Category: Useful Information
Creating a hedge is not limited to planting plants. Deciding to grow a hedge, you will provide yourself with work for life, especially if it is a molded hedge.
Plants in hedges are in a highly competitive environment, so it is very important to provide them with good care, which includes root care (weeding, loosening, mulching, watering, feeding) and the ground part (sprinkling, spraying from pests and diseases). trimming). Neglecting the needs of plants quickly affects the appearance of the hedge.
Due to the high density of planting in hedges (especially in the molded ones), there is a strong soil compaction, therefore it is necessary to regularly loosen the hedges on both sides to a width of at least 50 cm. . Do not allow soil sodding around the plants, timely cutting the lawn.
The depth of tillage should be determined by the structure of the root system.
If the root system is deep, pivotal - you can do a digging, if the surface - are limited to shallow loosening (enough to a depth of 5 cm).
At the same time, weeds are removed and to further contain the growth of unwanted vegetation, mulch the soil with sawdust, peat, bark, wood chips, nutshell or other material with a layer of at least 5 cm.
The root system of plants should not dry out, so it is important to ensure timely and sufficient watering with full moistening of the root layer. After planting, the plants must be watered intensively for 3 weeks to the depth of the roots.
Further, after the autumn planting, as a rule, there is enough natural rainfall.
In the case of spring planting, the hedge should be watered regularly during the whole season, especially during dry periods and during active shoot growth, the water consumption at that time should be 20-30 liters per running meter of hedge during weekly irrigation.
During the summer after landing it is advisable to apply sprinkling - plentifully spray the plants with water under pressure from the divider, especially in windy, dry or hot weather.
Moisture-loving rocks are sprayed up to two times a day - in the early morning and in the late evening.
This is especially true of evergreen conifers, in which the needles live for 3-5 years and therefore are more susceptible to dust and dirt than the leaf.
In subsequent years, watering is carried out in accordance with the needs of a particular type of plant. The most effective method of irrigation is a slow flow of water over several hours with a dribble hose, which provides deep permeability and prevents soil washing out.
Sometimes with watering combine foliar nutrition and growth stimulantsthat dissolve in irrigation water.
In the first year after planting, watering with stimulants — for example, heteroauxin — is recommended up to 10 times per season.
For shrub fences, the working concentration of heteroauxin is 0.002% at the rate of 5 liters per plant, for fences of trees - 0.004% at the rate of 30 l per plant. Extra root top dressings apply usually from the second year.
In the molded hedges with a thick planting and regular shearing, a large amount of nutrients are taken out of the soil, which must be replenished by the introduction of organic and mineral fertilizers. In fertile soil they are made once in 3-4 years, in poor - every year or in a year.
Due to the dense planting of plants in the hedge, top dressing does not reach the roots everywhere; part of the root system is deprived.
To solve this problem, you can use hydrodrill or homemade root feeders, which must be provided at the planting stage.
In a trench at the depth of the roots (30 cm) lay a flexible perforated hose, the ends of which lead to the surface. They are subsequently poured solutions of mineral and organic fertilizers, which go directly to the roots.
Application rates for fertilizers per 1 m2 of area under a hedge:
humus, compost, rotted manure - 2-4 kg,
ammonium sulfate - 60-80 g,
superphosphate - 60-80 g,
potassium salt - 30-40 g
Nitrogen fertilizers are applied in a dry form under the spring soil loosening, phosphate and potash fertilizers - under the autumn digging. Top dressing can also be applied in liquid form, best of all - during the period of intensive growth of shoots (nitrogen) and roots (phosphorus and potassium), the optimal concentration for most tree crops is:
ammonium nitrate - 2 g / l,
superphosphate - 20 g / l,
potassium sulfate - 2 g / l.
It is convenient to use long-term fertilizers in the form of granules, tablets, rods, which are applied once per season in spring.
Feedings of coniferous fences have a number of features: manure should not be applied to coniferous plants, only mineral fertilizers - every 2-3 weeks from the end of March to early August, nitrogen-phosphate in the amount of 20-30 mg / m2. For older plants and mixed with bark or sawdust, this dosage should be increased.
Hedge care rules
On the site massive fences look sad, and simple designs do not always meet the requirements of the owners. Therefore, select alternative options for fencing, for example, landscape design proposes the use of a hedge.
It can not only prevent other people and animals from entering a private territory, but also fit into the picture of the surrounding nature, fill the space with bright colors.
Definition and classification of hedge
A hedge is a framing consisting of densely planted plants.
It is considered to be quite competitive, well-thought-out and designed fence can be a much more serious obstacle for intruders than stone or wood structures.
A distinctive feature is considered to be the durability of such hedges, because the life span of a single plant is measured in centuries.
The main classification is proposed depending on the height of the hedge:
- low, in this case, the so-called borders are obtained. They go no higher than 0.5m, the choice of plants is very limited. Usually this type is used to outline the boundaries inside the plot. Among the popular plants choose prickly quince, evergreen boxwood, Japanese meadowsweet, dwarf thuja or nestling spruce,
- average height varies from 0.5 to 2.0 m. In this variation, they use both fruit-bearing shrubs, coniferous species, and thorny representatives. The first are currants and gooseberries, from conifers they prefer western thuja. Excellent privet common, black agypsy. For barbed protection use barberry and pyracantha,
- The high fence consists of trees and shrubs. Good for the formation of hornbeam, elm, maple and lilac. From thorny plants prefer hawthorn and gledichiu. To obtain an evergreen hedge, they use common spruce, western thai and berry yew.
Experts recommend the use of instances that have a short lifespan. So, shrubs and trees lasting 2-3 years, conifers - 3-5 years.
Planting a fence
Planting a hedge does not take much time, after selecting plants you need to dig a trench about 50 cm deep, the width varies from 40 to 90 cm. In the case of single-row planting take the minimum value for the two rows, respectively, increase the width. For the device trench use cord, it is important to dig a flat groove, the slightest flaws spoil the overall appearance of the fence.
Good soil is obtained by planting humus, compost and mineral fertilizers. In the presence of fertile soil, you can simply dig up the place of the trench, but to ensure a fast-growing hedge you will have to take care of additional food.
As usual, before planting, it is important to hold the roots of crops in water, seedlings of coniferous representatives should not remain without soil. Directly planting is carried out using a tensioned cord, the distance between crops is determined depending on the type of plant. Usually it is 20-50cm. After burying the root system, the earth is compacted and watered abundantly with water.
When choosing plants, it is necessary to determine the desired result, familiarize yourself with the rules of their planting. But this is not the end of care, it is important to provide the right care for long-term maintenance and maintaining an aesthetic look.
Basic care is a set of works consisting of:
- soil treatment
- watering plants
- haircuts and trim,
- protection against pests and developing diseases.
Only with regular and careful work with plants a neat appearance is achieved, because they are in a highly competitive environment due to their dense location.
Just a dense planting contributes to the compaction of the soil, and the active growth and development of living plants require oxygen access to the root system. For this, the soil is loosened from the hedge in two directions in a width of at least 50 cm. In the case of the presence of trees, it is necessary to dig the earth around the trunk within a radius of 50 cm.
The type of root system is taken into account, for example, trees and shrubs easily damage the base because of the small depth of the roots. Then it is necessary to carefully loosen the earth, in the case of the core system, digging will be needed.
Naturally, in parallel to carry out the cleaning of the soil from weeds and add mineral fertilizers, such as sawdust or peat. This will prevent the growth of undesirable vegetation, a layer of material is laid at least 5 cm.
Rules for watering plants
All plants for hedges require regular watering, because the slightest drying of the root system is displayed on the general appearance.
In the first month after planting, careful watering is required over the entire depth of the roots. At autumn arrangement of a fence, constant moistening is not required, as a rule, there is enough atmospheric precipitation.
If plant transplantation occurs in spring, the fence should be watered intensively throughout the season. During the absence of precipitation during the week, the water consumption should be at least 20-30 liters per 1m of the fence.
Hedge plants in the country will feel better after spraying with water, this procedure is required in dry, hot and windy weather. Spraying is carried out not in the heat, that is, either in the early morning or late evening. Conifers especially need such care, because they are exposed to external influences more than a regular leaf.
The most effective irrigation technology is considered to be a slow supply of water from a hose. This ensures the penetration of water into the deep layers of the soil, while eliminating its leaching.
Fertilizer and dressing
Improvement of soil properties is carried out in two ways:
- foliar top dressing,
- action directly on the root system.
- In the first case, special substances are mixed with irrigation water, the so-called stimulants can be added regularly or several times per season. The amount of required concentration of active substances is selected according to the attached instructions to the fertilizer. On the package indicate the dosage of the substance, depending on the plants present in the hedge. Usually foliar dressing is used only from the second year of plant life.
- Mineral fertilizers can enter the soil through the root system with the help of well-thought-out root-feeders, or by drilling holes in the drills. Such events can be held annually, with fertile soil once every 3-4 years is enough.
Root feeders are perforated hose laid at the level of the root system. Arrangement is carried out at the planting stage, if necessary, mineral and organic fertilizers are poured into the hoses.
Hedgehog hedges require a special approach, the root system does not withstand the effects of manure. It is allowed to make only mineral fertilizers, while the dosage for young and old plants is different. First, nitrogen-phosphate substances are added every 3 weeks in an amount of 30 mg / m2.
Regular pruning allows you to regulate the growth and flowering of the hedge, if the elementary recommendations are not followed, the branches will start to grow randomly. Then you can forget about the aesthetic side of the fence. Scissors for hedges are considered to be the main tool, they are convenient to remove dried branches and root shoots.
The main focus on pruning is carried out in the first years after planting for the correct formation of the crown. In this case, the base should always remain wider than the top - this contributes to the uniform distribution of light rays. In the subsequent period, haircut is required only twice a year - before flowering and at the end of June.
Shoots should have an oblique cut, pruning is carried out before branching. Large sections are necessarily treated with garden putty, paint or pitch for an hour after pruning.
An example of an autumn haircut is presented in the video:
The process also has nuances, because some plants do not need pruning. For example, such shrubs for hedges, like barberry or wolfberry. By themselves, these plants bloom beautifully and scatter branches, and shearing can disrupt the natural process. Trees such as maple or quince are also not pruned.
Planting and care for hedges
Curbs and walls of plants make the land harmonious and cozy. Before finding out how to grow a hedge, it is necessary to determine what function it should perform on the site and how high its owners represent. It depends on this choice of plants.
It is necessary to take into account that whatever plants for a hedge are chosen, they should not in any way obscure the neighboring area, therefore during planting it is required to be oriented in the direction of the cardinal directions. Along the perimeter of the site.
What is a hedge, as an element of landscape design? This is a detail of the vertical landscaping of the site, harmoniously fitting into its general appearance. A green hedge around the perimeter can protect the territory from winds and uninvited guests.
On large areas (from 1 hectare) they plant tall plants that border the site with solid green walls up to 3–4 m. leaves - hornbeam, filbert, holly Norway.
Decorative thick wall up to 4 m in height can be grown for 10 years from hawthorn. It is planted at a distance of 50 m, start forming the plant in the first year after planting.
Plants for the fence grown free or form from the first years. Natural hedge grows in 3–8 years.
Thorny bushes planted along its border, forming impassable thickets with time, give a good protective effect to the site. It:
- Turn Unpretentious. The flowers have an almond fragrance, the fruits are beneficial. To accelerate growth, a shrub planted is cut to a height of 15 cm.
- Barberry. Of all the species, only the barberry of Thunberg is not used for hedge due to its short stature.
- Chaenomeles. Because of its spines (up to 2 cm), the crop is harvested only in thick gloves. Powerful roots strengthen the soil on the slopes.
- RosehipIt forms a powerful shrub up to 2–3 m tall, which, thanks to numerous root suckers, can grow 2 m wide.
For hedges on the slopes planted Chinese princepiy (cherry prickly) - a plant up to 2-2.5 m tall, especially decorative during flowering and fruiting. Red juicy fruits prisepii edible.
In severe winters young shoots may freeze, but before summer the plant is fully restored. Prisepia growing in the shade is taller, has a very lush crown, but it blooms worse.
The fast-growing shoots of prissepy, planted at a distance of about 1 m, in 10–15 years form a 2 m wide barrier from branches and shoots with prickles.
You can hide the unsightly fence by planting girlish grapes along it - an unpretentious plant that enchants with red and purple shades in the fall. In the year, the fast-growing shoots of maiden grapes give an increase of 2–4 m.
If you plant seedlings with several lashes at a distance of at least 1 m, then already in 2 seasons you can get a single-layer curtain. The main condition for the successful cultivation of girlish grapes - reliable support.
A beautiful hedge can be either regular or irregular geometric shape.
How to make a hedge in the country instead of a fence from the grid? What plants are suitable for this? For this purpose, willow is used, the variety willow basket is especially popular because of its flexible twigs. Seedlings with 2 shoots are planted at a distance of 20-30 cm from each other. As they grow, they are sent in pairs in different directions, interlacing and forming a living mesh with diamond-shaped cells. Joints fasten soft material. Such a live fence can reach 2–3 m in height, but usually it is made a little higher than 1 m. The top is cut. To get a deaf green fence, the lateral branches of willow are woven into the cells. More often, they are also cut in order to plant annual climbing plants along the fence: ipomeyu, nasturtium, sweet peas.
The unique hedge with his own hands can be created by alternating traditional ornamental shrubs of medium size (1.5–2.5 m tall), such as: chubushnik, aronia, forsythia, lilac. The fence from turf looks impressive, creating a background for other plants.
Derain is unpretentious, winter-hardy, decorative at any time of the year. A living fence can be erected by combining different varieties of white or red deren. The width of a plant bush is almost equal to its height, the turf is easy to shear - this allows you to give it the shape of a ball or a cube.
The construction of a hedge from various plants is possible by growing them in several rows: in the background high plants, in the front - low ones. Usually create a composition of 2-3 rows.
What is better to make a multi-tiered hedge? Plants for it should not only be combined aesthetically, but have similar requirements for moisture, light and soil.
Young shrubs should be planted in a row, adhering to the following norms:
- tall - at a distance of 80–90 cm from each other,
- medium with 50-60 cm
- undersized - 25–35 cm.
Plants for hedges tiers are selected in color so that each row contrasted with the next. The uniform color scale looks boring.
Often use powerful and beautiful blistering: red, yellow and green. They are planted at a distance of 70–80 cm from each other, in the spring they feed up and prune only the upper growths.
For multi-row hedges suitable plants with loose branching (yellow acacia, sea buckthorn).
How to lay a hedge?
For planting a hedge choose young shrubs and trees from 3 to 6 years old
Place for planting in the fall, plant the plants better in spring. On the plot, a straight line is drawn along which they dig a trench of 50 cm or more in depth so that the seedling can freely locate the roots.
The width of the trench for planting seedlings in 1 row should be up to 50 cm, in 2 rows - 70 cm, in 3 - 90 cm. The bottom of the trench is loosened, under each seedling fall broken bricks for drainage and sand, if the groundwater is close, make organic and mineral fertilizers.
Planted in a trench under the cord at the same distance, at the same level at which they grew, soil compacted and watered. When choosing seedlings, young hardwood plants of 2–3 years of age, conifers of 3–4 years are preferable.
A grown fence from plants would be better to form strict lines, if, at a height of 30–40 cm from the soil, to establish supports for crops or to stretch strings. For the facade.
At the entrance to the site to beautifully close it from prying eyes, noise and dust of the street, planted evergreen conifers. The most popular among them are:
- Spruce. The smaller the Christmas tree, the better it takes root. Plant a tree in the sand at a distance of 60–70 cm. Begin to form for 2-3 years after planting. When cutting the top of the tree, the upper part of the tree acquires pomp and the necessary width. At first it is cut only at the very bottom, the next year - above. When the plant reaches the desired height and width, it is cut completely.
- Thuja western Brabant. During the year it grows in height by 25–35 cm, in width - by 5–10 cm. Plants are planted in loamy soil at a distance of 70–80 cm from each other in order to form a bright green and dense hedge. The fast-growing thuja Brabant, with regular pruning, will form it with a height of 3.5–4 m in 10 years. In free landing grows to 15 m.
- The thuja western Smaragd has constant bright color of needles. Planting a hedge from Tui Smaragd reaches 1–1.5 m. It can be cut once a season.
All coniferous plants emit phytoncides that disinfect the air. They plant it in the fall, the root collar is completely buried when planted. Young plants in the summer covered with an awning, in the winter - breathing material.
The facade fence at the cottage of perennial flowering plants looks very picturesque: honeysuckle honeysuckle, hydrangeas, wicker roses. Among them, hydrangeas - unconventional hedge in the country with their own hands, but the bushes 2 m tall are very suitable for this purpose.
Fast-growing hydrangeas love penumbra, acidic soil and fertilizing with manure. The root system of plants does not go deep, is horizontal, so the hydrangeas need frequent watering.
In late October, it is necessary to cut off flowering inflorescences.
You can combine the hydrangea tree and paniculate: since they begin to form buds at different times and bloom for 3 months, the fence will look attractive for a long time.
The hedge is able to visually divide the site into zones and hide unsightly summer house elements, such as a barn or toilet.
For the dacha, especially if the plot is extended, the division of the yard into small functional areas is of great importance.
Hedges in landscape design successfully perform the role of such a separator. Protect and emphasize the boundaries of lawns, flowerbeds, paths low (up to 1 m) borders from the barberry Thunberg, spirea, cotoneaster brilliant. These plants have small leaves and are suitable for cutting.
Even a small neatly trimmed curb near the house gives the site elegance. Flower beds, trimmed hedges up to 1.2 m in height are placed across a long section. Both perennials and fast-growing annuals are used: gray spiraea, rhododendrons, asters. The choice is very large.
You can decorate your garden by planting plants in 2 rows.
Beautiful in group plantings spirea Little Princesses, which blooms profusely for 1.5 months in mid-summer, but picturesque from spring to late autumn. This unpretentious frost-resistant plant reaches a height of 80 cm, develops slowly with an annual increase of 10 cm. The shrubs are planted at a distance of 30–40 cm, they start to form a plant early.
Any dacha has unsightly buildings (barn, toilet, compost heap), which will make the living fence fast-growing less visible. You can make small high supports and frames with your own hands, stretch a plastic net on them and plant a number of weaving plants: honeysuckle, ipomeyu.
Particularly relevant hedge in the garden to highlight the recreation area. It is surrounded by screens and walls of clematis, kobei, climbing roses. Very popular for creating a cozy corner is an old New Down rose, whose long thin shoots branch in all directions.
This outstanding rose has a pleasant aroma, blooms from early summer until late autumn and withstands partial shade. Sometimes your favorite corner is fenced off from another space by tall potted plants. It looks good fence of gladioli planted in the same pots.
Keep in mind that in containers the soil dries quickly, so be sure to silence it.
In order for a hedge of any destination to look attractive from spring to late autumn, it is necessary to select plants according to the principle of all-season decorativeness, creating not a solid monotone wall, but a garden in the garden.
Caring for a hedge is much more difficult than for ordinary garden plants.
Hedge fence requires constant care. Lower branches of plants may thin out due to insufficient lighting. To prevent this from happening, the plants must be trapezoidal when sheared.
For the formation of a dense branched crown of evergreen plants during shearing, only the number of new annual shoots is reduced, so that the remaining buds give sprouts. Do not pruning after the first decade of August, because the young, not having time to get stronger twigs, can freeze in winter.
Care and high-quality hedge trim is performed with such tools:
- electric and trellis scissors,
- scissors for tall plants
- brush cutter with a knife length of 60 cm,
- loppers for thin and thick branches.
Be careful when buying seedlings: a high hedge will suffer externally when even 1–2 plants of another variety are interspersed, because due to biological peculiarities the leaves on them can fly around earlier than on other plants in the living fence, and as a result bald spots are formed. Seedlings for the fence should be initially formed by bushes.
Hedges in landscape design will fulfill their functions on the site for a long time subject to the agrotechnical practices. First of all, it is the correct fit, timely feeding, watering and mulching. For formed landings is very important haircut. For free-growing plants - sanitary, rejuvenating and forming pruning.
When choosing plants, it is necessary to dwell on those that correspond to the climate of your region and the conditions of the site, so that the investment and strength will be justified sooner.
Types of pruning
Trimming is applied to free-growing hedges and can be the following assignments:1. Sanitary pruning- designed to remove wilted flowers, dead, sick, damaged and intersecting branches, to maintain a beautiful view of the plant.
Removal of dry, old, weak, thickening crown, branches is especially important for flowering and fruit plants. It should be borne in mind that the generative buds of these species are laid on shoots of different ages: in some of the current year (roses, spireas), in others - of the previous one (hawthorn, apple, cherry).
In order to obtain abundant flowering, pruning of such plants is carried out according to their biological characteristics: the first group - before flowering, the second - after it.
The best time for pruning in central Russia, the Urals, Western Siberia and Altai are the end of winter - the beginning of spring (from mid-February to mid-April) and the second half of summer (after the shoot growth is completed).
You can not trim in the winter (due to the possible negative impact on sections of branches of low temperatures and strong desiccation) and during the sap flow (due to the strong release of juices from the surface of the sections, weakening the tree and could lead to its death).
Cut leaves and shoots must be carefully collected and burned, because they can be sources of the spread of pests and diseases.
2. Recovery pruning
- is aimed at returning the ability to grow, bloom and fruiting in plants launched or affected by adverse environmental conditions (dried, frost-bitten, damaged).
3. Rejuvenating pruning
- aimed at stimulating the growth of new shoots in aging and old plants.
4. Supportive or Regulatory Pruning
- aims to preserve the specified parameters of the crown, the optimal level of illumination of all its areas, the most favorable ratio between growth, flowering and fruiting.
5. Shaped pruning
- aims to create a crown of a certain type of plant with a given saturation density of skeletal (permanent), as well as temporary fouling branches.
produced to obtain the correct profile of hedge and to enhance the growth of lateral shoots, increasing the density of the crown. Cutting the fence should be done annually. In the first years, one haircut is usually undertaken during the growing season in early spring or late autumn (depending on the breed of the plant).
In subsequent years, the number of haircuts can be increased to two to three or more, depending on the speed of growth of the shoots of the plant. With two haircuts per year, they are repeated at the beginning of July, then the increase in height increases. Multiple haircuts are carried out during the summer as new shoots grow, with loss of clear fencing surfaces defining its profile.
The depth of the hairstyle increases with increasing growth and age of the fence. Initially it is 1/2 - 2/3 of the average length of the shoots. As the hedge approaches the given height, the haircut can be even deeper, even to the extent that the stumps are 2 cm high.
When a certain height is reached, a top haircut is constantly performed at the same level, removing all towering shoots. If it is not serious to approach the haircut, only removing the ends of young shoots, as a result, a dense, high hedge will become unattractive in a few years.
To avoid this, the fence should be cut as close as possible to last year. This will preserve their shape and density, as well as prevent plant breakage after heavy snowfall. One of the examples of improper hedge trimming is the case when increasing the width of hedges is faster than increasing the height.
Therefore, the hairstyle should be deeper from the sides, so that the profile height was much larger than the width. Even as a result of improper hairstyle, hedges often bare the bottom, many dry branches appear.
As a rule, such neglected living hedges have a cross section in the form of a quadrilateral preventing uniform illumination of the side surfaces. Therefore, a rectangular or square profile is used for borders where the difference in illumination of the lower and upper vertical surfaces is small due to the small height.
For resuscitation of a running hedge, it is necessary to cut it to 1/4 -1/2 in height and width, or even cut it to a stump in order to cause a new intensive growth of shoots. Launched coniferous fences are cut from above and from the sides by no more than the last three annual gains.
The inconvenience of the rectangular and trapezoidal profile of the haircut with the formation of a flat surface of the top is the need for very frequent haircuts. Even with a small regrowth, the shoots will not be uniform over the entire surface, as a result of which the hedge profile will change and its decorative effect will decrease.
With the profile narrowing or rounded up, the unevenness of the growing shoots is less noticeable, and the fence almost does not lose its decorative effect.In this case, multiple haircuts will not be required, and efforts to care for such hedges will be less. A rejuvenating haircut can be applied not only to neglected and old hedges.
It is also resorted to when the fence has ceased to perform a protective function. Since it takes a lot of energy to restore the plants, it is better to rejuvenate in two steps. In the first year, only one side of the hedge is clipped, cutting branches at a distance of 15 cm from the trunk.
The other side is sheared as usual, and the next year it is rejuvenated in the same way as the first. Simultaneously with cutting the plant, it is necessary to fertilize it well, water it and mulch the soil so that they can recover quickly. In urgent cases, the haircut can be carried out simultaneously from two sides. The trimming of hedges is made, as a rule, with garden shears, electric scissors, chainsaw, trimmer with a special nozzle, which greatly facilitates the work. However, many gardeners still prefer to use hand pruners and garden shears, being creative and getting real pleasure from the shearing process.
In order to obtain the same clipping profile along the entire length of the hedge, it is produced by stretched cords or using a pattern corresponding to the desired cross-sectional outline.
group A: Recommended for evergreen and deciduous plants that bloom on the shoots of the previous or current year and need minimal pruning.
Pruning done in early spring: removed thickening and intersecting shoots while preserving the typical form of the plant.
group B: Recommended for shrubs and some species of trees that bloom in spring or early summer on the shoots of last year.
Pruning is done annually after flowering plants. Pruned faded shoots to developed buds. Older plants rejuvenate by additionally cutting off old branches 1/4 of the length for regrowing.
group C: Recommended for deciduous shrubs that bloom in spring or early summer on the shoots of last year and giving new growth at ground level.
Pruning is done annually after flowering pruning ottsvetshie shoots to young lateral branches or to the lower developed buds.
group D: Recommended for deciduous and evergreen shrubs that bloom on the shoots of the current or last year.
Pruning is done annually after flowering or in early spring, pruning the flowering shoots 2-4 buds above last year's pruning site.
group E: Recommended for deciduous kadochnye plants that bloom in late winter - in early spring on the shoots of last year.
Pruned annually after flowering all branches to developed buds or lateral shoots.
group F: Recommended for deciduous shrubs that bloom in late summer - early autumn on the shoots of the current year.
Pruning done in early spring to the level of last year pruning.
group G: Recommended for deciduous shrubs and trees with large or brightly colored leaves.
Pruned shoots annually in early spring to 2-3 buds from the ground or to the level of last year's pruning.
group H: Recommended for evergreen shrubs that bloom in the spring on the shoots of the past or the current year.
Pruning is done annually after flowering. Shoots slightly trim, remove flowering peduncles and damaged shoots.
group I: Recommended for evergreen shrubs with nondescript flowers, blooming from mid-summer to late autumn on the shoots of the current or last year.
Pruned annually in spring trimming or pruning shoots breaking symmetry.
group j: Recommended for evergreen shrubs and trees that bloom on the shoots of the previous year in spring or early summer or those on the shoots of the current year in late summer or autumn.
Pruned annually after flowering pruning faded shoots, capturing 2 cm last year's growth.
group K: Recommended for fast-growing deciduous and evergreen vines that bloom on the shoots of the current or previous year and do not need regular pruning.
Shaped after flowering, pruned shoots to the desired length, if necessary, carry out rejuvenating pruning.
group L: Recommended for moderately growing plants that bloom on the shoots of the current or previous year.
Pruned side shoots annually after flowering, leaving 2-4 buds above last year's pruning site.
Technique of slicing during pruning
1. The cut must be oblique, begin at the middle of the kidney from the opposite side and end above the tip of only a developed, healthy vegetative kidney. Annual shoots are usually shortened "on the kidney" without leaving hemp.3.
Pruning 2 - 4-year-old branches produce to the nearest branching or the place of the possible emergence of new young shoots.4. Skeletal branches are removed in parts: a) make a cut from below at a distance of 30 cm from the trunk) make a second cut 2 to 5 cm above the first) the remaining stump is cut into a ring, the surface of the cuts are cleaned.
Sections should be necessarily covered with garden putty, pitch or oil paint 20 minutes after pruning, but no later than 24 hours.
Garden Putty Recipes
1. Bordeaux ointmentPrepared by blending Bordeaux mixture of copper sulfate and quicklime (1: 1) and raw linseed or sunflower oil to the consistency of dry pasta.
2. Garden pitch
Includes rosin, wax, and other components that provide softening under the influence of hand heat, warming or cold ductility.
In the absence of commercially available, it can be cooked on its own: in a separate pot, rosin is melted, waxed, then mixed, fat is added and poured in a thin stream into cold water for cooling, then collected and rolled into a ball.
Instead of rosin and wax, you can use resin.
Composition and proportions of garden putties: a) rosin, wax, unsalted fat (1: 2: 1), b) paraffin, rosin, natural drying oil (20: 4: 1), c) rosin, turpentine, lard, denatured alcohol , ocher or ash (10: 5: 1: 2: 1), d) rosin, linseed oil, denatured alcohol (8: 1: 4).
3. Thick oily paint (except zinc white, cinnabar), diluted in natural vegetable oil.
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We'll have to weed and loosen the soil under them, water (at the rate of at least 20–30 liters per linear meter). Shrubs love feeding. In the early spring, nitrogen fertilizers are applied to the soil to stimulate growth, complex in the summer, and phosphate-potassium fertilizers in the fall (no later than the beginning of August, if this is not done, the shoots will not woody and may freeze slightly).
Molded hedges must be trimmed, and free-growing ones must be trimmed. Haircut is needed to enhance the growth of lateral shoots, increase the density of the crown, to maintain a given shape. In the first year after planting, one time is enough, in the future, as we have said, it will have to be done 3-4 times per season.
Most often hedges give the shape of a rectangle or trapezium. It is necessary to take into account the peculiarities of various types of shrubs. Only one wrong hairstyle can ruin many years of work on its formation. So entrust this business to professionals.
Pruning regulates the growth of free-growing hedges. When pruning the flowering species, their ability to form flower buds on the shoots of the current or last year must be taken into account; if cut incorrectly, the fence will not bloom from year to year. In addition, both trimmed and free-growing hedges are regularly subjected to so-called sanitary pruning, in which all diseased and mechanically damaged branches are removed.
In some cases, you can try to combine the fence and the hedge, "hiding" it behind a green stripe. By the way, this is done when the fence on the site was once installed, and then his view seemed too dull.
In this case, use plants with dense foliage: trees, shrubs, vines. It is best to plant already grown plants, in a pinch "teenagers". Otherwise, wait until the hedge closes the entire fence, it can be very long.
Types of hedges
Popular in the countryside, and for some time in the city, the green fence can be of the following types:
- Tall. It is also called a living wall. In height can reach 2 m and even more. It is located along the perimeter of the plot in a continuous strip, or in separate fragments. You can choose: fir, yew, viburnum, maple, cherry plum, pea cypress, English oak, small-leaved linden.
- Average. Usually less than 2 m in height and is used for dividing the territory into functional zones, or for fencing the yard. The most popular are the species: lilac, honeysuckle, hazel, cornel, blue spruce, western thuja, turf, yellow acacia, chubushnik.
- Low. Dense border is not more than 1 m in height for the delimitation of lawns, garden paths, flower beds and flower beds. Best suited: dwarf jasmine, boxwood, euonymus, hollow magnolia, barberry, juniper colonic.
Additionally, the following planting technologies are used:
- in one row - all landings are of the same type and do not have differences throughout their length,
- in two rows - seedlings of one or two different types are planted in two lanes, placing them in a checkerboard pattern relative to each other,
- in several rows - this technology is used in cases when each subsequent row is higher than the previous one. The result is a stepped fit.
Advantages and disadvantages
Rejecting the traditional fence and deciding on such an option as a green hedge, it is important to weigh the pros and cons. Regardless of which type of living fence you choose, in the future you will have to face standard pluses:
- Aesthetics. What attracts homeowners is the opportunity every season to see the changing, but always beautiful appearance of the fence.
- Environmental friendliness. According to this indicator, there are no equal analogues, because over time, the fence will flow into the ecosystem of the site, becoming part of it.
- Individuality. Each green hedge is unique, as is a landscape design project.
- Variability. At will appearance, height, width, the form of plantings is easy for changing.
- Excellent barrier against noise, dust, wind, animals.
- Birds willingly fly to such sites in order to hunt garden pests.
- The main efforts are made only once during the formation of the fence, and in the future for decades enough to trim the growth of growth.
- Repair, painting, like other types of fences, just do not need.
- A few years of caring for the fence will have to be given enough time until all the plants take root and gain strength.
- Bush planting require pruning several times a year.
- In the case of the death of an adult bush or tree to quickly replace it is quite expensive.
If you do not have your own experience of creating fences of greenery, then the help of a professional landscape designer will be very useful. Despite the general information that is well known for each group of plants, there are quite a few nuances in relation to a specific locality: soil features, the influence of the regularity of precipitation in the warm and cold seasons of the species you are interested in, the need to carry out additional feeding, etc. Over time, this experience will appear with you, but you can do it easier and use ready-made information.
Consider the features of the formation of hedges of the three most popular varieties of plants from which you can create a fence, even without appropriate experience.
Such a fence can not do without support. It can be made of any material, preferably with large cells (chain-link, metal grill, fence of metal rods or wooden slats). Planted plants gradually tightly braid support and completely hide it from the eyes. Particularly impressive are the flowering species, which at the time of flowering turn the site into a real paradise.
Among the most common species of climbers for this purpose:
Purpose and Forms
A hedge is a very effective tool not only in the decorative, but also in the work plan. It can perform many functions. First of all, you have the opportunity to isolate themselves from the annoying glances of passersby.
After all, it happens that the site is in a public place, and you do not want to install a dense fence. And in order to somehow hide from the field of universal viewing, you need to take some measures. A high hedge is great for this feature. Did you know?There is a whole art of giving a certain form to bushes, and it is called topiary.
In addition, a well-placed fence will protect the site from wind, dust, snow, rain and other natural pollutants. Depending on the type and form, you can fence off your own territory and divide it into functional zones.
Addition to the decor of the alley, flower beds, the definition of the walking area, the creation of green compositions - all this can make a simple hedgehog. There is even a classification of this phenomenon.
So, shrubs are distinguished by the form:
- freely growing.
The first in the list are often used by designers to impart a certain style to the cottage. Such hedges have clear lines that the gardener himself “draws”. He defines the figure.
For this type, select special plants that are well cut and at the same time have a dense leaf growth structure. The width of the bushes may be small, so they do not take up much space in the country.
From what shape give a fence, it is divided into:
Each of the profiles is created using different tools and plant species. For example, a rectangular shape can be created using shade-like types of shrubs. If they are light-requiring, then with this form of a bush, the lower leaves may die.
If you want to achieve the shape of a triangle, then you need to trim the bushes under 80 ° on both sides. The most optimal is a trapezoidal hedge, as it allows all leaves and shoots to obtain the optimum amount of sunlight, and therefore suitable for many types of shrubs.
The circle of plants to create the most difficult, it requires the possession of certain skills. Therefore, this form is most rarely resorted to, although it looks very harmonious on any site.
If the territory of the dacha allows, then you can organize a second type - a freely growing hedge. Its width, unlike the previous one, can reach up to 3 m. Such hedges are created from plants that do not tolerate a haircut. Instead, they take their aesthetics - beautifully growing shrubs that have large and bright flowers.
All this gives the site a solemn look. Plants are usually planted, taking into account the color of the leaves or the flowers themselves and creating a unique palette of colors.
Did you know?In Europe, parks with figures made in the form of animals, people and geometric figures, began to appear in the Renaissance period.
How often to cut?
A free-growing hedge can only be trimmed once a year or 2 to trim the bushes. It is also necessary to stimulate flowering. Although this procedure can not be done at all.
As for the trimmed type of hedges, then, of course, everything is a little more complicated. In the first years it is necessary to carry out a hairstyle 1 time for the whole vegetation period. It happens in early autumn or late spring.
Next, you have to focus on the growth rate and cut at least 2-3 times a year.
So the plant will rapidly gain height, much faster than with a single haircut. It is necessary to monitor the hedge, and then you yourself will understand when you need to cut the bushes - with the loss of clear lines of the figure and the appearance of young shoots. Important!If you spend 2 haircuts per year, then re-need to be carried out in the summer - in June or July. Most often deciduous plants are used to form a hedge. If they are too branched, they are cut at a distance of 30 cm from the ground, and if there are few new shoots, then 15 cm is enough.
If you landed a plant in the fall, then for the first time it will have to be cut in the spring of next year. If it grows on a plot from spring or summer, then it will have to be cut off after you have planted it.
If the fence consists of conifers, then cut it is not worth it. This can be done no more than once a year, so that it grows better.
Pruning shrubs into groups
Robert Markle - German garden expert - subdivided ornamental shrubs into special groups. This was necessary in order to facilitate the understanding of which plants should be pruned and in what period.
The first group includes those plants that do not require cutting the bushes in the spring. This is because in this group mainly such specimens are collected which have a low capacity for regeneration, respectively, they need to be cut less often.
In addition to a long period of growth, the plant is extremely difficult to tolerate the wounds inflicted on it. It is enough to cut only the old branches, so as not to harm the bushes.
The first group includes plants such as Magnolia, Viburnum, Common Dogwood, Irga, Witch Hazel, Blooming Dogwood, Laurel Cherry.
The second group includes those shrubs that begin to bloom before the others. Pruning in such cases is carried out after the end of the flowering period.
The process is to remove old flowers. In this way you will make a new move. No additional procedures should be carried out.
Important!If you cut the second type of shrubs in early spring, they will not give flowers, because the cut shoots were buds. To cut off the faded branches by one third. This approach will contribute to abundant flowering. Be careful not to cut branches at the same height each year.
If you do this, the branch will become compacted and a painful growth will appear on it. He will not allow the plant to release new shoots from below.
The second group includes forsythia, jasmine, currant blood-red, Japanese keryriya, colqution, deicia, Florida weigela, early flowering spirea, and lilac
The second group formed a small addition: subgroup 2a. It includes those shrubs that are in need of total cutting. These include willow, almond, gorse, etc.
Usually, after a period of flowering, they need to be cut to the base, or to new shoots. So next year they will give magnificent flowers.
The third group includes those hedges that have a late flowering period. If this happens, it means that the buds and shoots were formed in the same year.
At the beginning of the new flowering season, plants of this group can be completely cut off. The third group of pruning includes roses, budleya, spirea, some types of hydrangea. Important!If you often carry out this procedure, then you need to not forget about the fertilizer plants.
Tips and tricks
If you prefer the formation of complex forms of hedge, then it is better to do this with stencils. You can create them using thick cardboard or fiberboard. Just make a hole on the canvas of the shape that you want to recreate.
It so happens that a hedge becomes a home for birds. They build nests there and even lay eggs. Do not be indifferent to this and wait a little with pruning shoots until mid-June, until the chicks fly away.
Conifers are pruned at the end of August. If you do this earlier, the young shoots will not stiffen, which means they will not be sufficiently protected from frost in the cold season.
If you often prune bushes, then you need to fertilize them. We advise you to do it in the spring. Lay a 3 cm layer of compost around the plant. Instead, you can use fertilizers sold in a store for this purpose. Before buying tools, in particular scissors, check their condition and adjustment. Good blades cannot be heavy. Pay attention to your personal comfort - whether it will be convenient for you to use them.
Take care of your personal tools: wipe after cutting the blade, sharpen scissors that have become dull, and preserve tools when you are not using them.
If you follow these simple tips, the procedure for mastering a new garden decoration technique will no longer seem so complicated. Decorate your site and do not be afraid to add something new there.