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Oryol trotter breed of horses

The Oryol breed of horses is the pearl in the crown of Russian horse breeding. Even the most distant person from this at least once heard the expression "Orlov trotter." Prompt and irresistible, proud and beautiful, these horses, whatever you say, to match their homeland, for which, in turn, became a national treasure.

What prompted Count Orlov to engage in horse breeding

The 18th century in Russia is a turbulent time marked by a series of state coups. It was on the eve of one of them that Count Alexei Orlov, a favorite of the future Empress Catherine the Great, went with her from Peterhof to the royal palace in order to overthrow Peter III from the throne.

But before reaching the place just a few miles away, Neapolitan horses, drawn from abroad, simply stood up, so they were driven. The whole operation was going downhill, the fate of the conspirators, and of the whole of Russia, hung in the balance. I had to quickly look for a replacement for horses in the surrounding villages.

After this incident, Count Orlov set out to bring out the Russian breed, which will be hardy, beautiful, fast and never let you down, standing halfway down the house. But from the idea to the realization of this graph's dream, more than one year will pass.

A horse named Smetanka

After the brilliant victory of the Russian fleet in the Battle of Chesme, Alexei Orlov visited the Turkish Sultan, where he bought a tall, light-gray Arabian horse for absolutely fabulous money (50,000 rubles). This purchase was to become the cornerstone in the creation of its new breed.

A horse named Smetanka was brought from Turkey to the Moscow stud farm in the Ostrov village for about two years. But his tribal career was short-lived. He lived away from his homeland for just a year, leaving behind 4 stallions and a mare.

Either the long road about the crippling health of a hot Arab handsome, or an accident, about which the workers of the stable talked for a long time, one way or another, the horse was gone.

It was rumored that the groom too sharply pulled the bridle when the horse drank, he stumbled and hit his head on the stones. Save the animal failed. The stable boy was found hanged in the barn.

The history of the breed

In selection, everything is decided by the case. It is possible to cross different breeds over the years and in the end remain left with nothing. But fate smiled at Alexei Orlov this time too. All 4 sons of smetanka from a dun mare of Danish blood were very interesting from the point of view of selection, especially the last one, named Polkan.

Polkan took a lot from his overseas father - beautiful to become, tall, and most importantly, fast, tireless lynx, in a word, everything that a retired count wanted to receive.

This horse began to cross with the Dutch and Mecklenburg sledding mares and as a result got another diamond - a stallion named Leopard I.

It was even more vividly expressed and harness forms, and the elegance of Arabian horses, and, of course, the ability to fast trot.

It was Bars I that became the main breeding animal in the new stud farm of Count Orlov - Khrenovsky, built in the Voronezh province, on lands donated by Catherine II. The leopard I covered the Norfolk trotters and the Dutch and Danish mares. At various times, the Oryol breed of horses was fed with fresh blood, but all the animals born in Khrenovsky were descendants of Barca I.

Characteristic of the Orlov breed of horses

In the people about Orlov trotters said: "And under the water, and under the governor." Indeed, tall, hardy, stately and fast, they could be used almost everywhere, so it is, this Oryol breed of horses. In Russia, animals were used as horsemen and sleds, they plowed them and went to war with them.

Oryol rysistaya horse breed belongs to the category of large. Her height at the withers is 162-170 cm with a weight of 500-550 kg.These horses are both massive and lean at the same time. The Oryol breed of horses is distinguished by strong strong bones, agility and ease of movement, with thin but surprisingly strong legs.

Orlovtsev heads are rather large, slightly elongated, with a beautiful, chiseled profile. Their lower part of the forehead is slightly convex, below the nose bridge, on the contrary, some concavity is observed.

The neck of the Orlov trotters is often compared to a swan, so elegant are its curves. The body is rounded, fairly wide and somewhat elongated.

The image is completed by lively, inquisitive, very expressive eyes and large mobile ears.

Morals and behavior

The character of the Orlov horse is quiet and docile. These animals are tireless workers who unquestioningly carry out everything that their owner requires. Many owners celebrate their good temper and friendliness to all living things.

However, one should not think that these horses are quiet, peaceful and weak-willed, this is not so. Still, the blood of their hot southern ancestor of the Arab blood flows in them. And that means a lot. They are by nature very mobile, frisky and curious.

Suits of Orlov trotters

When you look at the photo of the horses of the Orlov trotter, it becomes clear that they do not have a certain color. Although one suit still prevails - gray in apples. About half of all Orlov horses have exactly this color.

This breed of horses is so variegated, the Orlov trotter can be both bay and black. But the rarest specimens are the solovy and chaff. The gene responsible for the inheritance of the cream color, the Oryol breed of horses received from the buckskin mare, the mother of that same Polkan.

Famous Orlov trotters

One of the most famous Orlov trotters was a stallion named Fortress. At the dawn of the twentieth century, his name thundered on racetracks across the country.

People from all over Russia and foreign countries came to look at the unsurpassed champion. Large, in a good stubborn, he was really eager to win, beating all the records known to him.

He performed on the races 80 times, 55 of which came first.

An interesting fact is that when Krepysh was still at a tender age, he was called not only “a mosquito on long legs” - so much so that he was awkward and clumsy foal. Who could then know that this "mosquito" will turn into a stately stallion in apples, glorifying the Oryol breed for the whole world.

Another representative of the Orlov breed of horses became known in the post-war years. Stallion nicknamed Square, according to experts, was one of the most beautiful trotters in the world. He was inferior to other horses in agility, but won the competition for the competition due to its unprecedented endurance and perseverance.

There is a case when the rider released the reins of the Square, because he thought they couldn’t win this time and didn’t strain the animal.

Kvadrat decided in his own way, he not only did not slow down, but also caught up with his rivals and stretched his head forward in the last meters.

The photo finish showed that he was the first to cross the finish line of the Square's nose! How popular then was the Orlov breed of horses! Photo Square decorated front of many well-known publications.

At the end of his sports career, Kvadrat became a good producer, his blood flows in most modern Orlov trotters.

Features care and maintenance

For years, Count Alexei Orlov honed the features of his new breed. One of the criteria was great endurance and unpretentiousness. Mares were specially kept in rather cold stalls and fed on coarse whole oats.

But this does not mean at all that in our days Orlov horses should be kept in similar Spartan conditions. For the health and well-being of the horse, it needs a clean and spacious stall, which is regularly ventilated.

The floor of the stall should not have cracks and holes, as this may cause animal trauma. Nowadays, special rubber coatings are often used, they reduce the load on the horse's legs. As a litter used straw or sawdust.

Every day, any horse requires cleaning the coat with a special brush of natural hair, Orlov trotters are no exception. Also, after intense loads of the sweaty horse, it is necessary to wipe it off immediately, as a hot animal can easily catch a cold.

The horse’s hooves are carefully inspected and cleaned after each run. To prevent cracking and preserve the beautiful and well-groomed appearance of the hoof, it is smeared with a special composition based on sheep fat, honey, wax and turpentine.

A balanced and regular diet is another important aspect in caring for a horse. The basis of the diet is usually served by good hay and selected oats. Vegetables should be present in the food and fresh grass in the warm season.

The horse must have clean and cold water forever.

Prices for horses Oryol breed

The cost of such beauty primarily depends on why it is purchased. If a private stable with the purpose of riding from time to time, a trained horse of 5-9 years will cost 150-200 thousand rubles.

Another thing, if for Orlov trotter tipped rich sports career. In this case, his parents and their capitulation, the external parameters of the horse and his agility are considered. The order of prices in this case will be different. For breeding breeding, the stately and corresponding to all parameters of the breed animals are also chosen. Their price is sometimes extremely high.

The Oryol trotter is the same symbol of Russia as a matryoshka or a Tula samovar. Our task is to preserve this treasure, no matter how hard times may be, this is part of our history, part of our Russian heart.

Oryol trotter. Horse Oryol breed

Oryol trotter - pride and glory of Russian horse breeding. This is a light-horse breed of horses with a genetically incorporated ability to frisky trot.

The Orlov trotter is a sample of dedication, courage and competent selection.

The best representatives of the breed repeatedly became champions in the most prestigious competitions, won first places at Russian and foreign exhibitions.

Oryol trotter - the pride and glory of Russian horse breeding

Suit: light gray, gray, gray in apples, red-gray, dark gray, black, bay. Less - roan and red. Very rarely - buckthorn and nightingale.
Height at the withers: 157-170 cm
Exterior: harmoniously composed sled horse. The head is small and dry. The neck with a swan bend, set high. The back is strong and muscular, strong legs.
Using: universal breed. Running sport, agricultural work, team, tourism. Also used as breeding material.
Features: large figure, dry physique, fluffy tail and mane, proud posture, graceful movements.

Color gray in apples

Orlov trotters - large horses with a harmoniously folded figure. Their height at the withers is 157-170 cm. The average height of mares is 161 cm, of stallions is 162 cm. The head of the Oryol representatives is dry, small in size, broad in forehead. The eyes are expressive and luminous, the neck is high, with a swan curve.

Wide and massive croup, straight, long, muscular back, strong bones. A characteristic feature of Orlov trotters - dry physique. In addition, the Orlov horses, for the most part, have a gray color. Characteristic for this breed are bay and black colors.

Very seldom there are solovy and loon orlovsky trotters.

There are 3 types of the Orlov horses exterior: dry (light), intermediate and massive (resembling a heavy truck).

Orlov horses, for the most part, have a gray suit.

The eyes are expressive and luminous, the neck is high, with a swan curve.

Calm, energetic character.

Ancestor of the Oryol breed is Count Alexei Orlov-Chesmensky. Since 1775, having retired, the count devoted himself entirely to breeding, traveled in Asia and Europe, bought horses of various breeds.

The history of the Orlov breed began in 1776. It was then that Count Orlov brought a very beautiful and valuable producer of the Arabian stallion Smetanka.He bought it for fabulous money - 60 thousand silver. In addition to Smetanka, the count has acquired other excellent Arab producers from Arabia, Turkey and Egypt.

In 1777, having lived only a year in Russia, Smetanka died, but managed to leave behind him an offspring - 4 stallions and one mare. Smetanka's best son is Polkan's stallion from a Danish mare. He had most of the necessary qualities that Orlov wanted to lay in his new breed. The main disadvantage of Polkan is instability on the move.

Therefore, Orlov curtains horses from the Dutch province of Friesland, distinguished by a steady course, and crossed them with Arab-Danish and Arabian stallions, among whom was Polkan.

In 1784 the first foals from these crosses were born. Among them, it is worth noting the stallion nicknamed Bars I - he was extremely close to the image conceived by Eagles. Leopard I left behind numerous offspring.

The most valuable were the black stallion Amiable I and the gray stallion Cygnus I.

Count Alexei Orlov died in 1808, and after his death the Orlov factory was transferred to V. I. Shishkin, a serf count. Shishkin continued the Orlov case, working hard to consolidate the qualities of the breed.

Orlov began, and Shishkin continued to test horses for agility. So, in 1836, the stallion Bychok set a world record - covered a distance of 3 versts in 5 minutes and 45 seconds. And it was not the limit. In 1867, Stallion Poteshny showed a result of 5 minutes 8 seconds in a droshka by 3 versts, a year later he improved this achievement to 5 minutes exactly.

By the middle of the century, the Oryol breed spread throughout Russia. Thanks Orlov trotters appeared trotter sport. In the 19th and early 20th centuries, the Oryol breed was at the peak of its popularity.

The first defeats presented Orlov breed suffered in the late XIX century, when American trotters were brought to Russia. Ugly and disharmonious, representatives of the American trotter breed were much faster than Orlov horses.

In this regard, the breeders began to massively breed American-Oryol crossbreeds, because of which the best Oryol mares interbred with American stallions of very dubious quality.

Such thoughtless crossing caused great harm to the Oryol breed.

The number of Orlov trotters decreased significantly during the Civil War. Breeding work was revived in the 20s of the twentieth century, and the crossing was more thoughtful and made only by the purebred method.

After World War II, Oryol stallions continued to break records. Stallion Sea Surf set a record for the 1600 m race (2 minutes and 4.5 seconds), which lasted 38 years!

And the stallion Peony not only set records on the racetrack, but also 3 times became the champion of the breed at VSHV. And Peony's record at a distance of 3200 meters still remains!

However, the Orlov trotters began to yield in large numbers to the Russian trotters - a cross between American stallions and Orlov mares. But still among the representatives of the breed there were champions. One of them was the stallion of Cyprus, which set 14 different records in his career. 11 records - on the account of the brother of Cyprus, a cowboy stallion. In addition, they both became famous and as excellent manufacturers.

By 1985, there were 54,813 heads of thoroughbred trotters in Russia. But in the 90s a decline in livestock began due to economic instability in the country. By 1997, the number of mares was reduced to a critical minimum - 800 heads, despite the fact that the normal development of the breed requires at least 1000 heads.

Fortunately, the breed was not allowed to disappear, and in 1998 an agreement was signed with the French Trotting Association to hold Days of Russia in France and Days of France in Russia with the obligatory participation of Orlov trotters in these events.

These efforts were not in vain, and Orlov trotters began to set new records. However, the rescue and the normal development of the breed requires considerable effort.

Hopefully, Orlov trotters for many more years will delight us with their success!

About Orlov breed tells Parfenov.

The pride of Russian horse breeders - Orlov trotters

The pride and glory of Russia and Russian horse breeders at all times believed Orlov trotters. In these easily harness horses are genes responsible for the ability to move fast trot.

The Orlov trotter was a model of a competent, purposeful and courageous selection experience. Among the champions of various popular equestrian competitions you can always see the best horses of this breed.

These beautiful horses were presented in Russia and abroad at various exhibitions, where they became holders of prizes.

Oryol trotter is famous for its qualities to the whole world.

Breed appearance

The Oryol trotter was first on the territory of Russia in the XVIII —XIX centuries at the Khrenovsky stud farm, which was the property of Count Alexei Orlov.

Its representatives are distinguished by excellent heredity - the ability of the steeds to move at a fast trot, thanks to which they brought Russia fame to the whole world. Orlov trotter - a great achievement, causing pride and is considered a symbol of our horse breeding.

Breed created with the use of complex crosses. Up to 15 breeds were crossed, the main place was occupied by Arab and Mecklenburg horses.

Since 1775, after retirement, Orlov took up breeding, for which he had to drive across Asian and European countries, buying different breeds of horses, and already in 1776 in Russia an extraordinarily stately Arabian stallion appeared, Smetanka, bought by a count for large money.

The history of the Oryol breed dates back to the 18th century.

How did the Orlov trotters appear

Together with Smetanka Orlov, other beautiful Arabian horses were brought, which were famous for Arabia, Turkey, Egypt. Smetanka not caught on in Russia, dying a year later.

But he left descendants: four stallions and one mare. The best stallion, obtained from smetanka and mares from Denmark, became Polkan. It turned out to be collected the best parameters that liked the graph.

The only disadvantage of Smetanka was the instability of the course.

Orlov had to buy horses in Holland, which had a steady move, and used to cross the best Danish and Arabian stallions. In the 84th year of the 18th century, after crossing, foals turned out to have excellent characteristics.

The Orlov trotter Bars 1 turned out to be the closest type to what Orlov intended. At the beginning of the 19th century, Orlov died, and the stud farm began to manage I.V. Shishkin, who continued the favorite occupation of the graph.

In the middle of the 19th century, the Oryol breed was bred in all regions of Russia.

Oryol trotter was the founder of trotting sport. A 19 and early 20th century Orlov horses become the most popular.

And then, and now, these powerful, beautiful, hardy and lightweight horses, capable of carrying trooped carts with a steady trot, characterized by easy tolerance of a hot and cold climate, are the best in the world.

Oryol trotter marked the beginning of the development of equestrian sports in Russia

Popularity decline

The decline in the popularity of the Oryol breed by the end of the 19th century began. At that time, horses imported from America began to appear in Russia. They looked ugly, did not have a harmonious addition, but they were distinguished by great agility. Breeders everywhere began to divorce trotters, obtained from the crossing of the American and Orel breeds.

Because of the thoughtless crossbreeding, in which American stallions, having sometimes not of sufficient quality, were crossed with the best Oryol mares, the Oryol horse suffered irreparable damage. Then, after the advent of the century of automobiles, the sled horse no longer needed people. Orlov trotter could disappear without a trace, but fortunately survived.

Orlov trotters today

The modern trotter horse is a harmoniously composed harness horse with a noticeable influence of the blood of the Arabian horses. Exterior types of animals that are grown at different stud farms can be:

  1. Massive, which resemble heavy trucks.
  2. Dry (light).
  3. Intermediate.

Now in Russia there are no more than twelve equestrian factories, which contain only 800 breeding mares, which are purebred horses.

According to the breeding standard, a breed in which there are less than a thousand mares is assigned the status of “alarming”.

Oryol horses are now rather small

Breed Orlov trotters is distinguished by the following parameters

  • Horses can be light gray, gray, gray in apples, gray-red, dark gray, black, bay. Occasionally you can meet roan or red Orlov trotters. Horse buckthorn or salty almost does not come across.
  • Height at withers to 170 cm.
  • They are harmonious and proportional sled horses, having small dry heads, necks, curving in a swan, high standing, strong and muscular backs, strong limbs.
  • They are a universal breed suitable for cross-country sports, it is used during agricultural work, harnessed, in the tourist area. They are a great breeding material.
  • Their bodies are large and lean, thick tails and manes, pride posture, graceful become and gait.
  • Character - calm, balanced and energetic.
  • Movement - beautiful and graceful.
  • Excellent strength and endurance.

The Oryol horse is distinguished by its beautiful and graceful movements.

Appearance characteristics

The Orlov trotter does not look like other horses:

  • The sizes - large and high.
  • Head - dry and broad, having a small size.
  • Eyes that are very expressive and shine.
  • Standing ears
  • Necked - tall and having charming swan shapes.
  • The croup is wide and massive.
  • Back - straight and long, rather muscular.
  • Breast - wide, not deep.
  • Strong boned.
  • Body composition - dryish and proportional.
  • Legs with large brushes (friezes).
  • Manes and tails that are thick and long.

Tribal Orlov trotters, which are needed for breeding, were subjected to training. We had to pass more than one test.

The most thoroughbred stallions were those who, during the trials, turned out to be the most resilient and frisky. Be sure to take into account the presence of excellent forms and high performance. The greatest demand was for large, beautiful and frisky trotters.

Oryol horses are not only beautiful, but also very hardy

Qualities that make representatives of the breed the most valuable

The Oryol trotter is original and is valued by the fact that:

  • She is considered one of the oldest and first cultural breed of trotters, divorced in Russia.
  • Its gene pool is organic because it is bred only here.
  • It has a unique and bright type, which distinguishes the breed from other trotting horses.
  • The horse's body adapts perfectly in any climatic conditions, so trotters are used in any geographical area of ​​Russia.

The pride of Russian horse breeding is the Orlov trotter

Stately swan neck, gray flying mane and huge eyes, full of strength and courage - all this Orlov trotter. These horses survived everything: from the famine of civil war and the devastation of pastures, to the majestic glitter of ball carriages, the warmth of old palaces. Today we will try to learn a little more about what lies behind the century-long history of Russian selection.

His birth Orlovsky trotter is obliged to the famous Count Alexei Orlov. He, being recognized as an expert and lover of trotting horses, devoted most of his life to breeding and developing a new breed.

It was he who in 1776 brought several Arab stallions to the harsh Russian land - producers, one of which was the famous Smetanka horse.

This handsome man lived in the possession of the count only a year, but before his death he gave a rich offspring - an excellent mare and 4 stallions, which became the basis for breeding the Orlov trotter.

After a few years of painstaking work on the connection of the Arab, Danish and Dutch blood, the count was able to get the stallion Barca I.

This beast became the crown of the tribal work of the count, who died in 1808. But his work was not interrupted, he founded the plant passed into the possession of Count Shishkin.

He continued to change and the formation of a new breed. The French trotter was used by him for the appearance of new horses.

By the beginning of the 19th century, Russian trotters became the most popular breed in Russia. However, in the same period, something began that eventually led to the almost complete destruction of Orlovtsev. The first American trotters were brought to Russia.

These sullen, awkward horses were not compared with the graceful majestic stallions of the Orlovsky factory.

However, the Americans had what allowed them not only to survive in the Russian outback, but also to outshine the glory of Orlovtsev - these horses were far superior to others in speed and endurance.

To strengthen the American horses they began to cross with the best mares of the Oryol plant, which led to a significant deterioration in the quality of the offspring. The civil war also nearly ruined the breed. But Orlovets could still survive.

After World War II, this breed began to revive. Two legendary stallions Sea Surf and Peony are the new champions of the breed. They reached unprecedented rates of speed and endurance.

Even the famous horses of the French trotter breed could not beat their performance.

From the following video you will learn a lot of useful facts.

In the nineties Orlovtsev livestock again decreased. But the breed did not fade again, but continued to exist. In our time, began to be carried out various breeding work to strengthen and restore animals.

Breed features

We will talk more about the standards of Russian trotters, find out how they look and how they possess character.

Orlovets is a fairly large trotter horse. Their height can reach 170 cm. The head and torso of these horses are proportional and fit well together. The eyes of Russian trotters are very beautiful, they have a bright shine, reflecting the intelligence and cunning of these animals. The back is quite massive, has a dense bone base.

According to its constitution, the Orlov trotter is divided into three types:

  • dry (lean lean horses for riding),
  • intermediate (animals more dense, able to work both in the carriage and under the saddle),
  • massive (elegant giants who for ages were transported by carriages).

The color characteristic of this breed is gray, sometimes horses are bay or black.

The Russian trotter (sometimes also called Orlovtsev) has an easygoing temper, most often these trotting horses are very calm. But sometimes they can play with the rider, "mischievous" and refuse to work. But do not forget that the nature of the animal is more dependent on upbringing and conditions of detention than on pedigree data.

Exterior and Suits

The Orlov trotter has a long back, as it has 1 edge more than other breeds, there are 19, not 18. The horse is quite tall and has a harmonious physique. Character of the mount:

Oryol trotter has a long back

  • height - 1.65-1.7 m,
  • weight - 500 kg,
  • torso length along an oblique line is 1.6 m,
  • the chest is powerful, its girth is 1.8 m,
  • the neck is long, curved, resembles a swan,
  • the head is compact with a slightly protruding frontal part and a neat face,
  • ears are small
  • the limbs are dry, of medium length with large hooves,
  • croup compact.

The gray suit in various variations is peculiar to the Oryol trotter. Less common are individuals of black, dun, or roan, which is not considered a disadvantage. These colors horses inherited from the Dutch mares.

By nature, the Orlov trotter is a good-natured and docile animal, showing devotion to the owner. In response, he expects respect from the person. Some obstinacy to horses is inherent, but it can be caused by mistreatment of animals. Horses respond to cruelty unwillingness to obey. Representatives of this breed are hardworking and intelligent.

Famous Oryol stallions

Representatives of the breed line, descended from the horse Polkan, are known worldwide for their agility. They were many times ahead of other racers and won victories. At the beginning of the 20th century, the Krepysh horse often became a champion on hippodromes. He participated in the race for 1600 miles more than 80 times, and came out the winner 55 times.

Later, a worthy replacement came for the Fortress. In the postwar period, became famous horse named Kvadrat. It had a very beautiful exterior, but its main advantage was perseverance. The stallion never gave up, although he lost to rivals in speed, but he came first, showing endurance.

Other Orlov champions who left their mark on history:

Horses of Oryol breed are energetic animals. In their diet, in addition to hay and grass, include vitamin and mineral supplements, grains and vegetables. The share of concentrated feed in the horse menu is 25%. Fruits of cereals are a source of protein, which is necessary for active animals to maintain good shape.

Cereal for horses

Attention! It is especially important to make the ration of foals correctly. It includes fish oil, salt, vitamins. Lack of minerals and trace elements can lead to developmental defects and diseases.

Orlov horse care

Trailing horses need good care. Particular attention is paid to animal hygiene. After training the wool must be cleaned with a special brush. The procedure begins on the left side of the neck, gradually moving down the body. The mane is washed with shampoo for horses. Comb it daily with a comb. Sweat dry with a clean cloth. Bathe horses once a week, watering with a hose, using a soft brush of natural fibers.

It is important to monitor the health of the hoof. Timely diagnosis will help protect the horse from foot diseases. After each workout, the limbs are examined and cleaned, and then lubricated with lamb fat with the addition of turpentine. The trotters need free range. Fresh air has a beneficial effect on metabolism, and movement helps to maintain good shape.

Attention! Due to excessive loads, the Orlov trotter can suffer from paralysis of the radial nerves and sprains or tendon rupture.

The stall is kept clean by regularly changing the litter. To reduce the load on the feet of animals, put a rubber coating on the floor. The presence of cracks and potholes in the floor covering is unacceptable: they can cause injuries to the hoof.

Using

Count Orlov created a trotter for use in light sledding. The horses met his expectations not only because of the ability to quickly and easily carry the crew. The Oryol horses turned out very beautiful, so the nobility knew them. It used to be fashionable to have such a horse. Orlov trotters were used by rich people for walks and hunting.

Today, these horses are participating in the races. This is a sports breed, which over time has not lost its excellent qualities - energy, speed and endurance. In addition to participating in competitions, trotters are used for dressage and jumping, as well as in equestrian tourism.

Oryol trotters are highly regarded in Russia and in the world. Its representatives regularly take prizes, glorifying their country. The task of the Russian people is to preserve this breed, because it is part of our history.

Breed horses Orlov trotter

The Oryol rysistaya horse breed is a real national treasure, which has no analogues in the world horse breeding. The Oryol horse is a very beautiful, extraordinarily impetuous, extremely enduring and truly proud horse.

Origin

The history of the creation of the Oryol breed covers a rather long period of the turn of 2 centuries - XVIII and XIX. This breed was named after its inventor and creator, author of the idea and the first owner of Count Alexei Orlov.

The story of the idea to breed a horse like the Orlov trotter is quite interesting and spontaneous.The future Empress Catherine the Great and her favorite Count Alexei Orlov were on the road during the coup d'état to overthrow Peter III. Quite unexpectedly, they witnessed how halfway the horse of the Neapolitan breed, greatly tired, stopped and flatly refused to go on. I had to immediately look for a replacement in the nearby villages.

But thanks to this, the graph unexpectedly had the idea of ​​breeding fast, beautiful, hardy and reliable trotters. Before the realization of this idea, more than one decade will pass.

Earl began to engage in horse breeding as early as the 1760s and always dreamed of a stud farm, but the first step for the manifestation of his talent in this area was that in 1762 the empress granted him 120 acres of land in the Voronezh region with the serfs.

Here he began the construction of the plant. In 1774, during a trip, Count Orlov bought from the Turkish Sultan for the huge sum of 60 thousand rubles in silver at that time for a luxurious Arabian light gray horse, known by the nickname “Smetanka” and initiating the world-famous Orel breed.

In 1775, Count Orlov retired and fully devotes himself to his beloved work. Only in 1776, Smetanka's horse on land reached the Russian possessions of the count. Smetanka (picture of a serf artist)

It was quite a big and very beautiful horse. He had one pair of ribs more than typical for horses, and got his nickname for almost white color.

He lived in the possession of the graph very little, but managed to leave 5 foals, of which the most promising for creating a unique breed of trotters was Polkan I from a mare of Danish origin.

Everything about him was good, but the steady trot was not peculiar to him - the main feature that Count Orlov wanted to see. Therefore, Polkan I was crossed with a Friesian mare from Holland with this feature.

So in 1784 a descendant of Smetanka was born - the stallion Leopard I. It got its name for its similarity to the leopard due to the presence of light apples on light gray wool. This horse was closest to what Count Orlov wanted.

When Barca I was 7 years old, he was made a producer, and in 17 years he gave numerous offspring, significantly superior to other horses in their qualities. He was recognized as the ancestor of the Orlov trotter. The best descendants of Barca I are considered to be the stallions Cygnus I and Amiable I, and they continued the Oryol breed.

Characteristics and description of the breed

Horses of the Orlovskaya breed are excellent trotters, who differ from the rest of horses by the peculiarity of transmitting to descendants only their best qualities, thereby improving and improving the gene pool each time.

Harmonious appearance and grace of movements - a unique fascinating combination characteristic of these animals.

Height and weight

Orlov trotters are large, tall, stately horses. At the withers, their height ranges from 162 to 170 cm, and their weight may be a little more than half a ton. The average length of the body along an oblique line is from 160 cm, chest girth - 180 cm.

The Oryol stallions are really very powerful, but at the same time they look fry, graceful, elegant due to the small size of the head and the stretched neck, with the chiseled bend characteristic of only swans.

Their eyes are curious, have expressiveness, inquisitiveness and extraordinary vivacity. The body is elongated and, at the same time, wide, but very muscular, strong. It has beautiful, thin, but reliable, strong and strong legs, a dense mane, a smart tail.

Oryol racers are unusually light in motion, they are surprisingly proportional.

The Oryol trotters are mostly represented by a gray suit: in apples, light gray, dark gray and even red-gray. But, at the same time, they can be of any other suit: black, bay, buckthorn, salt, roan, and red. Bulan coloring they got from the mother of Polkan I.

Oryol racers, by their very nature, are very enduring, fast, and frisky, because they contain ancestor genes with hot Arabian blood. At the same time they are kind, friendly, flexible and very executive. But by no means limp - these are proud horses, distinguished by their balance and calm.

Distinctive features

The main feature of Orlov horses, distinguishing them from others, is a high level of trotting. It was this quality that the creator, Count Orlov, wanted in horses first of all.

Frisky trot is a feature passed down from generation to generation to all members of this breed. This feature is widely used for mass qualitative improvement of horses of other breeds. Oryol horses are the first representatives of cultured trotters bred in Russia, having unique features that are not typical of other trotting horses.

It should also be noted that They perfectly adapt to any climate, unpretentious in the diet. This quality in them began to produce even Count Orlov, trying to maintain the withdrawn trotters in fairly harsh conditions and feeding them whole oats.

All this was done in order to get an excellent war horse, able to easily endure the hardships of military life.

Early Period Edit

The Oryol trotter got its name from the name of its creator - Count Alexei Orlov-Chesmensky (1737-1808) [3] [5] [9]. In 1775, he retired and devoted himself to breeding work [1] [7] [9] [14] [15]. Horse count began to engage in the 60s of the XVIII century in his estate near Moscow Island [3] [6] [9] [10] [11]. But Orlov’s outstanding talent as a zootechnique was revealed later, when Catherine II, after the palace revolution of 1762, granted him land in the Voronezh gubernia along with serfs. Then he began to implement his long-standing idea to combine in one horse the beauty, dryness and grace of Arabian horses with the massiveness, power and trotting abilities of Western European draft breeds: Danish, Dutch, Norfolk, Mecklenburg, etc. New breed of horses succeeded obtained by cross-breeding [5] [7] [8] [9] [10].

At the behest of the Empress, the best stallions and queens from the palace horse studs, as well as 12 trophy stallions and nine mares from Arabia and Turkey were brought to the disposal of Count Orlov - a legacy of victory in the 1774 Russian-Turkish war [3] [7] [9] [10] ] [eleven] . According to various sources, the count brought 30 breeding stallions from Turkey, Egypt and Arabia [9] [11] [16].

Founder of the Neva Masquerade breed

The history of the creation of the Orlov trotter began in 1776, when Count Orlov imported into Russia the most valuable and very beautiful outwardly Arab stallion Smetanku [3] [6] [7] [9]. It was purchased for a huge amount - 60 thousand silver from the Turkish sultan [3] [9] [11] [17]. Accompanied by a convoy, with a diploma of the Turkish government, Smetanka was delivered to Russia through Turkey, Hungary and Poland. Not a long way was very long - about two years (the stallion was brought by land) [3] [7] [9]. The stallion arrived to the Island in 1776 [3] [9] [10].

Smetanka was unusually large for its breed and a very well-dressed stallion with a somewhat elongated back (he had nineteen pairs of ribs instead of the usual eighteen for a horse). Received his nickname for a light gray color, almost white, like sour cream. Perfectly moved on all the gaits, including at the lynx [3] [8] [9]. However, he lived in Russia for a short time, less than a year. In 1777, Smetanka fell, leaving four sons and one daughter, all born in 1778 (one of the stallions, Polkan I, turned out to be the most valuable for creating a trotter breed) [3] [7] [8] [9] [10]. There are several versions of the causes of death of the famous Arabian stallion. According to one of them, Smetanka fell victim to the rudeness of a stableman, who pulled him too sharply by the occasion at the watering hole, from which Smetanka slipped and hit his head on the stone section of the well [9]. According to another version, Smetanka was unable to endure the difficult road and the damp Russian climate [9] [10]. The third implies that the stallion did not come feed.

In the same year, the Smetanka skeleton was placed in the museum of the Ostrovsky plant. It happened 12 years earlier than in England they began to preserve the skeletons of famous racers, the first of which was the skeleton of Eclipse, who fell in 1789.It is known that the Smetanka skeleton in the museum of the Khrenovsky equestrian factory was located along with the skeletons of other famous horses that had been preserved since the 1650s. The skeleton was able to solve the riddle of the elongated body of Smetanka, which had one extra, 19th, dorsal vertebra and, accordingly, an extra pair of ribs. Subsequently, the Smetanka skeleton was kept for a long time in the museum of the Khrenovsky stud farm and only later was lost [9].

After the death of Smetanka, Orlov transferred all of his horses from the estate near Ostrov to the village of Khrenovoye, Voronezh Province. Here, in 1778, there was a stud farm founded by Orlov, where the count planned to begin work on the creation of a new breed [3] [9] [11].

Descendants of Smetanka Edit

As planned by Count Orlov, the new breed of horses should have the following qualities: to be large, elegant, harmoniously folded, comfortable under the saddle, into a team and into a plow, equally good in a parade and in battle. They had to be hardy in the harsh Russian climate [5] [6] [7] [9] [10] and withstand long Russian distances and bad roads. But the main requirement for these horses was a frisky, clear trot, because a horse running at a trot does not get tired for a long time and the crew is shaking a little. In those days, frisky horses were very little and were valued very dearly. There were no separate breeds that would run in a stable, light trot [10].

Even before the appearance of Smetanka, Count Orlov used to get a new breed to cross Arabian stallions with large and massive draft mares from Denmark, Holland and England [3] [6] [9] [10] [11]. However, all these hybrids were unsuccessful [3] [12]. Only the children of Smetanka, born after his death, namely his best son, a stallion of a gray suit Polkan I from a Danish mare of a dun suit, without a nickname, turned out to be a suitable exterior. Polkan was a large, stately on the move, but a few coarse forms of stallion, besides not having a steady trotter. From him in 1784 a gray stallion Bars I [3] [6] [7] [8] [9] was obtained.

Since among the farm horses in Holland, horses were found on steady trotting, Orlov decided to bring these horses from the Dutch province of Friesland. The descendants of these horses are still preserved in Holland - this is the world-famous Friesian breed. Mares from Friesland were crossed with Arab and Arab-Danish stallions, including Polkan I. The first foals from these crosses were born in 1784. Among them was the stallion of Leopard I, the son of Polkan and the Dutch mare, gray in apples [3] [5] [6] [10] [11]. Contemporaries noted his great growth, harmonious addition, ease of movement, great strength, the right move and fast trot [5] [11] [12].

Leopard I, so named for large light apples on gray wool like the skin of a leopard, was very close to the pattern conceived by the graph. At the age of seven, he was put in a factory by a producer, where in 17 years he gave a large offspring, and his children and grandchildren were far superior to all other horses in their external and internal qualities [3] [12]. After several generations, there was not a single horse in Khrenovoi that was not a direct descendant of Barca I, or, as it was later called, Barça ancestor [6] [8] [11]. For several years, the count himself traveled around Moscow on Bars, testing his running qualities [1].

Leopard I was recognized as the ancestor of the Orlov trotter. To improve the course, the development of agility among trotters always conducted competitions, or tests, as horsemen say [3] [4] [6] [8] [11]. Among the numerous offspring of Leopard I, two stallions turned out to be the most valuable: black Dear I (Leopard I - bay without a nickname from Mecklenburg) and gray Swan I (Leopard I - Innocent). All modern Orlov trotters in the male line date back to these two sons of Barca I [3] [5] [6] [11] [12].

After the death of Orlov in 1808 [7], the Khrenovsky plant, where the most valuable descendants of Smetanka and Barca I stood [6] [9] [11], was inherited by his daughter, Anna Alekseevna, and the manager in 1811 still serf V.I. Shishkin.Being a talented horse breeder from birth and observing Orlov’s training techniques, Shishkin successfully continued the work started by his master to create a new breed, which now required fixing the necessary qualities - beauty of form, ease and grace of movement and a frisky, steady trot [3] [7] [ 10] [11] [12]. It was under Shishkin that closely related interbreeding was widely used to consolidate the necessary qualities [3] [6] [11], as well as taking into account the quality of the offspring of each stallion and mare. Thanks to Shishkin's talent as a breeder, horse-radish horses acquired beautiful forms, sometimes losing their massiveness and ability to frisky trot [10] [12].

In 1812, the factory was visited by Alexander I. During this visit, 500 horses, as if greeting the emperor, reared up and deafened nicked thanks to the conditioned reflex developed by Shishkin. The king was pleased with the reception, gave Shishkin a diamond ring and asked the daughter of Count Anna Orlov to give Vasily Ivanovich free [7].

All horses, both under Orlov and Shishkin, were tested for agility [3] [5] [6] [11] [12], when horses for three years were trotting at 18 miles along the Ostrov-Moscow route [3] [ 8] [11]. In the summer, the horses in the Russian harness with an arc fled in the mud, in the winter - in a sleigh [3] [12].

Tests of Oryol trotter Edit

Alexey Orlov was the first to test horses for agility and to select the most frisky and hardy in the trot for factory use [3] [4] [11] [12]. The system of testing and training of trotters included running for short and long (up to 20-22 km) distances [3] [5] [6] [11] [12]. Mares in the training were from 3 to 6-7 years, the stallions ran from 3 to 7-8 years, and sometimes older.

Count Orlov started the well-known at that time “Moscow Runs”, which quickly became great entertainment for Muscovites. In summer, the Moscow races were held on the Don Field, in the winter - on the ice of the Moscow River [3]. The horses had to run with a clear, confident trot, the transition to a gallop (crash) was ridiculed and booed by the public. Orlov invited to the competition people of any class on any horse, but invariably his horse gained the upper hand. Soon after Moscow, St. Petersburg also began to run - in the winter on the ice of the Neva. With the beginning of the war of 1812, the races were stopped and resumed only in 1834 with the opening of the first race track in Europe and the organization of the Moscow running society [3] [10] [11]. By this time, the term "trotter" became an integral part of the name of the breed [9].

In 1836, the bay stallion Bull-calf (Young Satin - Home), born at the Shishkin stud, ran a distance of 3 versts (or 3200 m) at the Moscow Hippodrome in 5 minutes and 45 seconds, which in those times was a world record [3] [6] [10] [11] [12]. Immediately after this run, the Bull-calf was bought by a horse breeder, D. P. Golokhvastov, for a huge sum of 36 thousand rubles [12].

In the first decades after the creation of the running society and the hippodrome, the Oryol trotters were tested in a Russian harness with an arc, harnessed to four-wheeled vehicles in the summer and in a sleigh in the winter. The horses ran one by one, not in a circle, but in straight lines, at the end of each straight line they ran around the pole and turned in the opposite direction. Such a test system had obvious disadvantages associated with the loss of time, but for a long time was considered the only correct one. All distances were long - from 3 to 5 versts and longer [3].

Virtually no protective devices on the legs of the horses were not worn, despite the fact that the track cover was very hard - concrete and a small layer of sand on top. Many horses, being tested in such conditions, injured their legs and hooves, and those that ran successfully showed obviously worse results. The same unsatisfactory in the total mass were breeding and training of Oryol trotters. Many horse breeders did not have the slightest idea about the rules of breeding and training trotters, but, considering themselves experts, used their own "technology", often only maimed horse [11]. Horses lost cards, sold abroad dozens of heads to distribute debts, played on the dispute. Grooms and horse riders on hippodromes were in the recent past ordinary coachmen, among whom there were few talented horse masters who understood horse.The horse could be beaten for any wrongdoing, the training was also based on “own” technologies, which had to send horses back to the factory that were crippled not only physically, but also mentally [11], unfit not only for hippodrome trials, but even simple walking in harness

However, Orlov trotters records were growing [3] [18]. Orlovets Svet won at the age of 10 the prestigious Imperial prize in Moscow. In 1867, the Stallion Poteshny (Polkachik - Dense) in the droshka for 3 versts showed a time of 5 minutes 8.0 seconds. The following year, he also improved this time to 5.00.0 [3] [6] [10] [11]. Under these conditions, one case with the Orlov stallion Pass is indicative. This stallion drove its owner, was a rooted troika and never been to the hippodrome training. Once his master, V.K. von Meck, argued with his friend that Proida would win a prize at the hippodrome. The stallion was brought to the racetrack, and the very next day he started in a very prestigious prize - Kolyubakinsky. Pass not only won the prize, but also showed a time close to Poteshny's record - 5 minutes 1 second [11] [19].

After such a phenomenal run, the Pass was noticed and used as a manufacturer. The line of Passage through his best son, Varvara Zhelezny, has survived to the present day [20].

There were a lot of similar cases at that time. The breed's potential was enormous, the horses continued to improve their agility [6] [11] [12].

Oryol breed, divorced from the 1830s in other stud farms, spread to many regions of Russia by the middle of the century [3] [5] [7] [12]. Thanks to the Orlov trotters, in Russia, and then in Europe, where they were actively exported from the 1850s to the 1860s, trotting was born [3] [5] [11]. In 1869, in 1609 stud farms bred 5321 purebred Oryol producers and &&&&&&&&& 052700. &&&&& 52 52 700 queens [16]. Until the 1870s, Orlov trotters were the best among lightweight breeds, were widely used to improve the horse stock of Russia and were imported to Western Europe and the USA [3] [4] [5] [7] [10].

The breed combined the qualities of a large, beautiful, durable, light-loaded horse, capable of carrying a stable trot, carrying a heavy carriage, and it is easy to endure heat and cold during work [5] [7]. In the people, the Orlov trotter was honored with the characteristics “both in the wagon and under the governor” and “plow and flaunt” [7]. Orlov trotters became favorites of international competitions and the World Horse Exhibitions [5] [16] [18].

In the 19th and early 20th centuries, the popularity of Orlov trotters in Russia was extraordinary, aided by the excellent acclimatization abilities of this breed, comparative lack of dilution in breeding, versatility, and qualities of an excellent draft and accelerating horse [3] [5] [7] [9] [11] . In Moscow at the beginning of the 20th century there were more than 200 cab drivers, so the Orlov breed was mainly used as working and traveling horses, and even to improve peasant horses in the outback [4] [8] [9] [10] [11]. Only a small part of them participated in the run.

Passions always raged around prominent trotters. Orlovets Krepysh, called the “horse of the century” at the beginning of the 20th century, was long unsurpassed in agility [5] [7] [18] [21] [22]. And his unexpected loss to the overseas visitor, General Heych, in the International Prize was experienced as a national tragedy [22].

“Americanization” of trotters Edit

At the end of the 19th century, American trotters were brought to Russia for the first time - standardbred horses. In competitions with them, the Orlov trotters suffered their first defeats. Ugly and disharmonious, selected in the direction of narrow specialization - the standard of agility and educated with accurate and proven American training, the “Americans” easily beat the large and smart, but more “exhausted” by the haphazard breeding and incorrect training of orlovtsev [3] [4] [6 ] [7] [12]. Together with horses, American horse breeders also brought their knowledge of training and testing trotters [3] [11] [12].

In Russia began the massive "Americanization" of races. The distance of 3 versts lost its value. The distance of 1 mile (1609 m) became classic, in Russia this distance was transferred to the more usual 1600 meters. Instead of bulky, heavy droshky, trotters began to harness into light two-wheeled "American", in Soviet times, called "rocking" (in Europe and the United States called "sulki", English sulky). Every possible means of protecting horses from injury were used - knee pads, legs, etc. [3] American riders began to teach Russian riders the technologies developed in the USA [11], although few of them agreed to train, considering themselves fully educated and knowledgeable.

The difference in the agility of the American trotter and Orlov was very great [6]. In 1903, the American trotters record for 1 mile belonged to the gelding Ulan - 1 minute 58 seconds. Among the Orlov trotters, the gray Pet had a record for this distance [10] [12] (Hello - Firebird [11]) - 2 minutes 14.2 seconds [12].

Many Russian horse breeders abandoned the Oryol breed [3] and began to breed American-Oryol hybrids, which were generally faster than Orlov trotters, but worse than the American ones. Most of the best Oryol mares are crossed with American stallions of dubious quality [3] [4] [10] [11] [12] and therefore, because of the misconceptions about telegony that existed at that time, were considered irretrievably lost to the Oryol breed as a queen [en ]. Horse lovers were divided into two irreconcilable camps that were openly hostile to each other: the so-called “purebreds”, who kept the Orlov trotter clean [3] [5] [18], and the “metizers”, who were convinced that the Orlov breed was fully crossed with the American [3] [11] [18].

Breed Revival Edit

For a long time, a clear preponderance of forces was on the side of the "metizers" - the crossbow trotters began to beat the best Orlov trotters, and the American riders, praising the half-breeds from the pages of all newspapers and magazines devoted to running sports, set the tone. However, in 1908, on the hippodrome in Moscow, an orlovets nicknamed Fortress (Giant - Coquette 1904) [3] [5] [6] [10] [11] unexpectedly won a prize at a distance of 1600 m with a result of 2 minutes 18.3 seconds. The time shown by Krepysh was very high agility for a four-year-old trotter, even for a half-breed, since the record for the four-year-old orlovtsev at that time was 2 minutes 17 seconds. Soon, Fortress easily surpassed this time, showing 2 minutes 14.3 seconds [18] [22].

It was the first, but far from the last and not the loudest record in the life of this outstanding stallion, after which even people far from trot races spoke about Crepe. The name Krepysh did not leave the pages of the newspapers, his trainings and speeches were discussed in detail. The stronghold was declared the “Horse of the Century” after at the age of six he ran 1600 m with a new Russian record - 2 minutes 8.5 seconds [3] [4] [5] [10] [12]. Not a single half-breed, and certainly not one orlovets, was capable of such a time.

In response, two world record holders were brought from the United States to Russia - the mare Lou Dillon [12] [18] and the Ulan gelding. Their owner Billings politely rejected the proposal of the owner of the Fortress M. M. Shapshal to arrange a full-time competition between the Fortress and the two record-breakers and did not even allow his horses to run a training session, fearing that Fortress would run faster [18].

The Americans brought against Boards a high-profile trotter Bob Douglas, who had an ideal track at home for 2 minutes 4 seconds [3] [11] [18], but in Russia this trotter lost to Krepysh in all in-person meetings [18]. A few months after the first record, in May 1910, Fortress set another absolute record, at a distance of 3200 m, 4 minutes 25.7 seconds [3] [6] [10] [11] [12].

However, the day came when the Gray Giant, as the fascinating spectators called the Fortress, lost to the American trotter named General H. It was believed that this loss was rigged by the Americans.From this point on, Fortress no longer had great victories and amazing records, and soon he was forced to end his career [7] [18] [22].

Running career Krepysh, a phenomenon of his time, has proved once again the presence of a huge potential of the Orlov trotter. In total, Krepysh set 13 records in his career, started 79 times and was the first 55 times. Few descendants were received from Krepysh, since the “Horse of the Century” fell at the age of 13 at the height of the civil war [11] [18] [21] [22]. The line of the Fortress has not been preserved to this day. In tsarist time, only one of all Krepysh records was beaten: a baying dog nickname, Sorry, ran 1600 m in 2 minutes 8 seconds. All other records for a long time remained unconquered [3].

In 1910, there were 10 thousand producers and 100 thousand queens of the Oryol breed at Russian stud farms [16].

1920s - 1930s Edit

During the civil war, the number of Orlov trotters decreased significantly. However, in Soviet times, breeding, testing and training of Orlov trotters became, finally, systematic and thoughtful. From the 1920s, horses of this breed began to breed and improve only by the purebred method [4] [11]. Records Orlov trotters began to grow again, and the livestock increase [12]. And yet the fortress records held for a long time.

Only in 1933, the gray stallion Catch (Lovchiy - Udachnaya 1928) [5] [6] [7] [13] [23] was the first to show agility higher than that of the “Horse of the Century” - 2 minutes 7.5 seconds per 1600 m. In 1934, the Catch set new records at 1600 m - 2 minutes 2.2 seconds [5] [6] [23] [24] [25] and at 3200 m - 4 minutes 20.6 seconds [10] [11] [ 12] [23]. Both records were European at the same time [6] [23].

In 1938, the stallion Pilot [4] (Hyacinth - Penochka 1932) repeated the time of the Catch at a distance of 1600 m - 2.02.2 [11] [13] [24] [26] [27]. In 1939, out of 14 Orlov trotters, which showed agility 2 minutes 10 seconds and faster on 1600 meters, eight horses were faster than Fortress. In the same year, the stallion Waltz set a new record for four-year-old orlovtsev - 2 minutes 5.4 seconds [11] [28]. Along with an increase in playfulness of Orlov trotters, the average height at the withers also increased [28].

1940s - 1980s Edit

After World War II, the growth of records of the Orlov breed continued. A new record for four-year-old Orlovs was set by a gray, very elegant stallion Sea Surf (Ambassador - Murashka 1944), running 1600 m in 2 minutes 4.5 seconds [10] [11] [13]. This record held 38 years.

The absolute record of the catch at 3200 m was somewhat improved [24]. Stallion Lerik (Synopsis [11] - Icy 1948) ran this distance in 4 minutes 20.3 seconds.

Of particular renown among the Orlov trotters, the bay stallion Kvadrat (Strait - Ceramics 1946) [7] [10] [11] [13] [29] recognized by the breed champion on the exterior at the All-Union Agricultural Exhibition (VSHV) [7] deserved special honor. Possessing a perfect exterior, this Orlov trotter showed no outstanding agility (his personal record was 2.08.1 by 1600 m) [6] [10] [11] [13] [29]. However, at the age of four he demonstrated an exceptional fighting character, thanks to which he was able to win all the main prizes for four-year-old trotters, including in the fight against the best mestizos [13] [29] [30].

The square was distinguished by the desire to be always the first, and, completing his career, was sent by the manufacturer to the factory [29]. More than 600 descendants were received from it [13], and not only from Oryol mares, but also from other sledding breeds. Many of the descendants of the Square received from their father the same ideally beautiful exterior and were sold abroad - to Europe and Asia. In the Orlov trotters, Kvadrat also left a mark: its line is now one of the main ones. The great merits of Kvadrat were noted during the lifetime of the installation of two bronze monuments - one at the All-Union Exhibition of Achievements of the National Economy [31], and the other on the territory of the Moscow Stud [7] [12].

The most famous after the Fortress Orlov trotter was the phenomenal in all respects stallion Peony (Response - Dowry 1966) [5] [7] [12] [13] [19]. This stallion, gray in apples, had a no less excellent exterior than Kvadrat, he was recognized three times as a champion of the breed at the VSHV. On the track of the hippodrome, Peony also earned the fame of a phenomenal recorder.So, he passed the 1600 m distance with a quickness of 2 minutes 0.1 seconds, breaking the catch record immediately by 2.1 seconds [6] [12] [13] [19] [25]. Even more incredible time Peony showed at a distance of 3200 m - 4 minutes 13.5 seconds [10] [13] [19]. Although the Peony record at 1600 m has long been improved by other Orlov trotters, the record for 3200 m still remains [5] [6]. Even among the Russian and American trotters born in Russia, there were only two representatives who managed to surpass the time of Peony at this distance.

The peony run, remarkable for its beauty and agility, was also demonstrated at the foreign hippodromes of Berlin and Helsinki. However, Peony won the greatest fame not on the racetrack, but in the factory, as a manufacturer [19] [31]. Not a single Orlov trotter did not give as many frisky children and grandchildren as was received from Peony. Almost all records for the Oryol breed passed to the descendants of Peony.

Among the children of Peony were such frisky Orlov trotters as Batozhok (2.05.0), Corporal (2.05.0), Kapron (2.05.0), Zaplot (2.04.7) [27], Krap (2.04.7), Hood ( 2.04.0), Valve (2.03.9), Flop (2.03.9), Buffina (2.03.7), Captain (2.03.6) [25], Checkpoint (2.03.4) [32], Guyana (2.03, 2), Sinap (2.02,5), Pompey (2.02.4) [26], Bassoon (2.02.3), Gimp (2.02.2), Prospectus (2.01.6) [6] [12], Fant (2.00 ,9). After becoming a factory themselves, they also turned out to be excellent manufacturers in crossing with trotters of other lines. Due to this, the Pion line significantly increased in size, the average results of the Oryol breed agility also increased sharply. In 1973 in the USSR there were more than 370 Orlov trotters with the agility of Fortress (2 minutes and 8.5 seconds) [4] [5] [33].

Among the grandsons of Pion, the stallions of Cyprus are particularly worth noting (Pompeii - the Steeple of 1982) [10] [12] [13] [26] and the Cowboy (the Checkpoint - the Steepness of 1984) [5] [10] [26] [32]. Being brothers by mother and cousins ​​by father, these two stallions again reminded of the enormous potential that is contained in the Oryol breed and has not yet been fully disclosed.

In their mass, the Orlov trotters continued to yield significantly in speed to the American trotters [3] [6]. While the Peony record at 1600 m was 2.00.1 [6] [12] [19] [25] [26], the American trotters record for the same distance was 1.53. Russian trotters, descendants of those mestizos who ran in Tsarist time [4], albeit slightly, but also surpassed the Oryol breed in speed. If in the 1930s – 1950s many outstanding Orlovites, such as Sea Surf [10] [11] [13], Kvadrat [11], Bylye Dreams [10], Quotation Mark [11], could beat Russian trotters even in the biggest prizes, including the "All-Union Derby", then since the 1960s, such famous orlovtsev became less and less.

The superiority of the Russian trotters intensified due to the fact that they were again begun to be improved by crossing with the valuable American producers - Low Hanover [13] [31], Centenial Way, Mix Hanover and others. A particularly outstanding producer in the Russian breed was the American stallion Repriz (Noble Victory - Floridate), sold in the USSR for &&&&&&& 01520000. &&&&& 0 1 520 000 dollars and became a kind of "Peony" in the Russian breed. A huge number of children Reprise showed agility 2.05 and faster. His best son Sorrento in Europe beat the most frisky European trotters [13].

In such circumstances, the Orlov trotters could not fight on equal terms with the "improved" Russian trotters for the most important prizes. However, there were horses in the Orlov breed that competed with American and Russian trotters born in the USSR and Russia. The first such champion was the bay of Cyprus. During his running career, this stallion has set 14 records of various ranks, the most important of which was the record for four-year-old Orlov trotters - 2.03.4. With this agility, Cyprus defeated all the best Russian trotters in the 1986 All-Union Derby [6] [10] [12] [26]. Some records of Cyprus were later beaten, some remained.

New Russian Period Edit

The brother of Cyprus, the red Cowboy, set 11 records, the main one being the absolute record for trotters of all breeds born in Russia. In August 1991, at the Ramenskoye Republican Hippodrome, an eight-year-old Cowboy took off with the best children of Reprise (after Sorrento) - the bay Rhomb (Repriz - Olta) and the gray Real (Repriz - Jamaica). Running turned out very frisky.Orlov trotter Cowboy finished first, showing 1 minute 57.2 seconds. This time was a new absolute record, which still holds [5] [6] [26] [32].

Getting up in the factory, both stallions were excellent manufacturers. The Cowboy kids twice improved the record for two year old trotters. First, the light gray Cupcake (Cowboy - Kichka 1995) showed 2.13.0, and then the red-chaly, similar to his father, Banquet (Cowboy - Bavaria 2001) surpassed this time - 2.11.3. The cowboy's best sons were the gray Shotgun (Cowboy - Drofa 1997), the Ural region's record-breaker and five-time champion of the breed, and the light gray Buzzard (Cowboy - Cameo 2001), the winner of the Prize Barca, later sold at an auction for a high amount for the Orlov trotter - 17 thousand dollars. The best children of Cyprus are undoubtedly the bay Mosaic (Cyprus - Mandolin 1999), which set the record for three-year-old Oryol mares - 2.07.7 and a very beautiful black stallion Drot (Cyprus - Bustard 1998), the brother of Drobovik by mother. Dart broke his father's record, showing 2.02.6 at the age of four.

In the history of the Oryol breed, there are two trotters who managed to overcome the 2-minute mark at a distance of 1600 m. The first of them was the gray stallion Ippik (Persian - Iphigenia 1980), which goes back to Strength along the maternal lines. In the 1600 m races, he showed 1 minute 59.7 seconds [10] [13], and then, at a distance of 2400 m, became absolutely the best among all the trotters born in the USSR and Russia, with 3 minutes and 2.5 seconds of agility. The last result is still surpassed only by one horse born in Russia. Among the few children of Ippik, light-colored Colorit stands out (Ippik - Kupavka 1990), currently the only three-time winner of the Pion Prize at the Moscow Hippodrome, a champion of the breed, a champion of the All-Russian Horse Exhibition Equiros -2001.

Another, immaculate exterior, the gray stallion Smear (Stock - Fashionable 1983) had a record of agility - 1 minute 58.4 seconds [13]. However, he was not a very good producer, and stallions — descendants of Mazka today are almost gone.

Crisis and Breed Rescue Edit

At the beginning of 1985, the number of purebred Orlov trotters in the former USSR equaled &&&&&&&&& 054813. &&&&& 0 54 813 heads. However, in the 1990s, there was a sharp decline in the number of Orlov trotters due to the general deterioration of the economic situation in Russia. By 1997, the number of Oryol mares reached a critical level of 800 heads (whereas for normal development of the horse breed at least 1000 mares are needed) [5] [7] [34].

Many stud farms were so devastated that the horses were dying from starvation or all the livestock were taken to the slaughterhouse. The private traders who appeared after the collapse of the USSR did not want to breed the national breed of Russia [5], preferring to it a more economically advantageous American or Russian trotter. Prizes in the races for the Orlov trotters, even at the Moscow Hippodrome, were extremely small, not to mention the province. Experts and amateurs from various regions of Russia, including the Association of trotting horse breeding “Commonwealth” [35], which includes amateurs and specialists in trotting horses of several CIS countries, took up the rescue of the Orlov trotter. It was with the help of the "Commonwealth" that contact was established with the French Trotting Association, whose delegates in 1997 visited the largest stud farms breeding the Oryol trotter. After that, in 1998, an Agreement was signed to hold the Days of Russia on the French racetrack Vincennes (Fr.Vincennes) with the participation of the Orlov trotter and the Days of France in Russia, sponsored by the French Trotting Association, in this event.

In 1999, the first Days of France were held at the Moscow Hippodrome, the program of which included races for three-year-old Orlov trotters (Paris Prize), four-year-old Orlov trotters (prize in honor of the French Trotter Association), as well as older orlovtsev at a distance of 2400 m ("Prize of France") and arrival for Russian triples ("Prize of the Vincennes Hippodrome"). “Days of Russia” in France were first held in 2000 at the Vincennes hippodrome near Paris, in which the championship was organized riders from Russia and France, and ride on Orlov trotters (the winner was a rider from Russia V.Tanishin on a gray stallion Labinsk) and a demonstration performance of triples. In the following years, the program “Days of Russia” expanded to two races on Orlov trotters.

    Trotting rocking races on the racetrack in Vincennes (France), where in 2000 Oryol trotters successfully competed

Interesting Facts

Russian trotters with success will be suitable for any kinds of equestrian sport. So, they are indispensable in driving, very good in dressage. Orlovets can successfully work in jumping.

However, showing character, these horses can significantly shake the nervous system of an inexperienced rider. Such an equestrian element of equipment, like a whip, will help to cope with the "raging" Russian rysisty handsome. Moreover, its application is not always necessary.

The Orlov trotter is smart enough not to expose its loin portion to unnecessary problems.

Races and races are held annually, in which both French trotters and American and Russian trotters take part. The Orlov trotter can participate in races both under the saddle and in the races, where a special rocking chair is used.

Main exterior features

Oryol trotter - horse powerful but graceful. Differs in height (withers from 160 cm) and a dry constitution. Color can vary, but most often there are gray, bay and black colors. Treadmills are very rare. The coat is thick, soft. The shape of the head can also vary, but a wide-headed head with expressive eyes, as well as small ears and an Arabic profile (straight with a crook) are considered standard.

Swan neck, gently curving, back long and straight, wide croup and long, fleshy legs. On the heads (joints at the hoof) sometimes there are brushes. This breed is distinguished by a harmonious construction of the body and an ideal ratio of muscular development and refinement.

Description and characteristics

The Orlov trotter is a magnificently folded horse on the exterior. The height at the withers reaches 170 cm. The head is dry with a broad forehead and gracefully rests on a beautiful neck. The eyes of horses are expressive and bright. The back is moderately massive. The corpus is lengthened by the 19th vertebra, due to which the Oryol group has an extra pair of ribs. The proportional torso is harmoniously combined with muscular, long legs. According to the signs of the exterior, there are three types of orlovtsev:

  • dry (the lightest horses, designed to run and ride),
  • intermediate (relatively dense universal horses, adapted to work both in sledding and under saddle),
  • massive (elegant hardy giants, suitable for the carriage of crews).

For orlovtsev characteristic gray color, there are representatives of the crow and the bay suit. Dun and Solovy Orlovtsev can be seen very rarely.

Orlov trotter has a good-natured, calm and docile disposition.

History of creation

Breed Russian trotters bred in the late 18th century. These are bright pages of a century history of domestic selection. The beginning of Russian horse breeding was laid by the famous earl Alexei Grigorievich Orlov. The recognized connoisseur and connoisseur of horses, after retirement, closely engaged in the breeding of a new trotter. The idea of ​​the graph was the creation of a horse, combining the beauty and grace of the Arabian horses with the power and endurance of the Danish, Dutch and Norfolk horses. Orlov owes his appearance to the Russian trotter, in which the southern and northern blood have merged.

The founder of the breed is considered to be the Arabian horse Smetanka. A truly fascinating and interesting story associated with its acquisition. While still in military service, the count commanded the fleet during the Russian-Turkish war (1766 - 1774). Brilliant victories were gained by the fleet under his command. After the victory in the Chesme Bay, the word Chesmensky was added to the count's name. Leading the fleet, Orlov-Chesmensky, through trusted representatives, sought and bought thoroughbred Arabian horses in Egypt and Syria.After the victory of Russia, he acquired in 1775 a horse of amazing rare beauty from the Turkish rulers. The stallion was perfect. Knowledgeable people said about the horse: "This has not yet seen." For him, Orlov laid out a decent amount of 60 thousand rubles (in those days, for 2 thousand. It was possible to buy a ceremonial team of 8 horses). For the silver-white color, Orlov called the horse Smetanny, later his affectionately nicknamed Smetanka. The movements of the horse were fascinating with ease and grace, he walked at a steady trot, as if flying like an eagle. Orlov was afraid to carry valuable cargo by sea and outfitted him with a land expedition with guard and stable Stepan. Smetanka in the wake of Stepan covered a long way; they traveled to Russia through Greece, Macedonia, Hungary and Poland for one and a half years ... After himself, he left four year-old foals and one daughter, named after his father Smetanka.

Children Smetanka were used for breeding. The great stallion of Leopard I, which combines Arabic, Danish and Dutch blood, became the crown of hard work. The name Orlovsky horse received, thanks to an amazing suit, later sung in poems and songs: bright apples on a gray background. In 1808, Alexei Orlov died, but the case was raised by the serf V.I. Shishkin, who was versed in horsemanship. He continued the change and the formation of the breed. Subsequently, Shishkin received a free and imperial gift from Alexander I with a diamond ornament.

First achievements and trials

One of the goals of the breed was to get a fast, frisky horse. Testing for speed at different distances began to be conducted by Orlov. The people gained popularity "Moscow races." They were attended by representatives of different classes. With the war of 1812, horse races were over, horses together with the people survived the war years.

In 1834, the race was resumed. Registration of records has begun. Raised at the Shishkin plant, the steer Bull went over 3 versts in 5 minutes. 45 seconds Record results showed stallions Light, Poteshny and Pass. Tests for speed often brought the horses a lot of suffering. The horses mutilated hoofs, broke their legs. Many horse breeders did not understand what they were doing, and the methods used by them to achieve results crippled horses. And yet the achievements of horses - Orlov trotters were obvious. Orlovtsev began to breed throughout the country, the best representatives were imported overseas to the United States and Europe.

Breed breeding

Due to its qualities, the Oryol breed at the beginning of the 19th century gained immense popularity in the Russian provinces. And at this time in the country brought the breed of American trotters. Uncomplicated and gloomy, they lost to the noble appearance of Orlovtsev. But significantly superior to them in speed. Russian racers invariably lost the competition. The Americans brought new rules, the legs of the horses were protected by knee pads and other attributes. In addition, the Americans trained Russian riders in effective methods of training horses.

Russian horse breeders are divided into two camps. Some advocated the preservation of the orlovtsev pureblood, others preferred to unite the rocks. American stallions began to cross with the best mares of Oryol breed. This led to a deterioration of the offspring. A dashing military and almost completely destroyed the breed. Fortunately, in all years there were lovers and connoisseurs seeking to preserve noble horses.

Revival Orlovtsev

For a long time orlovtsy could not compete with the American horses. However, breeding work continued and in 1908 bore fruit. Oryol trotter Fortress gave a record of 2 minutes. 18.3 seconds It was his first record, but not the last. “Horse of the Century” was the name of the horse for outstanding results. 55 times he won the race, setting 13 records.His achievements remained unconquered until 1933.

Soviet breeders used a purebred breeding method, improving the condition of the breed. After World War II, tribal works were marked by new achievements. The Peony and Sea Surf horses have won a number of championships. Sea Surf set an exorbitant result - 2 min. 4.5 seconds He remained unconquered for 38 years.

In the middle of the last century, the breed was glorified by an exceptional handsome man - Orlovsky stallion Kvadrat. He won in the nomination "Best Exterior" at the All-Union Exhibition of Agriculture (VSHV). The square gave a rich offspring - more than 600 horses. Two monuments were put to this horse - at the Exhibition of National Economy Achievements and at the Moscow Stud. And even more phenomenal was the triple winner of the All-Union Agricultural Exhibition - Orlovovets Peony. Surprisingly, the Peony combined excellent agility and excellent exterior. The Oryol trotter breed has eight lines, one of which is the Pion line. Cyprus stallion (grandson of Pion) became the winner of Derby 1986, and his other grandson, Cowboy, covered 1600 meters in 1 minute. 57.2 seconds, setting a record, not beaten since 1991!

The state of the breed in our days

By the end of the 20th century, the number of the Oryol breed of horses again decreased and reached a critical value. From 54813 horses in 1985, the Orlovtsev livestock dropped to a critical number of 800 by 1997. It is terrible to think how many pedigree Orlov horses fell from starvation and how many were sent to the slaughterhouse by bankrupt horse studs ... But the breed did not die. Salvation came from France and the CIS countries. Caring people united in the horse breeding association. The “Days of Russia” championships are held in France, and the “Days of France” are held in Russia, the “Pion Prize”, “Prix Barca” championships and others are held for orlovtsy. Balagur (great grandson of Pion) participated in the 2004 Olympics and climbed to first place in the international ranking.

Modern breeders are constantly working to preserve and strengthen the Oryol trotter. Today in Russia orlovtsev bred at Ramenskoye, Chesme, Khrenovsky and Altai factories.

The Orlov trotter is an unsurpassed achievement of Russian horse breeding, its symbol, glory and pride.

Historical data

In 1775, Count Alexei Orlov ended his military career and ceased to demolish the service. In the estate near Moscow, under the name of the Island, the Count began breeding horses and decided to devote his future life to breeding. Much later, Alexei Orlov decided to create a completely unique breed of horses. He wanted to combine in one suit the power of such breeds as Danish, Dutch, Norfolk with the grace and beauty of Arabian breeds. He got this opportunity after the coup in 1762, when Empress Catherine II granted to his possession an estate with land and peasants in the Voronezh region. It was there that the graph's talent manifested itself in zootechnics. According to the decree of the governor, racers from the Turkish peninsula were brought to the estate — and selected breeds of horse-breeding factories belonging to the palace. From this time begins the history of the breed.

Founder breed Smetanka

It all started with the purchase of a race horse of Arab origin named Smetanka by earl Orlov. His earl got it from a Turkish khan for 60 thousand silver. To make it clear, the budget of the imperial factory was equal to the sum of 25 thousand rubles, and this is for the whole year. The founder of the breed Smetanka arrived in Russia in 1776, it was transported by land for a long time, almost two years. And arriving at the count's estate Island near Moscow, Smetanka lived very little - only twelve months. But he managed to leave offspring - one mare and four stallions. The stallion Polkan was the most valuable for breeding a new breed. Smetanka got its name because of its color, light gray, almost white. This horse also had other features, for example, it had an extra 19th dorsal vertebra, due to which the back was more elongated.

Smetanka

There are many mysteries associated with the death of Smetanka. According to the first version, Smetanka died because of a long hard road to Russia, according to the second - feed did not suit him, according to the third - negligence became the cause of death, the horse was pulled too hard on the reins and Smetanka hit the edge of a log well and died. After these events, Count Orlov decided to move all his household from the Island to Voronezh to the lands granted by the empress. On these lands and built plant Count Orlov.

Tests Orlovsky trotter

And Orlov, and Shishkin conducted tests Orlov trotter. Tests were arranged for agility. Training races were arranged at different distances. The mares were trained from 3 to 7 years, and the stallions from 3 to 8. Count Orlov organized the “Moscow Runs”, the essence of the event was that the horses had to run with a clear trot, the gallop was galloping at a gallop. People of all classes were allowed to participate. The war of 1812 put an end to the competition.

Competitions reappeared only in 1834, the hippodrome opened in Europe, and the Moscow running society was organized. The world record was set by a stallion named Bull-calf, born at the Shishkin plant. He ran 3 miles in 5 minutes. 45 seconds And it was acquired by one of the richest horse breeders for big money - 36 thousand rubles. Tests Orlovsky trotter brought a lot of suffering. The horses mutilated their hoofs, because at that time there was no protection yet. Many of those who were engaged in breeding of horses, absolutely did not understand this business and made many mistakes.

Applied methods and methods from which the horse became crippled. However, the records of the Orlov breed of horses were obvious. Stallion Light won the imperial competition in Moscow. Amusing, harnessed to the creeps, showed the best result on the run - 5 minutes. 8, 0 sec. The Stallion of Passage, who had never participated in sports competitions and accidentally got on them, due to the dispute of his owner, showed an almost record time of 5 minutes. 1 sec This stallion was noticed and began to be used as a producer. Horse breeding of Oryol began to be engaged on the territory of the whole country. Imported across the border, in Europe and the United States of America.

Running test

Americanization of trotters

Our racers suffered the first defeats in competitions with standard-brand breed brought from America. This was the end of the 19th century. Americans in their workouts already used knee pads and other attributes that protected the legs of the horse. They began to teach Russian specialists successful and tried-and-tested methods of preparing horses for competitions.

Races are held in American style. They removed the distance of three versts, they were replaced by 1600 meters. Light American carts replaced heavy horses for the droshkas. The Americanization of trotters led to the division of society into two camps: some were against the use of the American breed in crossing, they were satisfied with the pure breed of the Orlov racer, despite the fact that it was inferior to the breeds from America. Others were in favor of combining Oryol horse breeds with American ones.

Ways of rebirth

The revival of the Orlov breed of horses did not occur immediately. For several years, only American racers won the racetrack. But in 1908 Orlovets Krepysh won on the run in 2 minutes. 18.3 seconds This record was for the stallion first, but not the last. Many deserved victories have occurred in his life. Those who didn’t know anything about equestrian sport talked about burrs. The stallion received the title of "horse of the century." He participated in the run 79 times, 55 times came to the finish line first. On his account 13 records. His career ended with a loss to a stallion with the nickname General H from America.

Stallion Fortress

Soviet period 1920-1930s

During the Soviet period, an exclusively purebred breeding method was used. The trainings became systemic, the actions were thoughtful, the horses stopped crippling.However, the Civil War made its own adjustments, and the number of horses decreased. Records of the famous Fortress remained unbowed for a long time. Only in 1933, the Orlovets Catch broke Fortress’s record with a result of 2 minutes. 7.5 sec at 1600 meters, the next year set a new record in the distance of 3200 meters - 4 minutes. 20.6 seconds These records simultaneously became European. Later, the horses Pilot, Waltz conquered the fortress records.

1940-1980s

The phenomenal record set by the stallion Sea Surf (1600 m - 2 min. 4.5 s) lasted for a long time - 38 years. But the stallion Kvadrat became especially famous of the Orlovs. He became the winner of the All-Union Agricultural Exhibition in the nomination Best Exterior. The stallion was exceptionally handsome, but the agility was no different. Although he took the first prizes in competitions with champions mestizos.

When the sports career of the Square ended, he became a manufacturer in the factory. His offspring has more than 600 horses. For their merits Square awarded two monuments. One is installed at the Moscow stud farm, the second at VDNH. But the stallion Peony is recognized as the most phenomenal of the Oryol breed. In many ways, he looked like the Krepysh. He was distinguished by an excellent exterior, he was recognized three times as the winner of the breed at the All-Union Agricultural Exhibition, and was also a record holder on the run. His main achievement in the production of excellent and excellent progeny offspring.

Even greater potential was in the grandsons of Peony. The most famous of them are Cyprus and Cowboy. The Cyprus stallion was set 14 records. He participated in the 1986 Derby and became a champion.

Crisis and Breed Rescue

90s for the country, it turned out to be difficult, the economy failed, a crisis ensued, and this was reflected in the field of horse breeding. In 1985, the livestock of Orlov horses with pure breed amounted to 54,813 heads. And in 1997, this figure became dangerously low - 800 heads. Barn farms became bankrupt, horses had to give slaughter, the fate of others was no better - they fell from starvation. The few private owners had no desire to get involved in the breeding of Oryol horses, American trotters were economically advantageous for them.

Breed salvation came from the CIS and France. Experts and simply indifferent people from Russia united with the association of trotting horse breeding "Commonwealth" and representatives of the CIS. With the help of this organization, relations were established with the trotting organization in France. This led to the development and strengthening of relations between Russia and France on cooperation in horse breeding. Began to pass the championships called "Days of France" in Russia, and similarly "Days of Russia" in France. At the same time, steps were taken to increase the number of heads of Orlov trotters.

At Ramenskoye and Moscow Hippodromes everything possible was done to increase the number of Orlovsky horses, additional cash prizes were introduced. Private studs began to pay more attention to the breeding of this particular breed. Despite all the efforts, the 90s undermined the environment of horse breeding. And it will take a lot of time to restore it.

Modern Orlov trotter

Modern Orlov trotter recognized breeding Russian breed. There are eight main lines, the first and most important of which is the Peony line. Hrenovsky stud, Chesmensky, Altai and private organizations work with Orlovsky horses. Championships for this breed are closed "Barça Prize", "Peony Prize", etc.

Oryol trotter: description, history and photos of the breed

The symbol of Russian horse breeding is considered to be the Orlov trotters. They are legends about them as about the most frisky and beautiful horses, which they have been proving for many years, winning trot runs one by one.

The history of Orlovtsev begins back in 1776, when the former favorite of Catherine II, Count Orlov, received a huge land possession from the Queen in the Voronezh province.In these lands, a horse stud farm was built soon, where in 1778 a lot of selected horses from Asia and the Mediterranean countries were brought. These were representatives of a wide variety of breeds.

Then the count bought the legendary Arabian horse Smetanka. He bought a horse for fabulous money at the time - 60 000 rubles. The stallion became the progenitor of the breed and was honored during his lifetime and was adored by the count. The horse was somewhat non-standard for its breed.

Smetanka's back was lengthened due to an extra vertebra and a pair of ribs, and he was larger than the standard Arabian stallion. He did not live long in Russia (only a year) and soon died, but managed to leave behind five foals. One of them - Polkan I - went to the father in most characteristics.

From him and the Dutch mare, at the stud the first Orlov trotter was received - Leopard I! He was beautiful, sophisticated, but strong, great walking trot. The stallion was gray in an apple and high at the withers.

Then began the painstaking and creative process of crossing, for the sake of breeding the ideal, according to Orlov, horse: universal in use, large and harmonious, enduring and unpretentious horse, which would have a genetic tendency to trot, which is very convenient when used in harness.

The leopard was crossed with mares of four different breeds, and his heirs interbred with each other. Previously they were trained by a special technique developed by the graph, and after - they selected the most appropriate of the above criteria.

After the death of Count Orlov, the stud ran over to his serf Shishikin, who was the trustee of the count in horse breeding. He continued the cultivation of a new breed. Thanks to him, the main gene pool of Oryol residents was formed.

Despite this, among the Orlov trotters and in the XX century, there were still real legends of equestrian sport. Krepysh - was named the horse of the century! He was huge in stature and noble gray suit. But at the end of his career, he lost to the American horse, brought specially for the competition with the legendary stallion.

With the Fortress began the revival of the breed, which reached its apogee already in Soviet times. Equestrian factories were opened all over the country, and the most titled scientists were engaged in breeding and selection.

Due to this, the number of Orlov trotters increased, and the level of training of the horses immediately displayed on the results of the competition.

Among the most famous orlovtsev Soviet period - Peony and his son, Cowboy, records, which are not beaten to this day.

With the collapse of the USSR orlovtsy experienced a crisis. The situation has changed in the XXI century. A policy of supporting national wealth was introduced, and Orlovets was really worth such a title.

The nature of Orlov trotters

Orlovtsy had the reputation of bold and loyal comrades of their riders. They have a good memory, so they are easy to train. Most members of the breed are energetic and do not have the habit of being lazy.

Although such features of character sometimes result in obstinacy.

But with the right treatment and patience of the breeder, any orlovets will eventually become agreeable and begin to bring only pleasure!

Oryol trotter: breed description, overview and characteristics

Beauty, power, stature, strength and grace are qualities that merge together in horses of the Oryol breed. The Orlov trotter has rightfully become the pride of Russian horse breeding. There are no horses in any country.

Representatives of the breed are elegant appearance capable of rapid trot. Luxurious flying mane, intelligent eyes, a stately swan neck, a feeling of strength and nobility are felt in every movement.

A horse that you fall in love at first sight, and this is not surprising.

Representatives of this breed became the pride of Russian horse breeding for their beauty and grace, to become and speed.

Breed history

According to legend, the thought of the need to breed a hardy breed of horses to count Orlov came to mind already during the implementation of the coup of Catherine. According to legend, the future empress and Count Orlov, were on the road when the Neapolitan horses, which were widely used at the court then, tired of the long jump, flatly refused to go further. Accompanying Catherine and her favorite Guardsmen had to urgently look for a replacement in the surrounding villages.

It was then that Orlov had the idea of ​​breeding a new, very hardy and fast domestic breed. Which a few years later he realized.

Parent breeds

The ancestor of the Orlov trotter was an Arabian steed named Smetanka. His Count Orlov bought from the Ottoman Sultan for huge money - 60 thousand rubles. silver. Suit Smetanka had a light gray. Below you can see a picture written by one of the serfs graph. It shows exactly the Arabian horse Smetanka.

An interesting feature of this horse was the presence of an extra pair of ribs. Horse it was really very beautiful and fast. However, he had one, quite serious, according to Count Orlov, a flaw. And he and the 5 foals born from him were not characterized by a steady trot.

To fix the situation, Count Orlov managed with the help of a Friesian mare, deprived of this disadvantage. With her, Catherine's favorite crossed the best foal from Smetanka, Polkana I. The mother of this horse was a Danish mare.

In 1784, a Friesian mare produced the fox Leopard I. Foal. This horse had a light-gray color in apples and, according to its characteristics, was closest to what Count Orlov wanted to get. After 7 years, Barca was made a manufacturer and used in this capacity for the next 17 years. During this time, the horse of the Orlov breed gave numerous offspring.

The main features of trotters

In addition to the frisky lynx, the advantages of the Orlov horses are:

  • harmonious appearance and grace of movement,
  • powerful but proportional body
  • ease of movement.

The advantages of this breed include the fact that the producers usually give their offspring all the best characteristics. Degeneration of this horse, at least, does not threaten. Since horses are actually very fast, they are often used, among other things, to improve other breeds.

Breed signs

The color of an Oryol horse usually has a gray one. It can be a light gray color, red-gray, dark gray, gray in apples, etc. But sometimes foals and other suits are born - crow, dun, roe, etc. This is not considered a disadvantage. These horses, which are different from the gray suit, were mainly inherited from the first progenitor mares. For example, the Danish mare who brought Polkan I had a brown color.

Constitution Orlov horses, as already mentioned, have a powerful. At the withers adult horses of this breed reach 162-170 cm. Their weight in some cases amounts to half a ton. The length of the body on the oblique of these horses is 160 cm, and the chest girth is 180 cm.

Breed signs Orlov horses include:

  • long swan neck
  • small head
  • short body compared to the hips and shoulder,
  • powerful long legs and large hooves.

Horses are, among other things, also very hardy.

What can have disadvantages

Of course, many horse breeders would like to buy an Orlov trotter today. However, when choosing a horse of this breed it is worth to be more careful. The disadvantages of these horses are rare. But still sometimes defects in foals can manifest. Most often in the horses of this breed there are such disadvantages:

  • "Razmet" (violation of parallelism of the front legs),
  • interception under the wrist
  • short grandmas.

The price of the Orlov trotter can vary in the range of about 120-150 thousand rubles. Of course, it is quite expensive. Therefore, when buying and worth a better horse inspect.In the presence of the disadvantages described above, it is undesirable to use a knight for covering This is especially true for individuals with a strong interception under the wrist. This defect indicates the disadvantages of the tendon-ligament apparatus.

Horse character

One of the undoubted advantages of the Orlov trotter is a calm, docile nature. These horses were known as loyal and courageous comrades of their masters. But despite the calm nature, the horses of the Orlov breed are considered to be very energetic. They do not have any habits to be lazy like representatives of some other breeds. The calm of these horses is well known to many breeders. However, sometimes these horses are still able to show some obstinacy. But it does not happen very often.

Main use

Initially, this breed was derived by Orlov county as an easily priprazhechnaya. However, these horses are actually very beautiful. Therefore, the nobility of the court began to use them and as visiting - for hunting, walking, etc. In the stable, having an Orlov horse from princes and earls soon became fashionable.

Nowadays, Oryol horses can be used for rides or jumping. But most often, of course, they take part in trot races. The modern Orlov trotter is first of all a sport horse.

Watch the video: Усадьба Ванюковых в Новгородской области (October 2019).

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