carried out by specialized laboratories.

Question number 2. During the planting of the vegetable, crop rotation was observed, and last year nematode-resistant varieties were used. However, the disease still appeared. Why?

The only visible reason is poor soil. Still, it was possible that the planting material was initially infected with the parasite.

Question number 3. I noticed a couple of suspicious bushes on the site. Symptoms are similar to nematode. What to do?

Urgently remove infected plants. Process in the place of soil and their root system with boiling water. The rest of the site for preventive purposes should be treated with special chemicals. It is advisable to apply a number of bait.

Question number 4. The better to fertilize the soil before planting potatoes to avoid the appearance of nematodes?

Usually use the following dressings: "Potato Universal", "Bulba", "Kemira".

Errors gardeners during the cultivation of vegetables

  • The main mistake of vegetable growers, which leads to the emergence of nematodes, is non-compliance with crop rotation.
  • Also, gardeners do not use as a preventive measure the cultivation of pest-resistant potato varieties.
  • Another mistake - the soil of the site allotted for the cultivation of culture, is not sufficiently enriched with useful substances. This leads to a weakening of the plant to all sorts of diseases and parasites.

At observance of recommendations about preparation, and also top dressing of the land it becomes possible to secure a site from attack of the wrecker. It is necessary to use cultures with good immunity and to grow near them plants-defenders (marigold, rye) to prevent the spread of nematodes. And then the dangerous enemy will be defeated!

How to deal with a nematode in the garden?

Take care first prevention, in order for sure to prevent any occurrence of leaf nematodes on its site.

It is advisable to select such varieties of plants that would be as stable as possible to the nematodes.

Regularly alternate cultures by crop rotation, watch the level of watering, keep the soil in a cool time not too wet, use steam sterilization.

Spray leaves with water no later than six in the eveningso that they can dry before nightfall. In the summer, make sure that the plants have enough access to sunlight - ultraviolet destructive to most harmful nematodes.

How to get rid of it in the soil?

How to get rid of nematodes in the soil? Root worms, which cause yellowish or brown galls on the rhizomes of plants, can also be controlled by preventive methods. When planting plants (especially succulents and shade-loving plants), use only sanitized garden tools.

Do not plant plants chaotic gatherings, it is better to allocate each bush in a pot for a short quarantine.

Warm or tillage hot steam not less than 40 minutes.

Every plant should be checked for any diseases or abnormalities.

The rhizomes of a newly acquired flower must be washed and left for 15 minutes to special solution.

You can use for this purpose a 0.5% solution fosdrin or 0.5% insecticide solution parathion. At the end of the procedure, rinse the roots again, let them dry out and transplant the plant into a new soil.

The most frequent plants exposed to roundworms are becoming aloe, cacti and greenhouse dwellers. They need attentive care and regular preventive measures to protect against nematodes.

Preventive actions

You can significantly improve the nutritional quality of the land due to mulching. Pre-hay is considered an excellent feeding for beneficial microorganisms that will later protect the rhizomes of plants from nematodes and other pests. The layer of mulch should be about 10 cm.

Mulching with rotten hay to combat potato nematode - photo:

As in the case of garden or indoor plants, any tools like shovels need to be processed disinfectant solutions (formalin).

The ideal precursor for potatoes is ryewhich perfectly discourages roundworms. Also on the site cleared of infected tubers and tops should be grown winter rye, so she pacified the center of the spread of parasites.

Alternate planting potato varieties so that nematode-resistant varieties change in a few years. unstable. This will prevent nematodes from getting used or developed. It is best to fertilize the soil wood ash or granular superphosphate.

About preventive measures, not to be left without a potato crop, you will learn from this video:

Types of potato nematode

Golden nematode. This pest penetrates the root of the bush and feeds on its juices, preventing access of beneficial substances to other parts of the plant. As a result, the potato dries prematurely, starting from the lower leaves. Tubers under a bush infected with a nematode are either very small or not formed at all, the root system is excessively branched (gardeners call it “bearded”).

Males of golden potato nematode are similar to ordinary tiny worms. They do not eat at all and live only 10 days. Their task is to fertilize the females. In females, the body is spherical; within a few days after fertilization, it begins to fill with eggs. By autumn, the female's body darkens, acquiring a golden brown hue.

Golden nematode - the most common in Russia Root system of the affected bush

In autumn, females die, turning into cysts capsules, each of which contains up to 800 eggs. Cysts can lie in the ground for even 10 years. Larvae hatch from the same cysts at the same time: sometimes this process takes up to 6 years. The capsule shell is strong enough, and cysts without any damage to the eggs are transferred with the wind or with streams of rainwater.

The golden potato nematode parasitizes on the roots of all plants from the family of nightshade: on potatoes, tomatoes, eggplants, physalis, peppers.

Pale nematode. It differs from the golden nematode only in color: as it develops, the female's body turns white from brown.

Pale nematode under the microscope

Stem nematode. This worm up to 1 mm in size infects the stems of a plant, tubers. It is easy to recognize the tuber in which the parasites have settled: tiny dark specks are clearly visible on the peel. Directly beneath the peel are areas of light, but loose pulp. In the case of severe damage, the peel cracks, and under it is formed the dust (dry rot).

Stem nematode intensively multiplies in a humid environment. Especially the parasite "loves" raw basements, where it crawls from one tuber to another, gradually infecting all the seed material.

Stem nematode appears on tuber

Gall nematode. This species of nematode parasitizes on potato roots and tubers, but does not hesitate to pumpkin (pumpkin, zucchini, squash, melons). The symptom of a gallic potato nematode is tuberous tuber. Sometimes growths (galls) with a diameter of up to 3 cm form on the roots of plants. The pest prevents water and nutrients from accessing the plant stems.

Watch the video: Use of Beneficial Nematodes in your organic garden (October 2019).

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