Livestock

Golden-eyed eyes started in the house: how to get rid of them

Gilded eyes are called small light green insects with shiny translucent wings.

The gilded eye is known to many gardeners, because its larvae, in the process of growth and development, destroy a large number of various pests.

That is why these midges are sometimes specially propagated on the plot.

Lifestyle and nutrition

Gilded eyes are small predatory insects that feed on various plant pests. The midges do not bring any harm to the plants. The article will tell about the peculiarities of lifestyle and nutrition of golden-eyed eyes, their benefits and harms.

The features of the lifestyle and nutrition of the insect include:

  1. The first appearance of gold-eyed in the year falls in the spring. As soon as the temperature rises above 10 ° C, small greenish midges appear in the air,
  2. The highest level of insect activity occurs in the evening. Like many other insects, they are attracted by the warm light of electric lamps. That is why zlatoglazok can often be seen in the lamps and this also causes them to penetrate into the housing,
  3. Winter is spent in cracks of wood bark, deep dry crevices of wooden constructions, falling into a state of torpor. In places where moisture does not flow,
  4. During the day, the gilded eye prefers to hide in shady places: under foliage, grass. Does not tolerate direct sunlight
  5. The flight height of the insect, despite the presence of two pairs of wings, is insignificant,
  6. Despite the fact that this is a fragile insect, it is able to defend itself. The aroma that the midge gives out scares many predators.

Gilded eyes are predatory insects that feed on other insects. Their main dish is aphid. However, some adult midges feed not on the aphids themselves, but on their secretions: nectar and pollen.

The process of communication in the golden eyes occurs through the vibrations of the back half of the body.
Despite its fragile structure and small size, the golden-eyed eyes are organized insects that bring a lot of benefit.

Destroying many pests of agricultural crops, they practically do not cause harm. However, the question: the golden-eyed pest or protector remains open.

Breeding

After a period of hibernation, the gilded eye begins to actively feed and only after that, the insect begins to lay eggs.

The breeding process consists of several stages.

First of all, the female chooses the most suitable sheet for her with a large number of aphids to feed the larvae and throws a drop of sticky liquid on it, which she stretches in the air into a 10-14 mm long string. At the end of the string is the egg itself. During the day, one female can lay up to sixty oblong eggs.

During the life of one female can lay up to four hundred eggs. Interestingly, the placement of all the eggs on separate strings is due to the need to protect the eggs from eating them by the first hatched insect.

After a couple of days, the larvae of red and brown hatch from the eggs. The length of their body is 7 mm, on the sides there are three pairs of legs, the most developed pair is the pectoral ones.

The larval form is very gluttonous.

The process of feeding begins with the hunt: the larva grabs the aphids, through the tube mandibles, resembling syringe needles, injects a paralysis poison into the victim's body and eats it.

The larval phase lasts for two weeks during which the larva absorbs at least four hundred aphids.

The larval stage is the pupa stage, which lasts five days, until the emergence of an adult individual. Development occurs without an intermediate stage of imago.

A golden-eyed pest or protector of a photo on the Internet can illustrate the process of reproduction and the vital activity of insects. Each phase of development brings clear benefits for gardeners, because these midges are universal protectors against many pests.

Do goldshed eyes benefit or harm?

Many gardeners speak out on this very clearly: the benefits are much higher than the harm they do. These insects reliably protect plants of vegetable gardens, household plots and greenhouses from pests. That is why they are often hooked into green areas and bred.

Like the larvae, the adult midges devour large lumps of aphids, eggs and the pests themselves.

An important feature is the fact that increased gluttony often leads to cannibalism.

Many gardeners are concerned about the question: the gold-eyed pest or protector, the answer to it is almost unequivocal. Insect is beneficial in open space and only when it appears in the house, on indoor plants, can cause discomfort in humans.

Golden eyes on indoor flowers - how to get rid

A number of obvious advantages for gardeners can rarely please the owners of indoor plants.

Often, midges can get into the house along with plants that have been brought into the house from the street (begonias, amaryllis, violets, aloe, and others). When these plants are damaged by pests, the gold-eyed pest is engaged in their destruction, but this does not add joy to homeowners.

With building materials, in particular wood. In the winter, midges often get into the cracks and can thus get into the house.

Regardless of the method of entering the room, many prefer to get rid of them as soon as possible.

The main methods of struggle include:

  • In the evening, open the window by turning off the light in the house and turning it on outside. Since the insects are attracted by electric light, they will fly to it, leaving the building,
  • If you need to get rid of insects quickly, you can use a vacuum cleaner. It's enough to collect insects with the device,
  • The use of special sprays, in particular "Dichlorvos". It is important to take aerosols when there are no people in the house.
  • If zlatoglazki appeared on the plant, it can be sprayed with a solution of fifty grams of vanillin and one liter of water,
  • Insects of this species very poorly tolerate high temperatures, so you can fight them through a fireplace or a convector.

However, it is worth remembering that the gold-eyed is a plant protector and, before proceeding to destruction, it is recommended to remember this and select the most humane method of struggle.

Golden eyes are small insects that bring a lot of benefits. Destroying various pests, these insects do not bring any harm to plants.

The only disadvantage of these flies is the fact that when entering the house, they can cause some discomfort for the owners.

If necessary, to deal with the problem in the building is simple.

Let's see an interesting video about the life of gold-eyed:

Golden-eyed - pest or protector, how to get rid of the insect, video

Zlatoglazka helps to fight with small pests to gardeners. In some countries, these insects are specially bred for the mass destruction of parasites. In the garden or in the garden, they are real "orderlies."

However, their presence in the house causes discomfort for the owners. To properly treat them, you need to know about the benefits they bring. It should be familiar with the basic methods of dealing with them.

External features

The gilded eye is a insect of light green color. It has either a bright or subdued color. He has a mustache and three legs on both sides. Their distinctive feature is translucent wings.

The larvae got its name due to the unusual eye color - gold with a shimmer. It is worth noting that the shiny wings with streaks of blue hue make the appearance of insects luxurious.

In connection with this, they were given another nickname - the Fleurings.

At the edge of the head are elongated jaws. With their help, she feels the vegetation until she finds parasites. Therefore, it can spoil the vegetation.

The elongated body of the larvae, 1.5 cm in size, is covered with small warts, and also has a rare hair coat. The midges move very quickly and dexterously. The protective reaction of the gilding eyes is the release of a sharp and unpleasant aroma. It was he who scares off enemies.

Vital activity

When the owners know the peculiarities of the lifestyle and behavior of the fells, then it will be easier for them to protect their homes from their invasion.

It also helps gardeners, on the contrary, to create favorable conditions for their breeding. So, the golden-eyed ordinary has unique features of behavior.

Here are some of them:

  • maximum activity of adults - evening time
  • does not tolerate long stay in direct sunlight,
  • settles in shady and damp places: under the leaves or in the grass,
  • midges begin to creep out in spring from their shelters at temperatures above 10 ° C,
  • they flock to the bright light of electric lanterns, thereby penetrating the house,
  • several dozen eggs are laid (on long threads) nearby aphid colonies.

Winter is spent by larvae in attics, in the crevices of houses or under the bark of trees. If the owners want to get rid of them, then you need to make an effort to pull them out.

These "defenders" can be found in the backyard or garden.

Those engaged in greenhouses should also be attentive to the appearance of the flernits.

Still, experts recommend even addict these "orderlies" in your garden, garden or greenhouse. They will help get rid of dozens of pests.

How to recognize gold-eyed

Insect Zlatograzka has individual external characteristics that distinguish it from other insects. The golden-eyed larvae have an oblong shape, their body is covered with small warts and hairs. At the base of the head of the larva are oblong jaws, which help it to fight pests. The larvae move at a rapid pace, feeling the plant with their jaws until they find the parasite.

Adult insects have an oblong body of bright green color and large transparent wings with blue veins. The golden-eyed eye has received its name due to its large iridescent eyes of golden color, and these insects are also called fleurs.. If you catch an adult, in order to protect it, it releases an unpleasant odor, which it tries to scare away the enemy.

Use of gold-eyed

Gilded eye helps to get rid of all sorts of pests: garden aphids, scale insects, various types of mites, caterpillars. The insect destroys the eggs of the Colorado beetles and damages the cocoons of even the most poisonous spiders. There are more than 80 types of pests with which the golden-eyed are fighting. Both the larvae and adults perfectly cope with small insects, thereby saving a lot of plants from death. Many species of fleece are not predatory and feed on plant nectars and aphid secretions.

Gilded eyes are good garden advocates, for example, against aphids.

The main reasons for the appearance of gold-eyed in the house

If an insect appeared in the house, then there are certain reasons:

  • For the winter, some types of gold-eyed crawl into residential buildings to spend the winter.
  • If pests are bred on houseplants, then golden eyes appear to destroy them.
  • In the wooden house, gold-eyed eyes may appear to destroy the borer larvae, which have a devastating effect on the wooden arrays.
  • They can get into the house along with any building material and settle indoors. These are rare cases when gold-eyed eyes start up in a house, but this happens.

Ways to combat gold-eyed

It is better to fight this beneficial insect in a humane way, but there are methods that allow you to get rid of the golden-eyed one by destroying it. The main methods of struggle:

  1. Open windows. In the daytime, the insect leads a sedentary lifestyle, so this procedure is best carried out in the evening when it is already dark outside. Windows need to open wide open, as the golden eyes do not see the glass and can beat it without result. The light in the room must be turned off, but turned on outside. If the gold-eyed "occupied" attic, then it makes sense to leave the windows open all night.
  2. A vacuum cleaner. To get rid of insects, you can use the included vacuum cleaner. To fight in a humane way with garden attendants is not always real, but it happens that the result is needed immediately.
  3. Sprays aimed at combating flying insects. Such aerosols contain toxic substances that adversely affect adult goldfish and they die. You can use dichlorvos or other similar drugs.
  4. Golden eyes are very susceptible to ultrasounds, which can be used to combat them. Hearing an ultrasound, an adult individual folds its wings and falls to the ground, in such a way in nature they escape from bats that feed on fleece.
  5. If the furnits are bred in the house, which happens extremely rarely, then it is necessary to find a place for laying eggs and destroy them, and adult individuals can be thrown out onto the street.

The gilded eye lays eggs on the lower surface of leaves and plants, often next to colonies of aphids.

Before destroying the golden-eyed bird, it is better to recall the amount of benefits these insects-orderlies bring and resort to humane methods of struggle.

To date, zlatoglazok used for large-scale destruction of small pests. Special factories are being created in which they grow barns and ladybirds, but such projects are costly. In the gardening shops special cameras are sold that are suitable for wintering this insect. But only a few Fleurmels manage to spend the winter in such houses.

Golden eyes on indoor flowers - how to get rid

A number of obvious advantages for gardeners can rarely please the owners of indoor plants.

Often, midges can get into the house along with plants that have been brought into the house from the street (begonias, amaryllis, violets, aloe, and others). When these plants are damaged by pests, the gold-eyed pest is engaged in their destruction, but this does not add joy to homeowners.

With building materials, in particular wood. In the winter, midges often get into the cracks and can thus get into the house.

Regardless of the method of entering the room, many prefer to get rid of them as soon as possible.

The main methods of struggle include:

  • In the evening, open the window by turning off the light in the house and turning it on outside. Since the insects are attracted by electric light, they will fly to it, leaving the building,
  • If you need to get rid of insects quickly, you can use a vacuum cleaner. It's enough to collect insects with the device,
  • The use of special sprays, in particular "Dichlorvos". It is important to take aerosols when there are no people in the house.
  • If zlatoglazki appeared on the plant, it can be sprayed with a solution of fifty grams of vanillin and one liter of water,
  • Insects of this species very poorly tolerate high temperatures, so you can fight them through a fireplace or convector.

However, it is worth remembering that the gold-eyed is a plant protector and, before proceeding to destruction, it is recommended to remember this and select the most humane method of struggle.

Golden eyes are small insects that bring a lot of benefits. Destroying various pests, these insects do not bring any harm to plants. The only disadvantage of these flies is the fact that when entering the house, they can cause some discomfort for the owners. If necessary, to deal with the problem in the building is simple.

Let's see an interesting video about the life of gold-eyed:

Gold-eyed: pest or protector?

The gilded eye is a green midge with transparent wings, which is a relatively small predatory insect.

It can bring tangible benefits to agriculture, since its larvae are able to devour pests.Some gardeners specially lodge these green insects on the site.

Gold-eyed and its species

Answering the question of who such a gold-eyed is, it is worth noting that it belongs to the order of the retina. There are more than 2 thousand species of such fragile black flies. The most common are: gold-eyed ordinary, golden-eyed beautiful, seven-point fleurs, Chinese fleurs, green and brown gold eyes. The latter, for example, differ only in color and size. Green in length can grow up to 15 mm, brown - much less. They populate mainly Europe. They love to live in forests, meadows, parks, gardens and gardens.

At rest, the wings of the insect are folded "house". A feature of this midge, due to which it received the name, are round protruding eyes of golden hue with bright brilliance. They are located on the sides, the structure - faceted. The wingspan of the gilding can reach 3-4 cm. There are 1 pair of antennae and 2 pairs of legs.

Features of the life cycle

If the average daily temperature is 26 ° C, the life cycle of the insect lasts 25-30 days. The female can lay 100-900 eggs on the leaves of plants - usually this happens precisely in the foci of pests. The larva goes through three stages of development in 2-3 weeks and turns into pupae. The ratio of females and males in the population is approximately 1: 1. Adult insects usually feed on honey dew or nectar. The larvae also feed on aphids, which are usually parasitic. Insects appear in the spring, when the air temperature reaches about 10 ° C. At this time, they are selected from the winter shelters - cracks, cracks, rooms, crawl out from under the bark and other quiet secluded places.

The most active in the evening, when twilight occurs. They are attracted by electric light, so they can fly into the house or other lighted rooms. They fly not high, despite the presence of 2 pairs of wings. In the daytime, gold-eyed eyes are usually hidden under the leaves, grass, and in other pritenennyh places. Move only if disturbed.

Good or bad?

Reflecting on whether the golden eye is a pest or protector, gardeners are more inclined to the first option. These are good defenders of the garden plot - the midges are able to maintain an ecological balance in gardens and greenhouses, and therefore they are even specially housed and bred. Adults, as well as their larvae, feed on aphids, eggs and other pests, consuming them in large quantities.

Since birth, the larvae are very voracious. Thanks to the sharp jaws, they easily grab the victim, then inject their poison into it, which instantly causes paralysis. The larvae phase in the furnits takes about 14 days. During this period, one individual is able to kill about 400 aphids.

How to get rid of gold eyes in the house

Despite its useful qualities, the gold-eyed eye belongs to those insects that can appear in the house, which brings discomfort to the owners and makes them look for a solution on how to get rid of it.

This can happen for several reasons. For example, the coat of fur can live indoors during the winter cold. It also happens when pests are infested on indoor plants, and, accordingly, the golden-eyed bird will be engaged in their destruction. And another common option is repair work, as a result of which building materials were brought into the summer house, and this midge also moved with them.

  1. The easiest way is to open the window in the evening. First of all, you need to open windows or doors, turn off the lights in the house, and turn them on outside. Fleurica will fly to the electric light, thereby freeing the owners of the country house from their presence.
  2. Mene humane way - vacuum cleaner. This method should be used when the result is needed immediately.
  3. On sale there are also special sprays from flying insects. Aerosol can be etched to the furnits. Suitable, for example, "Dichlorvos".
  4. If the insect appeared on a house plant, it can be treated with a solution consisting of 50 g of vanillin and 1 liter of water. Gilded eye does not harm indoor plants, but can spread throughout the house.
  5. Fleurica does not tolerate heat. If you create hot conditions in the house, all insects will die. This can be done with a fireplace, convector and other things.
Before applying the cardinal methods that destroy the gold-eyed eye, one should nevertheless recall all the useful features that it possesses, and, if possible, choose a more humane method.

The life cycle and reproduction of insects

It is believed that the golden-eyed is the most harmless insect. The life cycle of the female is about 60 days. During this time, she manages to lay a field of one and a half thousand eggs. She does this every day.

The arthropod attaches eggs on special silk legs to the surface of the plant. The rate of hatching of the larvae depends on the ambient temperature. In the hot summer, the process takes no more than three days. Egg laying occurs near the power source. After the “birth” the larva needs to immediately begin to feed, in the absence of food, they begin to eat each other.

During the season, depending on climatic conditions, the bug can produce from two to five generations. An individual does not tolerate a sharp decrease or increase in air temperature. As soon as the light day decreases noticeably or the temperature drops to 10 degrees, the golden-eye falls into diapause.

Overwinter, capable individuals and larvae. Some species cope with the cold with the help of cocoons.

The reasons for the appearance of gold-eyed in the apartment

For zlatoglazki human dwelling is not a natural habitat. Here it is very difficult for her to find food. There are several main causes of the appearance of an insect in a house or apartment:

  1. Reduced air temperature. A bug normally exists if the air temperature is not lower than 10 degrees. With her decline, she begins to seek a warmer shelter,
  2. The appearance of aphids and other pests on home ornamental plants. The predator midge moves everywhere in search of food and can fly into a house attracted by a large cluster of aphids on the loggia or window sill flowers,
  3. Accidental hit. It can be brought from the street on clothes, flowers, fruits or any other items.

These insects will not bring much harm in the house, especially if only a few individuals flew into it. A large accumulation of insects brings strong discomfort. Someone simply does not tolerate the presence of midges in his apartment.

The whole day the bastard spends in complete peace. In the late afternoon, the midge flies out and prefers to be placed on the ceiling, curtains or sits on a person, which is very unpleasant.

How to get rid of green midges

The insect is not harmful, so first you should apply humane methods of dealing with it. It is advisable to use the natural features of the behavior of gold-eyed.

She prefers the night mode of existence, which means we are trying to “drive her out of the house at night or in the evening. To do this, turn off the lights in the house, and illuminate the street. It is advisable to open all the windows wide open. Vents will not be enough. The eyes of the midges will not see the window glass, and it will be futile to beat on it, and not leaving the room.

If the humane method did not work, you have to use more radical methods:

  1. Turn on the vacuum cleaner and perform the "cleaning" of insects with it,
  2. Chemical sprayers. Usually they affect only adults, which immediately die. Processing of the room is made with tightly closed windows. Then it must be well ventilated, so harmful fumes can harm not only the bugs, but also people. For the treatment of suitable ordinary dichlorvos,
  3. Fumigators. This modern means of getting rid of mosquitoes and other harmful insects affects the golden-eyed bird. Especially if an ultrasound device is used. Having caught the vibration, the midge freezes and falls to the floor. This natural feature helps the gold-eyed bird to survive in wildlife, fleeing from its main enemies - the bats.

All these methods do not affect the larvae and eggs of the insect. Therefore, after a while, the appearance of offspring is possible. In the conditions of an apartment, this happens extremely rarely, since it is difficult for the gilded eye to find a power source for future larvae.

You should inspect the room, eggs can be placed on household plants. They are very small, have an oval light green color. A leaf with larvae or eggs comes off and is destroyed.

Komakhi can fly into the house, attracted by indoor plants. To prevent this from happening, it is necessary to spray home flowers with the following solution: one pack of vanilla sugar is diluted in one liter of water. In the summer, when the gold eye is especially active, such spraying should be done at least once a week.

Not very aesthetically pleasing, but sticky traps work effectively. They are located near the windows and indoor plants. The insect sticks to the sticky surface and almost immediately dies. The device is replaced by a new as insects accumulate.

If a lot of green midges are divorced in a wooden house, this may serve as a signal for the appearance of wood beetle larvae. This insect does great harm, gradually destroying hardwood floors. After the destruction of the beetle larvae, the gold-eyed may “voluntarily” leave the house through windows or the ventilation system.

There are some more cardinal ways of getting rid of insects:

  • Toxic chemicals. The leaves of domestic plants are treated with insecticides. Under its influence, larvae and adults die,
  • Increase the temperature of the room. Close windows and doors and turn on all heaters in the house. The bug does not tolerate high temperatures and dies very quickly.

Before using tough insect control methods, you should use alternative ones. Insect brings more benefits than harm. In many countries, there are specialized breeding farms for zlatoglaz, which are then used as a unique means of controlling pests of agricultural crops. The house or apartment is not a natural shelter for this cute insect, just help it to move.

Diet

In nature, there are two types of midges: predators and non-predatory individuals. The latter feed exclusively on non-living organisms: secretions of aphids, pollen or floral nectar.

To the question, the golden eye is a pest or protector, it is possible to answer unequivocally that it acts for the benefit of gardeners.

Its larvae eat over 80 species of pests, such as:

  • caterpillars,
  • spider and other mites,
  • shieldmen,
  • aphid and its larvae,
  • moths
  • Colorado potato beetle eggs
  • cicadas
  • wood borers
  • mole
  • cocoons of a poisonous spider.

The midge eats only soft-bodied insects. For 7 days, each individual destroys up to 200 units of aphids, insects or eggs. The fecundity of females ranges from 200 to 400 eggs in their lifetime.

Methods of struggle

Outdoors in the natural environment of this insect a lot of good.

Yet troublemaker brings troublemakers when entering the house. Get inside for her is not difficult.

Her "vehicle" can be either flowers (violets, begonias), or wooden building materials.

The first habitat of midges is pot vases. Then they are settled in furniture and food products.

Fleurnits are very tenacious and quickly multiply. Therefore, many are faced with the problem of how to get rid of gold-eyed. It is possible to overcome these insects by the simplest methods or things:

  1. With light. At night, turn on the street lamp and open the windows. She will react to the light and fly out.
  2. Vacuuming. Collect adults with technique, and lay eggs.
  3. Ultrasound. A wave of sound hits the brain of an insect, and they fall dead.
  4. All sorts of sprays. Only then need to ventilate the room well.
  5. Solutions. The most reliable - 0.5 liters of water and 25 grams of vanillin. Spray infected plants once every 7 days.
  6. High fever. Bring the pot with the larvae to the heater, fireplace or convector.
  7. Sticky trap. When flying, the midge will strike the ribbon and hang on it.

Also, owners of cottages from a bar should be alarmed when these larvae appear. Their presence indicates the appearance of wood beetles, which destroy the walls or floors of the cobbled house.

However, destroying the golden-eyed eye, you should always remember about its invaluable role in nature. Therefore, it is better to use humane methods to eliminate it.

Living creatures against garden pests

author S. F. Nedyalkov

Pests of plants appeared in the garden. What to do?

Provide first to deal with the pests of their natural enemies, and while they successfully cope with this, gardeners should not interfere in natural processes. The use of chemical preparations for plant protection destroys not only pests, but also beneficial insects, and also deprives the food of those gardener's assistants who survive.

The most important of the useful babies, helping to maintain the health of plants, include: ladybugs, predatory mites, gold-eyed and hoverflies. They are the worst enemies of spider mites, aphids, and scale insects.

Predatory mite

Predatory mites destroy spider mites, especially red spider mites, harassing pests at all stages of their development. Juveniles of predatory yellow mites, with age they become reddish and then brown. The body of a predatory mite pear-shaped, smooth and shiny. Predatory mites lay their milky-white eggs in the axils of the leaves along the leaf veins.

Mustard, dill, phacelia and other nectariferous plants attract predatory mites to the garden.

Predatory mites overwinter in the bark of trees. As a refuge, you can offer them strips of fabric in several layers (for example, nylon stockings), which are wound on thick branches in different parts of the garden.

ladybug

Everybody knows the elegant ladybug, this oval black bug with spotted or patterned sheaths. There are many types of ladybirds, differing in the number of black dots or black symmetrical pattern on bright sheaths (red, yellow). In the garden you can often find seven-point and two-point ladybirds. These insects eat a lot of aphids and shield insects, spider mites, especially their voracious larvae.

The ladybug lays hundreds of eggs on the underside of the leaves or under the carapace shell; after a week, the larvae appear from the eggs. They are bluish-gray with red-orange-yellow markings, resembling the larva of the Colorado potato beetle. During growth, the larvae repeatedly molt, then pupate within 1-2 months, and after a week adult beetles emerge from the pupae.

I noticed that with a strong breeding of aphids in the garden there are a lot of ladybirds. It is estimated that in one day one ladybug eats about 40 aphids, and its larva almost doubles - 70 aphids. During its life, a ladybug can destroy up to 800 aphids.

Ladybirds overwinter under fallen leaves and plant debris, in the cracks of buildings.

Gilded Eye

The gilded eye is a large greenish (1.5 cm) insect with prominent golden eyes, long antennae, and two pairs of bluish membranous wings. Characteristic are the golden-eyed eggs swinging on thin long protective threads. The gilded eye lays eggs individually or in groups on any surface, often near a colony of aphids. The hatched larvae are yellow-brown, on the sides are brown longitudinal stripes. Golden-eyed larvae have a strong gnawing-sucking oral apparatus and are very voracious, eat a lot of aphids, spider mites.

Zlatoglazki winter in fallen leaves, in a place protected from frost and wind in the garden, in the attic, in the cracks of buildings.

Hoverlings look like bees or wasps: the back of their torso has black and yellow stripes.All summer, hoverlings, harmless to humans, often hang in the air, visit flowering plants (especially yellow flowers and umbellate ones) and feed on nectar and pollen, pollinating the flowers. Hoverflies lay their whitish eggs separately, near large colonies of aphids, which are then destroyed by greenish or yellowish larvae that hatch from eggs.

It is easy to attract hotshots to the garden with the help of parsley, cumin or coriander (cilantro), as well as with the help of plantain varieties with yellow flowers.

The winter apartment of this useful insect can be the soil loosened in autumn around trees and bushes.

Earwig (dvuvostok)

Earworm is an insect that is often found in gardens and is about 2 cm long, with a brownish body and claws at the back. Earwigs are very useful for garden plants, as at night they eat aphids, ticks, egg laying of harmful insects and even spores of disease-causing fungi. Earwigs can also eat dead insects, as well as plant food (tender leaves and petals, fruits, moss). In the afternoon, earwigs usually hide under fallen leaves or stones.

For the winter, the earwigs hide in the ground, digging a hole for themselves.

It is possible to create an artificial shelter for earwigs, gold-eyed eyes and other useful garden insects by hanging a flowerpot (drainage hole up) filled with straw on a branch. In the spring I take the pot off and, replacing the contents with a fresh one, I hang it up again.

In addition to the considered beneficial insects, there are many other useful creatures in the garden that need to be known and protected (ground beetles, carnivorous bugs, insect pest parasites, spiders, etc.).

It is possible to purchase and release small but very useful insects (for example, trichograms, carnivorous mites) into the garden or greenhouse.

Birds, hedgehogs, toads, frogs, bats, lizards and other living creatures — small in size but large in importance, are a great help in fighting pests of the garden.

Stefan Fedorovich Nedyalkov (Belarus)
[email protected]

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Gilded eyes - a way of life, reproduction, food and benefit of an insect

There are no insects in your garden. Some of them are so beautiful and amazing that, along with flowers, they can be called real garden decorations.

For example, such an insect as the golden-eyed. Its crystal thin wings, painted in pale green color, are extraordinarily beautiful and airy.

The shape of the wings resembles an elongated flat droplet, decorated with an elegant openwork pattern and a thin edging.

The golden-eye family belongs to the order of the retina. In total, these wonderful fragile insects, there are about 2 thousand species. The most widespread observed in Europe.

Zlatoglazki live in different areas - in forests, parks, gardens, meadows, gardens. The most famous species are green gold-eyed and brown, differing from each other only in color and size.

Green gold-eyed has a body length of about 15 mm, and the body of a brown gold-eyed is usually less.

The wings of an insect at rest are folded "house".

A characteristic feature of this insect, thanks to which it received its name, are protruding round eyes of rich golden color with bright brilliance. The eyes are located on the sides.

The structure of the eyes is faceted. There is a dark spotted pattern on the head of the golden-eyed one. The wingspan is about 3-4 cm. Also, the golden-eye has 3 pairs of legs and 1 pair of thin elegant antennae.

Tliny lion

Another tireless aphid exterminator is a relative of the gilded eyes. The lion and its larvae feed exclusively on aphids, so that their populations do not grow to gigantic sizes.

These insects are used not only by summer residents, but also by professional farms.

In specialized stores you can even buy eggs from this insect, which can later be placed in greenhouses and in the open field.

Trichogram

This microscopic parasitic insect is of great benefit precisely because of its way of life. Trichogram larvae can live only at the expense of other organisms - eggs and larvae of other insects.

It is noteworthy that for parasitism Trichogram chooses only clutches of pests. This useful insect is dangerous for more than 90 species of harmful butterflies that feed on leaves and fruits.

Knowledge of the laws of nature helps to greatly facilitate life and significantly reduce the costs of housekeeping. Try to make friends with the little garden assistants, do not drive them away from the plot and do not exterminate, and thanks to them you will be able to get an excellent harvest without using chemistry.

Beneficial insects - entomophages

As we already know, in nature everything is interconnected, so almost all pests can be found beneficial insects - entomophagesthat destroy pests.

As soon as summer comes into its own, diseases and pests of vegetables start to work.

In this regard, adhering to the "do no harm" rule, these tips are primarily designed for true defenders of nature.

In order not to use chemistry once again, try to resort to biological means.

Brakonid Riders with its subtle black or brown color still poorly understood. In addition, they are difficult to observe because of their small size - depending on the type, they are from 1 to 10 mm long.

These insects lay eggs, for example, in the body of the caterpillars of the cabbage whitefish or the codling moth egg.

The larvae of the braconid hounds hatching from eggs develop at the expense of the host's body, as a result of which it dies.

Thus, brakonid riders help preserve the health of fruit trees and vegetable plants.

The most common and known to us aphidophagous (destroy aphids) - ladybug (smug) that we all saw. She, as well as the gilded eye, aphidius, Galitza afimidiza - help us in the fight against aphids.

Gold-eyed - green insect with transparent wings, golden eyes and long antennae antennae.

One female gold-eyed for its life cycle, which lasts about a month, can destroy up to six hundred aphids. Usually zlatoglazka becomes most active at dusk.

It flies slowly, so the gold-eyed can be caught with a net or other improvised means and run into the greenhouse. Adult zlatograzki lay on the leaves of the eggs on the legs, "stalks".

After hatching from these eggs, the larvae can easily clean your greenhouse from aphids.

Gilded eye, ladybug and other aphidophages are specially bred in laboratories and in biofactories.

Very useful insect - gallita aphidymia - an insect from the order of flies, the larvae of which feed on aphids, including legumes, pea, cabbage, green apple.

Females of gall midges search for not only small colonies of aphids, but also single individuals, and lay eggs next to them. When the larvae of the aphidymus gall midge hatch, they paralyze the aphids that occur in its path, and much more than they need for food.

Paralyzed aphid becomes uninteresting for other predatory insects.

Galitsa is also the most active at night with sunset and lasts until nine o'clock in the morning, while it is not hot, and in the afternoon, in the heat, it sits in shaded, cool places.

The reproduction of gall midges is done in laboratories at greenhouses, and this has long been effectively used in practice.

At present, the breeding of the aphidymis gall midge has taken an industrial scale. The larvae of midge during pupation form cocoons, which can be easily packaged in any container adapted for transport.

The stage of the pupa in the cocoon lasts 5-10 days. During this time they can be transported in containers - boxes to customers in large greenhouses.

Then the cocoons are arranged in a greenhouse in small boxes and jars with a hole for the departure of insects.

At the bottom of the boxes - poured river sand or soil, and on top of the box you need to cover the paper in order to prevent drying or waterlogging during watering plants, or in other words, a peculiar microclimate was kept as long as possible.

Predatory ground beetle - beetle bright green, black, blue, brown in color with a metallic sheen, which can also often be found on its site. Ground beetle quickly runs along the ground in search of wireworms, larvae and eggs of cabbage and onion flies and other insect pests.

Another entomophage - encarchia, she in our gardens destroys whitefly. Externally, enkarsia is like flies. Enkartia female lays eggs in whitefly larvae of 3-4 years of age.

The larvae of the parasite developed from eggs sparingly feed on the internal contents of the body of the whitefly, which blackens at the same time. New individuals of enkarzia multiply rapidly. Each female of this entomophage lays up to 115 eggs.

The minimum period of development of one generation of enkartia is 11 days.

Early in the spring on the black soil, you can easily see the bright red little "spiders" crawling quickly to find food. it phytoseiulus. In fact, it is a predatory mite that was originally found in the coastal areas of Chile, in France, Italy, and introduced to the USSR in 1963.

It is bred and specially launched into the greenhouse against a spider mite - a lover of cucumber and pepper. One generation of phytoseiulus develops in 5.5 days if the temperature is 25-30 °, and up to 10 days if it is cooler. For their short life (18-24 days), the phytoseiulus female lays 50-80 eggs.

Under optimal conditions, phytoseiulus destroys up to 24 individuals of spider mites or 30 eggs per day. By launching this predator in the greenhouse, you can safely abandon toxic chemicals.

Gold-eyed ordinary

The gold-eyed family is very numerous. There are about 2000 known species in the world, of which about 70 live in Europe. Most European goldfish eyes are green or brown and have a pattern on their heads.

Adult golden-eyed - air creation of a pale green color, with transparent wings.

Golden-eyed got its name for large, expressive eyes with a golden sheen. It has a gentle, graceful body and transparent mesh wings with bluish-green veins. They seem to be carved from the finest silk - veil. Therefore, these insects are also known as flornits

Corpse lions

Behavior, these insects are most similar to members of another family of retinoptera, ant-lions.

In almost all of their species, adults are harmless and feed on pollen and nectar on flowers.

They are active at dusk or at night, and in the daytime they sit almost motionless, sheltering somewhere from sunlight.

To protect against enemies, they have only single-celled glands, secreting a secret with a very unpleasant pungent smell.

The larvae are active day predators, which destroy a huge number of small invertebrates, mainly aphids, worms and ticks (each species has its own preferences).

French naturalist René Reomur even called them "lions aphids".

Practical larvae

The body of the larva is elongated and covered with warts and hairs. On her head she has huge curved jaws with channel grooves. The larvae run around the plant, exploring the surface with palps and shaking their heads until they stumble upon a prey.

Having seized it, they release the paralyzing poison, burp saliva into the wound, and then suck out the softened contents. From extraction there are only empty skins.

But they also go into the business: some gold-eyed eyes build out of them and other available materials (sand, pieces of bark and lichen) covers for masking and protection from the scorching rays of the sun.

These "clothes" are held on them by the silk thread, which the larva allocates, and hairs with hooks, with which it is covered.

Protector of crops

The common golden-eyed bird is unpretentious in its menu; there are more than 80 types of pests in its menu: scythos, fleas, small caterpillars, mites, and also eggs of many insects, including the Colorado potato beetle.

True, she has a favorite food - pea aphid. During their life, one larva eats more than 300. This is explained by the fact that it contains all the necessary set of amino acids for the golden-eyed eye.

Once in the middle of the colony of aphids, the larva grabs one victim after another, pierces and throws, making terrible devastation in a matter of minutes.

It is not surprising that Carl Linnaeus also proposed using gold-eyed pests against these pests. Now they are bred in special laboratories for biological control of aphids.

Eggs or mushrooms?

Scientists for a very long time did not know what the golden-eyed eggs looked like. Strange formations on the leaves in the 18th century were taken for fungi, which were even given the species name Ascophora ovalis.

It was no wonder to make a mistake: just as the golden-eyed eye does, no insect lays eggs anymore. First, the female presses the end of the abdomen to the sheet and releases a drop of thick, fast-setting liquid.

Then it pulls it into a stalk and lays an oval egg on it. It is green or white, and before the larvae darkens.

The female chooses places in the shade, not far from the colony of aphids, so that the clutches do not dry out and the larvae can start hunting immediately. During her life she can lay up to 200 eggs.

The size of the stalk differs from species to species. In ordinary gold-eyed he has a height of about 3 mm. She lays eggs one by one, far apart, more often under the leaf, less often - on it.

Restless pupa

The larva emerging from the egg begins to feed immediately, sheds three times and, finally, proceeds to weave a cocoon. The silk glands are located at her end of the abdomen, which she manipulates with amazing dexterity.

Within a day, the larva finds itself in a strong white cocoon and turns into a precollum there. A few days later, she molts into the pupa, and after another week or two she is selected outside.

After running around for some time around the cocoon, she clings to something and freezes: it is time to leave the adult golden-eyed woman. She gets out of the cocoon, soft, wrinkled, with wrinkled wings, and sits down to dry.

After half an hour, the wings are stretched out, and the beautiful golden-eyed woman begins life in a new guise.

In the southern regions, 4-5 generations of these insects are replaced every year, and in the north, as a rule, only one.

Although most of the gold-eyed precursors hibernate, in the ordinary, adult insects do this.

They come out when fruit trees are blooming, at an air temperature of 11-12 ° C, and they live all summer, feeding on nectar and pollen, the sap of fruit juice and honeydew.

Appearance

The golden-eyed adults have a rather attractive appearance: they have two pairs of translucent thin wings, each of which is covered with a network of veins, long multi-seta tendrils, weak limbs and large golden-colored eyes. The larvae look completely different. Their body is hidden under a pile of all kinds of garbage, it is elongated and massive, often humpback, covered with hairs and protrusions, and the jaws are long and curved.

Successful hunters

Golden-eyed larvae are very voracious. Not having time to be born, they already eat from 9 to 11 aphids per day. In the future, this number only increases: after the first molt, to satisfy hunger, predators already need 12–24 aphids, and after the second - 39–98. For all the time of its existence, the young representative of the family Chrysopidae eats an average of more than 360 insects. The imago of most gold-eyed birds feed on nectar and plant juices, but there are species that have adult predators too. For example, a beautiful golden-eyed bird (Chrysopa formosa) can eat 10 aphids in 5 minutes, and in a month a pair of these insects can kill up to 1500 pests.

On the breast of the imag goldfish, there are glands from which the insect releases foul-smelling substances.

The species of midges with transparent wings, and the fight against them

Systematics
on wikivids

Images
on Wikimedia Commons

Gold-eyedor set. flyritsa, (lat. Chrysopidae) is a family of retina-winged insects (Neuroptera). About 2,000 species of gold-eyed eyes are known, of which only about 70 are found in Europe. The most famous species is the common gold-eyed (Chrysoperla carnea).

  • 1 Geological history
  • 2 Physiology
  • 3 Behavior
  • 4 Reproduction and nutrition
  • 5 Some species
  • 6 Fossil species
  • 7 Notes
  • 8 References

Geological history

Golden eyes are known since the days of dinosaurs. The oldest found in the Jurassic sediments near the village of Daohugou (Ningcheng county, Inner Mongolia, China), they are 165 million years old. In the Upper Jurassic and Lower Cretaceous there were already very many of them, in other places their fossilized traces made up about a third of the traces of retinopterans, most of the golden-eyed were then from the genus Mesypochrysa, which belongs to the extinct subfamily Limaiinae. In the early Eocene, the Limaiinae disappear, presumably due to the lack of camouflage in the face of the increasing number of ants that protected the aphids from the golden eyes and destroyed the latter. Limaiinae is replaced by the subfamily Nothochrysinae, which prevailed until the beginning of the Miocene, their numbers decreased, presumably due to the lack of an ultrasound-responsive organ with which the bats began to hunt the golden eyes for some time. Modern zlatoglazki from the subfamily Nothochrysinae make up 3 percent of all zlatoglazok, the rest belong to the subfamily Chrysopinae and Apochrysinae, whose representatives have an organ that captures ultrasound.

Physiology

European golden eyes reach a wingspan of 6 to 35 mm, while in tropical species it can exceed 65 mm. The constitution corresponds to the classical scheme of the retina. Most European species are colored green or brown and vary in pattern on their heads. The facet eyes of some species shimmer with a metallic-bronze color, which gave the name to the whole family. Both pairs of wings have the same shape and, as a rule, are transparent, but some species have a pattern or spots on them. The wings in most cases intersect the green veins. The larvae differ either in a very elongated body, or, conversely, in a very compact constitution with hooked bristles on the sides, on which various masking materials or food remains are strung.

Adults are active at dusk or at night. In the fall often fly into city apartments. Most of the species in the adult state feed exclusively on pollen, nectar, or paddy, however, the adults of the genus Chrysopa, like the larvae of almost all other golden-eyed birds, harbor predation, hunt small insects (especially aphids, leaf beetles and cherries), as well as ticks.

Useful insects: friends need to know in person

Due to the large number of devoured pests, the golden-eyed larvae are useful insects in agriculture and forestry and are artificially bred. On average, the golden-eyed larva destroys from 100 to 150 aphids per day. If there is a shortage of food, it also attacks the larvae of other beneficial insects, such as ladybugs, or on their own relatives.

The imago of the genus Chrysopinae and Apochrysinae subfamilies at the base of the veins of the front wing has an organ that captures ultrasound. Upon hearing it, they fold their wings and fall to the ground to escape from the bats, which are known to localize prey with the help of ultrasound. Between themselves, the gold-eyed eyes communicate with the help of vibrations of the back of the body (which is also characteristic of caddis flies).

Some species

  • Common Zlatoglazka (Chrysoperla carnea (Stephens, 1836))
  • Samachrysa jade
  • Mediterranean gold-eyed (Chrysoperla mediterranea (Hölzel, 1972))
  • Italochrysa litalica (Rossi, 1790)
  • Nineta guadarramensis (Pictet, 1865)
  • Tape gold-eyed (Nineta vittata (Wesmael, 1841)
  • Chrysopa walkeri McLachlan, 1893
  • Cunctochrysa albolineata (Killington, 1935)
  • Peyerimhoffina gracilis (Schneider, 1851)
  • Chrysotropia ciliata (Wesmael, 1841)

  • Red-headed golden-eyed (Nothochrysa fulviceps (Stephens, 1836))
  • Hypochrysa elegans ’(Burgmeister, 1839)

Zlatoglazki Information about

Gold Eyes Information Video

Gold-eyed View topic.

Gold-eyed what, Gold-eyed who, Gold-eyed explanation

There are excerpts from this video and video

Houseplants are often affected by pests. In the flower pots can get the midges, adversely affecting the growth of flowers. Before you begin work on the removal of insects, you need to establish the cause of the appearance of pests, so that you can quickly destroy them.

Varieties of midges that ruin our flowers

More common are white midges, the so-called poduras and springtails, they originate in spring or winter with a high humidity of the earth. They can be seen on the ground or in a flower pot.

Podols have small wings of white or yellowish-brown hue, their size is from 0.2–1 mm. But at the same time they very quickly move around the plant, jumping on the green surface of the leaf. Their larvae, falling on the root system of the flower, can cause significant harm.

Nightails live in the ground, move across the surface, crawling on short breast legs, not having a “jumping fork”. They are quite difficult to see on the ground.

There are still black midges - sciarides, they are much larger in size of whites. Translucent worms with a black dot on the head, ranging in size from 2 mm to 5 mm. They can fly not only over the plant, but also throughout the apartment, delivering inconveniences, as they can fly into the food. For humans, they are harmless, only cause discomfort, but the plant cause considerable harm. A large number of larvae can destroy the root system of the green pet, and besides, make the soil airtight and more dense.

Beginning flower growers confuse domestic blackflies (Drosophilus) with sciriarids, but they differ in that they resemble small flies with a bulging belly.

Causes of midges

When a flower is purchased, there is always the likelihood that the soil will be infected, with previously laid larvae. However, most often their appearance is facilitated by care errors:

- abundant watering leads to waterlogging and increases the likelihood of insects,
- fertilizer folk remedies (for example, drunk tea) can also lead to the occurrence of midges,
- open windows, without protective nets, also contribute to the appearance of the midge, which can fly from the street.

How to save the plant from pests?

How to help the plant and remove pests? There are folk methods and chemical. But first of all the infected flower is isolated from healthy.

1. It is possible to insert matches into the moistened soil with gray heads down. Sulfur has a detrimental effect on the larvae.

2. Water the plant with a light pink solution of potassium permanganate.

3. Put into the soil chopped orange peel. The aroma of citrus repels pests.

4. Water the plant with a weak soap solution (a teaspoon of soap chips in a glass of water) along with the main watering.

5. Grind the garlic, make an infusion and water it. Or spread the sliced ​​teeth on the surface of the earth, which also scare away insects.

6. You can also stick a sprig of dill, the aroma of which does not like the midge.

7. If there is wood ash, it can also be used to protect the plant, poured under the top layer of soil.

8. Also on the top layer of soil to spread the crushed chalk from the cockroaches "Masha".

If folk remedies do not get rid of the midges, you can buy in the store special chemicals for the treatment of plants.

- "Basudin." The drug to combat pests on the soil. Composition diazinon (100 g / kg),

- “Thunder-2”. The composition also has an effective chemical compound diazinon (30 g / kg),

- “The flyer”. It includes the same diazinon, only in a different concentration (40 g / kg).

If the measures taken did not lead to the proper result, radical measures should be taken. Carefully remove the plant from the pot, rinse the stem, leaves and root well with a weak solution of potassium permanganate, discard the soil or rinse well and steam in a water bath. Rinse the flowerpot and rinse with boiling water, and then return the flower back, while making good drainage so that the soil is not over-humidified. And continue to take care of the flower carefully, so that the pests do not start again.

Prevention of the appearance of midges

The following measures are recommended for prophylaxis:

- water the plant when the topsoil is already dry,

- when planting, add good drainage to the pot so that the roots do not sour in the water,

- after buying a flower, it is advisable to transplant it into fresh soil, carefully checking the plant and the root for the presence of pests,

- loosen the soil in the pot in time, so that the earth was breathable and the moisture evaporated faster,

- repot the flower, first rinse the pot with boiling water, and steep the soil in a water bath to protect the plant from unwanted "neighbors",

- put mosquito nets on the windows in order to eliminate the possibility of a midge fly from the street,

- remove the fallen leaves from the ground in time, and you can also fill it with marble chips or sawdust, so that it is not possible to lay the larvae to pests.

Proper care and timely monitoring of the condition of the plant can prevent most of all possible problems. This is the only way to enjoy healthy flowers on the windowsill.

Zlatoglazok characteristic

Golden-eyed are predatory insects, feeding on relatively small, inactive invertebrates, with soft skin of the body. Being polymorphic, they, however, prefer insects from the order of even-winged (aphids, Hermes, listabloshki, worms, scale insects), eggs and caterpillars of some species of butterflies and herbivorous mites. Together with other species of entomophages and acryphages of the gilded eyes, the number of many plant pests is significantly limited and, therefore, they have long attracted the attention of biometod researchers in different countries of the world.

The relatively high ecological plasticity of a number of species of zlatoglazok in relation to habitats, nutritional needs, and laboratory conditions for breeding have determined their promise as agents of biological protection of agricultural crops in closed ground. Currently, the possibility of using gold-eye in a biometric method is far from exhausted, and information on their diagnosis, biology and behavior, methods of breeding and selection is very useful for professionals working in this field of agricultural production. (Krasavina L.P., 2000)

The golden-eyes belong to the order of the retina-winged (Neuroptera), above the order of the retina-like (Neuropteroided), all of whose representatives are predators of many invertebrates. Found in all zones of the world and on many oceanic islands, not found only in New Zealand. 1500 species are known, in our country - about 50 species, of which 20 species inhabit cultural landscapes. Most are inhabitants of trees and shrubs, some are found in grassy vegetation. This determines the nature of their distribution in agrocenoses. 14 species inhabit parks and fruit and berry gardens, 6 species - found in field crops.

The larvae of all species of the golden-eyed are predators, whereas adult insects of a number of species, in particular, the golden-eyed common and Chinese golden-eyed have mixed food, destroy the aphids and use nectar and pollen of plants. (Dorokhova G.I., 1999)

Systematics and types

Insect Class - Insecta

Subclass of Winged Insects - Pterygota

Department of Insects with a complete transformation - Holometabola

Neuropteroid nadotoryad - Neuropteroidea

Retinoptera Squad - Neuroptera

Gold-Eye Family - Chrysopidae

Appearance: Golden-eyed ordinary - Chrysopa carnea, Golden-eyed seven-point - Chrysopa septempunctata, Beautiful golden-eyed - Chrysopa Formosa, Golden-eyed Chinese - Chrysopa sinica (Dorokhova G.I., 1979)

Retinoptera Squad - Neuroptera

Retinae have an elongated body with soft covers. The color of the retinae is pale green or brown, often with bright golden eyes. The group includes representatives such as gold-eyed, ant lions, mantispas.

Adults of retinopterans have a body length of 2-20 mm, wings in a span of 120 mm. The head of the retinae is hypognathic, with complex eyes, between which are the antennae. Paws are running, 5-segmented, none of the segments is extended. The abdomen consists of 8-10 segments. Mouth apparatus gnawing. In larvae, the oral apparatus functions as piercing-sucking. The antennae of the retinae are multi-segmented, sometimes capitate. A distinctive feature of the retina-wing is the presence in adults of two pairs of developed net wings, folding in a roof-like manner. The wings are usually transparent, spotty, but can be painted. In most species, the network of veins on the wings is rich, the longitudinal veins on the top branch dichotomously. The muscles of the wings of the retina are completely or partially homonomic. In flight, the front and rear pairs of wings move independently.

The transformation is complete. Campus larvae are predatory, with a kind of oral apparatus. Its upper jaws are usually sickle-shaped and protrude. Along the lower part of each upper jaw passes the groove, covered from below with a thin external chewing lobe of the lower jaw stretched forward. The upper jaw and external chewing lobe of the lower jaw in contact form a closed channel that opens at the end of both upper jaws, and when they are connected to the base of the oral cavity.

They pupate in a silky cocoon (Bei-Bienko G. Ya., 1964, Kopaneva LM (comp.)., 1980).

Gold-Eye Family - Chrysopidae

European golden eyes reach a wingspan of 6 to 35 mm, while in tropical species it can exceed 65 mm. The constitution corresponds to the classical scheme of the retina. Most European species are colored green or brown and vary in pattern on their heads. The forehead is flat. Antennae bristled. The facet eyes of some species shimmer with a metallic-bronze color, which gave the name to the whole family. Eyes are absent. Both pairs of wings are rather wide, with a wide costal field, have the same shape and, as a rule, are transparent, however some species have a pattern or spots on them. The wings in most cases intersect the green veins. The radial trunk of the front wings with only one sector. (Pic 1)

Fig.1 Imago golden eyes

Larvae are oblong-fusiform, light or dark gray, with a rich scalp. Head and body often with a pattern of dark spots or stripes. A number of species wear on their backs a loose flap of victims' skins and small dry vegetation residues (pieces of leaves, bark). Campus larva larvae with well developed chest legs. On the paws between the claws there is an empody.

Watch the video: tydus got into a fight at school. . (October 2019).

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