Potato moth belongs to the order of Lepidoptera and is the main pest of solanaceous species of horticultural crops (pepper, potato, eggplant). The distribution area is quite wide - from America to the south of Europe. In Russia, the potato mole was first discovered in 1982 in the Caucasus and the Krasnodar Territory.
The insect is able to survive and reproduce in almost any conditions, so the range of its distribution grows every year. Active damage is caused mainly to potato tubers (like the Colorado potato beetle) during their storage, therefore it is rather difficult to detect the insect.
Caterpillars and larvae
Winter caterpillars and larvae are easily transferred in the upper soil layer, after which the pupae the butterflies fly out in the spring and end their activity at the end of October. The number of eggs in one clutch reaches up to 200 pieces, while almost all of them pupate and become adult insects.
Potato moth eggs have the following external features:
- oval shape
- small size
- white color (darken with maturation),
- length from 0.7 to 0.9 mm,
- width - 0.40-0.50 mm.
The size of an adult caterpillar varies from 10 to 15 mm, and on the back you can find a pronounced longitudinal strip.
What damage does the potato moth cause to plants?
Often the potato moth is compared to the Colorado potato beetle according to the degree of harm to the plants. Both the fluorimea butterfly and the caterpillar cause significant damage to garden plants, damaging the leaves and laying winding passages in tomatoes and eggplants. Potato tubers most often suffer from a pest during winter storage, since accumulations of excrement appear over time in the upper layers of tubers and such potatoes are strictly prohibited to be eaten.
Fluorimea's unique endurance allows it to remain in potato tubers even if the temperature drops to -2 degrees. Experienced gardeners claim that by using damaged potato tubers as seeds in the spring, we help the moth survive.
Solante cultures potato moth delivers the following troubles:
- significant weakening of the bushes of plants due to damage or complete destruction of the leaves,
- lowering the quality and volume of the crop,
- complete loss of the crop with active moth reproduction,
- the death of young shoots of tomatoes and peppers.
How to fight?
To combat potato pest, you will need patience and the use of existing methods that have been tested by time and experience.
Only an integrated approach will allow for a long time to get rid of fluorimea. However, one should not hope for an absolute result, since it is almost impossible to get rid of a moth forever.
The most popular methods of struggle are the following:
- The use of preparations containing bacteria of the species Bacillus thuringiensis (Entobacterin, Bitoxibacillin, Dendrobacillin, Lepidotsid). Regular processing of these drugs contributes to the death of potato moth larvae, as well as reducing the reproductive function of female insects and the suspension of active growth.
- Processing stored potato tubers with methyl bromide disinfectant solution. This type of processing allows you to deal with insects, which multiplies in the autumn-winter period.
Bean weevil, pest who loves beans very much. How to deal with bean grains, read this article.
The woodworm moth butterflies have quite a nondescript coloration. A detailed description of the pest can be found at this http://stopvreditel.ru/rastenij/selxoz/drevotochec-pahuchij.html link.
Excellent results are provided by preventive measures: proper storage of seeds, pre-sowing treatment of tomato and potatoes, as well as the tabulation of tubers to the maximum depth.
In order for measures to combat potato moth to have a positive effect, it is necessary to perform sequence of actions:
- in the fall and spring, plowing of those land plots affected by the pest should be carried out. The plowing depth must be at least 30 cm,
- carefully select only healthy potatoes for sowing and heat it at a temperature of 12-17 ° C,
- plant the potatoes in the soil to the maximum maximum depth and in the future should spud and, if necessary, water the beds,
- before harvesting, remove all weeds belonging to the family of nightshade to avoid the possible spread of moths,
- that crop that you have already harvested cannot be left on open ground, since fluorimea has a sensitive sense of smell and can detect potatoes by smell,
- Chemical processing of the field for 20 days before harvest.
If you take precautions against potato moths, you can increase yields and improve the quality of vegetables.
A bit of history
If you investigate the problem deeply, it will turn out that our grandfather-great-grandfathers did not know this misfortune. Potato moth (photo below) came to Russia not so long ago, and the inhabitants of the southern regions were the first to encounter it. The natural habitat of the pest is Africa - central and southern. Here in these territories, the pest has harmed potato and tobacco harvests since time immemorial. By the way, moths have to compete with the Colorado potato beetle that has long been known in our country. The potato mole began to spread throughout the world only at the beginning of the 20th century. And in a century, the farmers of Russia learned about this problem.
Reference! An effective remedy for potato moths or fluorimea (Phthorimaea operculella Zell) is primarily of interest to farmers in regions where the average annual temperature does not fall below + 10 ° C. Such conditions are favorable for her reproduction.
Now it is absolutely obvious that the pest adapts without any problems in temperate latitudes. A mole pupa winters right in the soil or organic debris. If she got into the repository, then there is present in any stages of development. The number of generations of this pest depends on the climate and ranges from 2 to 8.
What does fluorimea look like?
Fluorimea is a shy, shy moth, the larvae of which, with great pleasure, bites both the heads and the roots.
This pest has an unsightly look. It is dirty gray in color, and on the wings are many black dots. When closed, it seems that there are dark stripes on the wings. Fluorimea butterfly has a reduced oral apparatus and long antennae. It cannot consume food, therefore its life cycle is only a few days, although some long-lived individuals live for several weeks. At length, the body of a butterfly with folded wings reaches 6-7 mm. Insensible coloration is an insect weapon, often an individual is not determined visually, even at close range.
Fluorimea may be white - also applies to quarantine objects
In most cases, when searching for an answer to the question of how to get rid of the potato moth, already adult individuals are meant. In fact, not only butterflies are harmful, but also larvae about 13 mm long. Such a caterpillar weaves a little case, where it pupates (length - 10-12 mm), and then becomes an adult butterfly. Larvae in color light green or light pink. Adult butterflies lay white eggs, which are difficult to see with the human eye, because their length is only 0.5 mm.
Two larvae of potato moth at different stages of development
How to understand that the problem is already there?
The fact that the potato moth appeared on the site (we will discuss the methods of the struggle below) is indicated by mined leaves and stems. On mines of leaflets and stems, on the surfaces and in the turns, with careful consideration, excrement is found.
Potatoes Stems Covered with Potato Moth Excrement
A spiderweb appears on the leaves, and various microorganisms develop in the damaged tissues that cause rot - dry and wet. As a result, the yield of potatoes is sharply reduced, and at first glance, the excellent tubers in storage become unsuitable for food.
Reference! From the potato moth, besides the potato itself, eggplants, paprika, any tomatoes, tobacco, and weeds of the family of the nightshade are affected. This attack spreads at all stages of development, through potato tubers and fresh tomatoes / eggplants, which are exported from infected areas. Wherever the potato mole is found, the control measures during storage are, in principle, the same.
It is known that at a temperature of -4 ° C in the ground the insect dies. But in frozen tubers, the caterpillars can stay alive. Then they enter the repository, where they multiply. In the spring, the infected seed will fall into the ground and the cycle begins again.
Potato moth affects all plants of the family of nightshade, including tomatoes.
Organizational and business events
- Quarantine. In areas of distribution of potato flies, as well as where there is a risk of its penetration, quarantine restrictions should be introduced. At the same time, a complex of agrotechnical as well as extermination measures is being carried out at the state level in order to localize and eliminate the foci of pest development. Naturally, during this period, potatoes, tomatoes and other nightshade are not exported from the contaminated zone.
- Diagnostics. Even after clearing the area, it is necessary to carry out regular surveys of crops and weeds of the family of the nightshade. No less attention is paid to the survey of storage facilities. To do this, in the period of July pheromone traps are used in the premises. They are placed on the edge of the field, every 100 m. Wooden pegs are required here, since the trap is tied to them upside down at a height of 40 cm from the soil surface.
- Proper sowing. If such a nuisance has happened on a field or an individual plot, then it is worth switching to the cultivation of early potato varieties. They are practically not damaged by this moth. Tubers in the ground should be placed at a depth of 14 cm - in the deep layers of the pest does not live. And in the growth process, the bushes of plants must be regularly spud.
- Proper watering. If the growing technology involves the irrigation of fields, then it should be done in such a way that the tubers are not exposed. And the watering itself should be done according to the principle of sprinkling, which will kill some of the pest.
- Prompt cleaning. Potatoes need to be harvested as soon as the stems begin to turn yellow. Do not allow them to dry. Pre-haulm should be mowed, and the selected crop on the same day from the field is taken away.
Moth-lapped potato - the harvest is completely gone
Naturally, biotechnologists have responded to the relevance of this relatively new problem. Farmers are now available chemicals to destroy this pest. The most popular in practice, proven to be effective:
- Dendrobatsillin - powder dry, safe for people and warm-blooded animals.
- Lepidotsid - not phytotoxic, does not accumulate in the plant, has a smell that does not like butterflies.
- Bitoxibacillin - is used against each generation of pests - an interval of 5-10 days
- Entobacterin - used during flowering, during harvest.
Bitoxibacillin - harmless to humans, suicidal for moths
All these preparations are based on bacteria of the Bacillus thuringiensis class and are supplied in different forms. These can be potato moth tablets, powders or liquid formulations. The treatment is shown to the plant bushes, which has a detrimental effect on the majority of the larvae, the fecundity of females is significantly reduced, and individuals at different stages inhibit development.
Reference! The key condition for preserving the potato harvest in storage is the creation of the correct temperature regime. It is determined at the level of 3-5 degrees. If the pest is still wound up, then the processing of potato tubers during the period of sending for storage with special biopreparations is shown. For this, knapsack sprayers are used. In this case, even at temperatures above 10 degrees in the storage, the safety of tubers will be at the level of 80%.
It is important to understand that the fight against potato moths will be effective only with an integrated approach.
Mode of action
The treated leaves of plants are transferred to all its other components of the preparation, fully protecting thus a vegetable or cereal from pests.
In addition, even the growing parts of these crops will not be adversely affected by the potato moth and other pests.
Insects, absorbing the treated leaves of plants, instantly lose the ability to move, they have problems with breathing. it surely after 3 hours fatal.
When to apply?
The analyte used is used when potato moths and other pests appear on plants. regardless of weather conditions and temperature conditions.
Absolutely forbidden use this drug in the period of pollination of flowering plants by bees, because for them it represents the 1st class of toxicity.
How to prepare a solution?
In the sprayer pour ¾ from the volume of the entire tank of clean water.
According to the instructions, measure the required amount of the drug and slowly pour it into the liquid.
Mix the mixture thoroughly. Then add water until the tank is completely filled and within 15 minutes stir the solution.
Per 1 ha of area you have to spend 200 liters of solution.
How to get rid of fluorimea
The tuber struck by the larvae is not suitable for food. Only 5–7 caterpillars are enough to turn, for example, a potato into a sponge, with an empty porous core.
Generally speaking, quarantine measures are needed to prevent mass infection with fluorimea: regular inspection of potatoes in storage using pheromone traps, prohibition of the import of solanaceous crops from infected areas. This will ensure timely localization and elimination of pest outbreaks.
Preparations for the fight against fluorimea: toxic chemicals
Harvest as soon as possible and even before the tops turn yellow and dry, and the pest will move from "vershki" to "roots". Better to pre-weekly, mow the ground part of the plant. If tops or fruits struck by moths are discovered, they must be burned, not thrown away. Potatoes should be removed from the field within 24 hours, otherwise butterflies with an amazing sense of smell can even find him under cover and populate them with eggs.
Potato moth is a very cunning, inconspicuous and silent pest. During the growing season, its larvae feed on the land part of the plants, and after harvest, when everything seems to be over, they are able to destroy almost all the grown potatoes in storage. While the Colorado potato beetle has already become a habitual evil over the past half century, many people in rural areas and garden owners still do not know anything about the potato moth in the middle zone. Given that this parasite is increasingly common, information about what constitutes a potato moth will not be superfluous. Control measures, including storage, also need to be known in order to protect the harvest of our beloved potatoes.
Agrotechnical methods of struggle
From time immemorial and to this day, farmers have remained faithful to agrotechnical methods that limit the spread and harmfulness of diseases and pests on potato plantations. Recall what to do to help the potato safely survive all the hardships:
- observe crop rotation, that is, return the potatoes to their former place only after 3-4 years,
- plant potatoes in areas where the best forerunner crops grew (legumes, grains, perennial herbs, etc.),
- possibly, spatially isolate potato plantations in order to reduce the likelihood of the spread of diseases and pests from other potato plots,
- use healthy planting material of high reproductions, resistant to the modern infectious background of varieties. Discard tubers with signs of dry and wet rot, viral (blisters of the R-virus) and viroid (spindle-shaped tubers) diseases, as well as those damaged by potato moth, etc.,
- during the period from germination to flowering, perform phyto-cleaning - remove diseased and weakened plants from the field,
- at the end of the growing season, mow the potato tops until destruction by late blight, remove plant residues from the field, since pathogens can accumulate in them,
- in the autumn to conduct deep tillage,
- in the spring, use and periodically change baits and traps for pests [click beetles, bears, etc.),
- in the summer to conduct a mechanical collection of pests (in particular, the Colorado potato beetle).
However, it should not be limited to agronomic techniques. Even if absolutely healthy tubers were planted in healthy soil, the likelihood of their infection still remains. After all, spores of pathogenic fungi spread by wind over long distances, and the Colorado potato beetle, as is known, did not prevent even the ocean from entering Europe. Moreover, the globalization of the economy expands the exchange processes with agricultural products and, erasing the boundaries between countries and continents, contributes to the rapid spread of new diseases and pests along with agricultural products.
Appearance of the Solanum Pest
Widely used for the destruction of such a harmful insect, like potato moth, control measures. Drugs (both chemical and biological) are popular with gardeners. Moreover, since the first moths of the potato moth appear almost simultaneously with the overwintering individuals of the Colorado potato beetle, efforts can be directed at combating these pests at the same time, since the means that destroy the beetle are also effective for the moth. We are talking about drugs such as Arrivo, Decis, Inta-VIR, Sherpa and others.
Potato moth, or fluoridea, is as exotic as the Colorado potato beetle. This couple, who loves plants of the family of the nightshade, comes from Central and South America. Flutorimea is a heat-loving insect, but this pest has already spread to all continents. It is increasingly found in the south of Russia - in the Crimea, the Rostov Region and the Krasnodar Territory; therefore, gardeners and farmers from these regions managed to learn what a potato moth is, and the measures to combat it are also already familiar.
Method, processing time, application features
What is harmful potato moth
Waiting time (multiplicity of treatments)
Beds with Solanaceae need to be watered carefully and must spud.
The tuber struck by the larvae is not suitable for food. Only 5–7 caterpillars are enough to turn, for example, a potato into a sponge, with an empty porous core.
Often the question “how to deal with potato moths?” Arises after this pest hit the crop.
Options for the destruction of moths
It is necessary to do the treatment at the beginning of summer, you should not wait until the butterflies lay eggs and gluttonous larvae appear. After two weeks, the treatment must be repeated. At the end of August, the Colorado potato beetle is no longer dangerous, but the number of potato moths is maximum, so the fight against fluorimea is crucial during this period. It is important to remember that with the same insecticide more than 2-3 times it is not recommended to carry out the treatment, and the last treatment should be carried out no later than 20 days before harvesting.
- If the temperature in the vegetable stores in winter does not fall below 10 ºС, the conditions are quite suitable for the life and reproduction of such a pest as the potato moth. Measures to combat the storage of vegetables with this pest that is why it is also very relevant. Although the native climate for this insect is tropics, it turns out that it adapts well in temperate latitudes. Depending on the climatic conditions, two to eight generations of moths per season can develop.
- : Posted method, processing time, features of the application. The expression "Consumption - 400 l / ha", "Consumption - 12 l / t", etc. means the flow rate of the working fluid (solution, emulsion or suspension), unless “Flow rate of the working fluid” is indicated.
- And Harmful object:
- Spraying during the growing season. Working fluid consumption - 200-400 l / ha
- Potato moth
- (BA-2000 EA / mg, a titer of at least 10 billion spores / g)
- Terms of an exit for the manual (mechanized) works
- As another measure, harvesting potatoes at the stage of preserving tops of fleshy meat is used. And a few days before digging, it must be mowed. Crop can not be left on the field. Potato moth has a wonderful scent and is able to hit the crop at this stage.
At the stage of growth solanaceous lesion leads to the death of plants, and at the stage of storage, the caterpillars in a short time can completely destroy stocks.
A small butterfly with dirty brown wings, studded with dark spots, is not always immediately noticeable. Its length does not exceed 6-7 mm. She lives a short time, only a few days, but in this short time she manages to fulfill the main task of her life - to lay eggs, from which larvae will emerge. It is these miniature thirteen-millimeter creatures capable of destroying the entire crop. They feed on both leaves of the nightshade and tubers.
If we are not talking about toxic chemicals, but about folk remedies for dealing with potato moth, we can advise all the same tools that have worked well over the long decades of hard struggle with the Colorado potato beetle. This is a solution of ash with soap, decoction of wormwood or onion peel. However, these methods, of course, are not as effective as the use of special preparations, and in the conditions of a farm or potato production on an industrial scale are not at all applicable.
The main active ingredient "Entobacterin" - the spores of the bacteria Bacillus cereus (Cereus) or Barringienzis (in the preparation "Entobacterin 3"). In 1 gram of the product there are at least 30 billion viable spores and as many endotoxins (the result of the vital activity of bacteria). When spraying, spores are activated and destroy up to 97% of the pests without harming the beneficial insects. Insect pests along with the plant eat and sprayed spores, which multiply in their bodies and lead to their death.
After spraying, the drug has a maximum effect against aphids, moths and other fits during one and a half weeks. After that, its effectiveness gradually decreases, and after a month and a half, it reduces to zero. After this treatment can be repeated, but for the season is allowed no more than two treatments. The greatest effect of the drug is observed at ambient temperature from 20 to 30 degrees. At temperatures below 14 degrees, as well as during the rain and on the first day after the rain, spraying the preparation is not recommended.
Do not use the drug in the fight against moths and shovel. The Cereus bacterium does not have a destructive effect on these pests.
How to dilute bioinsecticide?
For spraying vegetable crops, Entobacterin is diluted in the following proportions: 2-6 g of powder or suspension per 1 liter of water. For processing fruit trees, the concentration is increased and up to 10 g of the product is taken for 1 l of water.
If the drug is used for aphids, 5 g of the agent is added to 1 l of water with a slight lesion, 10 g per liter - with a large number of pests. Dissolve the product in water at room temperature a few hours before spraying, but not less than an hour.
If it is not possible to perform treatment in warm weather, the decrease in efficiency can be compensated by increasing the concentration up to 2 times. However, at temperatures below +14 degrees to perform spraying is not recommended.
Spraying and dusting
Spraying is done at a time when the pests are most vulnerable to biological agents. On vegetable crops, such as cabbage, the drug is used against caterpillars of the first and second age. For older caterpillars, Entobacterin is no longer dangerous. On fruit trees, spraying from caterpillars is produced while they are in the first or third age.
But a bioinsecticide is effective against aphids, kistehvost, white butterflies at any time. The consumption rate for spraying is not less than 5 liters per one hundred square meters on vegetable beds and not less than 10 liters for garden plots. Spraying is carried out in dry, warm and calm weather in the morning or evening, not later than 7 days before harvesting.
To combat the wax moth, honeycombs are powdered with Entobacterin powder. The amount is calculated based on the ratio of 10 g of the drug per 1 kg of honeycomb. The treatment is carried out several times - up to four, with a break of 5-7 days.
Unlike insecticides, bioinsecticide can also be used during flowering. This property is important for saving flowering trees and bushes from aphids.
Compatibility with other drugs
When processing vegetables or crops from aphids, moths or other insect pests, Entobacterin can be supplemented with insecticides. The exception is the flowering period. At other times, 1/10 part of the insecticide is added to the solution. For example, Entobacterin (9 g) and Chlorofos or another drug with a toxic effect on insects (1 g) are added to 1 liter of water. This allows you to reduce the rate of consumption of bioinsecticide, increasing its effectiveness against pests.
Consumption of "Entobacterin" in large areas
Bioinsecticides are used not only in home gardens. In horticultural farms and on fields with vegetable and cereal crops, this drug is also used, although less frequently. The rate of spraying is from 1 to 5 kilograms per 1 hectare of the cultivated area. A more accurate amount of the drug depends on the culture and air temperature.
For vegetable crops the norm is as follows:
- 1 kg at temperatures above +24 degrees,
- 2 kg, if the air has warmed up no higher than +24,
- 3 kg per hectare of area, if the air temperature is from +14 to +18 degrees.
For fruit crops, this indicator is twice as high: at +24 degrees and above - 2 kg, at +18 and up to +24 - 3 kg, at a temperature of 14-18 degrees per 1 hectare 5 kg of the drug is used.
Every year organic farming is becoming increasingly popular. Plots allocated for potatoes, gardeners sprayed with infusions of garlic, wormwood, tomato and potato tops, planted with mattiola, marigolds and other plants that repel the scent of the Colorado potato beetle. But these methods do not solve the problem, as well as attempts to use its natural enemies in the fight against the striped pest. For example, the guinea fowls released on the plot, do not disdain to eat colo-rada, damage potato bushes and can tolerate viral diseases.
But scientists today know more than 1,500 microorganisms with insecticidal activity. These are the so-called entomopathogens. which are able to infect and inhibit some types of insect pests. They can be divided into three groups: mushroom, bacterial and viral. For the protection of potatoes are considered the most effective mushroom (Actofit) and bacterial biologics (Bitoxibacillin, Lepidocide, Bicol).
The active ingredient of the drug Aktofit is a complex of avermectins - neurotoxins, obtained from the non-pathogenic soil fungus Streptomycesavermitilis. They penetrate into the body of insect pests by intestinal or contact pathways, affect their nervous system and fatally infect. It is also important that the insecticide contains amino acids, vitamins and biologically active components - products of the fungus, which play the role of natural biostimulants for the growth and development of plants. The waiting time after the use of Aktofit is only two days. It can be used on young potatoes. At the same time, potatoes can be undermined, eaten and continued to grow until tubers are fully ripe.
Most bacterial preparations are a product of microbiological synthesis based on spores and protein crystals, harmful to harmful insects, bacteria of the genus Bacillus thuringiensis, which are of the greatest importance for biological plant protection. The preparations are produced in the form of liquid and dry (wetting powder) forms, as well as pastes. Habitual spraying with a suspension of which does not cause anyone fear and moral prejudice. This bacillus is safe for humans, animals and plants, the preparations obtained on its basis do not cause allergies.
Bitoxibacillin is a bacterial preparation based on the spore bacteria Bacillus thuringiensis Bt. Unlike other similar drugs, it contains, in addition to spores and endotoxin, water-soluble (3 - exotoxin, which expands the spectrum of susceptible insects. Exotoxin can act not only through the intestines, but also through the integument of insects. Therefore, exotoxin-containing preparations are recommended not only against caterpillars, but also against the Colorado potato beetle. The biological product Bitoxibacillin should be used at a concentration of 125 g per 5 liters of water, this solution is sufficient for spraying 1 acres. The effectiveness of this drug was tested in m ogih regions and it was 74,4-100,0%.
Another advantage of Bitoxibacillin is that it breaks the pest development cycle. As a result of its use, the larvae of the Colorado potato beetle are delayed in development, and adults appear with deviations, up to the formation of additional limbs on the head part instead of antennas (antennae). Such insects are not viable, their females become less prolific, and eventually the beetles die. The larvae eat it along with the leaves potatoes, and after a day can not continue to eat. The death of insects occurs in 2-3 days and lasts 10-15 days.
But during this time, the drug decomposes, and new larvae can hatch from the egg-layers. Therefore, every 7-8 days of treatment must be repeated.
To prepare the working solution from a dry powder or paste, the right amount of the drug is stirred in a small amount of water, carefully rubbing the lumps, get a creamy mass and dissolve it in 5 liters of water. In order not to damage the beneficial microorganisms that make up the preparations, the water temperature should be no higher than 20 ° C. Use the working solution needed on the day of preparation.
The multiplicity of spraying depends on the appearance of new populations of the pest, the intensity of the development of larvae and air temperature. With an average daily temperature of 20 ° C, the interval between treatments is 6-7 days, and below 20 ° C - 8-10 days. If it rains on the day of treatment, spraying is repeated.
In order to more effective biological protection for spraying on the sheet using a tank mixture of fungal and bacterial preparations: 10 ml of Aktofit and 100 ml of working Bitoxibacillin solution in 5 liters of water per 1 sotka.
Lepidocid - biological product based on spore bacteria Bacillus thuringiensis, var. Kurstaki. Available in the form of a wettable powder, tablets or suspension concentrate.
In a mixture with Bitoxibacillin, Lepidocide is used primarily for the treatment of planting material populated with potato moth, as well as for the destruction of potato moth in harvested tubers (Lepidocid 1% and Bitoxibacillin 0.5%), spending 80 ml of solution. Prerequisite: the temperature of the solution should be 36,: C, taking into account the cooling of the solution with tubers. Some of the moth caterpillars are destroyed immediately, and the rest, inside the tubers, die within ten days after being released to the surface.
Bicol is a bacterial biopreparation based on spore bacteria Bacillus thuringiensis, var. Thuringiensis. It is used against the Colorado potato beetle on various vegetable crops, including potatoes (70-160 g per 10 liters of water). The waiting time before harvesting the tubers is 5 days.
When using biologics, certain rules should be followed (by the way, they differ from the rules for working with chemical plant protection products). In particular, the working suspension is prepared no more than 2 hours before the beginning of the treatment of plants at a temperature not lower than 18 CC. It is best to cook it as follows.
Take the right amount of the drug, stir it in a small amount of water to a creamy mass, and then dilute with water to the desired volume. The greatest effect of the use of such drugs is observed at a solution temperature of 23-28 ° C during the period of active nutrition of pests.
It is advisable to apply biologics against younger larvae, which increases the efficiency of treatments. General safety guidelines for working with bioinsecticides are not lifted.
Is it possible to completely switch to biologics and permanently abandon chemical remedies? Unfortunately, no, the time for such a monopoly has not yet come.
Biologics have a number of disadvantages that limit their use:
- Bioinsecticides, as a rule, cannot destroy the entire pest population, they only limit its harmfulness. In the years of mass development of phytophages, the effectiveness of biological products decreases. A complete rejection of the use of chemicals in such a situation can lead not only to a shortage, but also to the death of the entire crop. This also happens when growing potatoes in a summer planting and a double-harvesting crop, when hordes of beetles starving after harvesting the first crop rush to young shoots,
- Biologics are slower than chemical insecticides, they do not have a knockdown effect (rapid paralyzing effect). Before they die, the larvae of the Colorado potato beetle have time to inflict significant damage,
- bioinsecticide activity depends on the high nutritional activity of the insect object. It comes at an air temperature not lower than 18-20 PS. If the weather is cool, it rains, the use of biologics is inefficient,
- biological products created on the basis of the bacterium Bacillus thuringiensis do not have a systemic effect, the potato leaves do not absorb them, so they are ineffective against insects that feed on plant tissues (stem nematode, potato moth, etc.),
- the action of biologics is short-lived, they are noticeably inactivated at high temperatures and light levels. After precipitation, the treatment must be repeated. The multiplicity of treatments required for the successful protection of planting potatoes (every 7-8 days], is incommensurable more than with the use of modern chemical remedies. This leads to an increase in labor and resources, and hence an increase in the cost of the final product. Therefore, certified organic products always more expensive than inorganic
- their production is more expensive. However, the market for biological products to combat potato diseases (biofungicides) used in horticulture is also constantly expanding. Fungicides created on the basis of non-pathogenic fungi are called biofungicides. The principle of their action is based on the suppression of fungi harmful to the plant, which hinders the spread of the disease. In fact, fungal diseases are treated with other fungi that displace pathogens. Of course, in such preparations only species of fungi safe for humans and animals are used. Most of them operate narrowly, and this is their advantage and disadvantage at the same time.
The biofungicides, created on the basis of bacteria, contain strains of certain types of bacteria that are safe for humans but suppress fungi and their spores.
Against potato diseases, biofungicides such as Fitosporin-M (late blight, Alternaria, Rhizoctoniosis, Fusarium, etc.), Fitolavin (root rot, Alternaria), Alirin-B, Trichodermin (soil pathogens), Baktofit (for treatment of planting tubers), Mikosan (increases the protective response of the spread of the spreading gene diseases), Integral J (a fungicidal and bactericidal action with a stimulating effect), Planriz, Agat-25, etc. Biofungicides, in principle, the same advantages and disadvantages as bioinsecticides are inherent, and the rules for their use are similar.