Photo: Miltassia Royal Robe
Miltassia is a hybrid obtained by crossing Miltonia and Brassia. Pseudobulbs are elongated, flattened on each side, up to 10 cm in length, and about 4 cm in width, have two sheets on top and at the base. The leaves are oblong-lanceolate, folded on the floor, 20-25 cm long and 3.5-4 cm wide. Peduncles appear in the still not fully formed pseudobulb of the sinuses of the lower leaves (more.). For each separately taken pseudobulba there are 2 peduncles, and for one peduncle up to 10 flowers. Flowers in the shape of stars of various colors, very often covered with darker spots and strokes, measuring about 13-15 cm in diameter.
This hybrid belongs to a moderate temperature regime, and throughout the year plants are recommended to be kept under the following temperature conditions:
The tolerance of higher summer temperatures individually and directly depends on the variety of this or that orchid - some hybrids tolerate heat quite calmly, while others stop growing and begin to turn yellow.
For the successful cultivation of Miltassia at home, it is necessary that the night temperature of the content should always be at least 4 ° C lower than the daily one. For example, if it is + 22 ° C during the day, then at least + 18 ° C at night.
Miltassia does not need an extremely high humidity, and its rate can vary from 40 to 60%. Too dry air has a negative effect on the overall development of the plant - its growth is slowed down, forming, as a result, deformation in the form of jammed growth by an "accordion" (more.). To increase the humidity of the air, you can use a humidifier, water saucers or wet clay. For this, a large pallet is taken, inside of which expanded clay is poured, a grate protecting the wetting of the roots is placed on top and pots with orchids are set (for more details). When caring for this type of orchid, the rule applies: "The higher the thermometer rises, the higher the humidity should be, and the higher the humidity, the more often and longer it is necessary to ventilate the room where orchids are contained, otherwise the probability of rotting and leaves of various kinds of fungal diseases (more.). "
In view of its rather large size, Miltassia is grown mainly only in the substrate in shallow flat pots. A mixture of bark of coniferous trees (Italian pine Pinea) with peat and sphagnum moss has proven itself as a substrate.
Miltassia does not need frequent transplants, it is desirable to transplant an orchid in cases of strongly compacted substrate, at its critically high pH (above 6.5) or when the plant grows very strongly and the pot becomes small (pseudobulbs will begin to hang from the sides of the pot). The best time for transplanting is the period when new orchid sprouts reach a size of 5 cm and begin to grow their own roots. Inheritance from Brassia Miltassia received a tendency to "stepwise" growth, when new orchid sprouts grow somewhat higher than the previous ones, so you need to plant a plant at an angle.
This hybrid loves bright sunshine and is able to safely carry direct sunlight. The ideal place to grow orchids is the windows of the southern orientation, slightly worse than the western ones, and the eastern and northern windows are not suitable at all, since the sunlight here is not sufficient for normal plant development and it is necessary to grow orchids using (in addition to natural lighting) artificial light lamps (for example , when using phyto-lamps). If the orchid has been kept on dark windows for a long time, then it is necessary to accustom it to a brighter sunlight gradually, otherwise it can get a yellowish tint of leaves.
Watering this hybrid depends on the total temperature of the content, the lower it is, the less and less need to be watered. When watering, excess water should flow freely from the pot, since stagnation of water both inside the pot and in its pan can very quickly lead to rotting of the roots and the lower part of the plant. It is recommended to water the orchid using a hot shower (water temperature is 30-45 ° C, maximum 52 ° C). This imitates the natural conditions in the homeland of the orchid and has a beneficial effect on the growth and development of the plant. Long-term practice has shown that with regular use of a “hot” soul, orchids not only increase their green mass well, but also bloom much more often. The substrate between watering should dry well. In other words, watering an orchid is necessary only when the substrate (in which it grows) is completely dry. It is not necessary to focus on a certain number of days - this is fundamentally wrong, as too many factors affect the drying rate of the substrate, such as lightness, the overall temperature of the plant, air humidity, etc. Today, the orchid will dry out in 7 days, and the next time in just 2 days, and then cloudy days will begin, and the substrate will dry for at least 20 days. In addition, the substrate dries extremely unevenly, most often it happens that the top layer is already completely dry, and in the middle of the pot is still very, very wet. You need to navigate, firstly, the total weight of the pot. Remember offhand how much a pot with just watered orchid weighs, and as soon as it (again) becomes half as easy, you can safely water it, secondly, try to open the upper layer of the substrate and check with your finger how it is inside.
During the period of new growth fertilize this hybrid for every third watering in 1/2 of the concentration of fertilizer indicated on the package. Miltassia roots are quite sensitive to various kinds of potash, phosphorus, etc. salts contained in the fertilizer, and can deteriorate very quickly. The most sensitive place of the root is its tip, when exposed to too concentrated fertilizer, they turn black and dry out. In addition to the usual root dressing, it is also recommended to produce foliar, when the outer part of the plant is sprayed with very diluted fertilizer. It is best to feed the orchid, alternating between these two methods. Fertilizer should be used specialized, marked on the package "For orchids", since conventional fertilizers for houseplants are focused on use in ordinary soil and when used in bark-based substrates, most of the salts settle by dead weight in the substrate itself, creating an unfavorable root effect. Orchid systems environment, leading over time to their massive burning. At the beginning of the growing season (the emergence of new sprouts), it is recommended to use fertilizer with a high nitrogen content, and by the time the new sprouts reach 1/2 of their normal size, fertilizer with a high phosphorus content.
This group of orchids is quite diverse, and among its representatives are found as orchids that need to stimulate flowering in a clearly defined period of rest, and quite calmly coming to flowering without it.
Miltassia flower stalks appear from the lower leaf axils at a time when new orchid sprouts have already developed quite well and started to turn into pseudobulbs (rounded), but, nevertheless, they are still quite different from other adult pseudobulbs (more.), Therefore the rest period in orchids of this group begins when new shoots have already reached 2/3 of their usual growth and are about to begin to round off, forming a pseudobulb itself under the leaves. During this period, watering of orchids is somewhat reduced, but does not stop completely, i.e. it is produced in small portions after the substrate not only dries out well, but it will stand completely dry for 2-3 days. The total temperature of the content should not exceed + 22 ° C, this is especially important in the summer, because in the conditions of summer heat, poor watering can greatly weaken the plant, leading to mass yellowing and leaf death. With the advent of peduncles, the dormant period ends, and the watering of the orchid is resumed in the usual amount. Failure to comply with the rest period leads to the rejection of flowering.
The height of flowering Miltassia falls in the fall. Duration of flowering 6 weeks.
After flowering, the peduncles of Miltassia are removed, if necessary, the orchid is transplanted and for some time kept completely dry. This is necessary to acclimatize the plant and to prevent wound rotting on the roots resulting from the transplant.
At home, representatives of this group reproduce vegetatively, i.e. by dividing a large adult bush into parts, it is recommended to leave at least three pseudobulbs for each new plant. Under greenhouse conditions, seed and meristem reproduction is also used.
OPEN AIR LOCATION:
In the period from mid-May to mid-September, it is strongly recommended that this hybrid be found in the open air: on the balcony or in the garden, since it is here that there are natural differences between night and day temperatures. The place should be chosen protected about rains, strong winds and direct sunshine. As practice has shown, such plants grow better and bloom more readily.
The most common mistake in the care of this hybrid is the appearance of various kinds of deformations on the leaves or new plant sprouts (more.). There are many reasons for this behavior of the plant - too low air humidity, overheating of the plant, insufficient watering or, conversely, too humid content of the plant, salinization of the substrate, or exposure to too concentrated fertilizer. Such deformations are not treated, and now they will be like scarring to decorate an orchid for a sufficiently long period, however, it is imperative to find out the reason for this behavior of the plant and eliminate it in order to prevent new injuries. REMEMBER, such plant behavior is a direct consequence of the stress state, and prolonged inactivity can lead to its weakening and even death.
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Miltassia or Miltassia is nothing more than a hybrid of our usual miltonia and brassia. Recognizing miltassia is pretty easy. Flowers miltassii have the form of asterisks. Petals are elongated and sharp. The lip is developed, often has a fringed rim. On long flattened pseudobulbs, reaching a height of 10 cm, is a pair of lanceolate sheets. Sheets have an interesting shape. They seem to be folded in half. The plant can release several peduncles simultaneously. Every pseudobulb is capable of this.
There are a lot of hybrids of miltassia. Chances to find out exactly which hybrid you got when you buy are reduced to zero. Accordingly, it is difficult to talk about the conditions of care. You will have to set many things experimentally, but you can still find out the main points in this article. At home, care for the mildassia is difficult. It is not necessary to acquire it, if you have not honed your skill grower not unpretentious phalaenopsis.
Difficulties in caring for mildassia begin immediately. It is a matter of temperature. Night temperature should fall at least 4 degrees. Minimum! In the conditions of an apartment, especially in summer, it is difficult to achieve this. For most hybrids, the optimum daytime temperature is 20-24 degrees. Some hybrids endure heat. But some to her completely intolerant.
History and description
Miltassia is a hybrid of miltonia and brassia orchids. It differs from other forms of its colors - they look like small stars. Miltassia requires the same care as brassia, but there are some minor differences that depend on what miltonia (cold or heat-loving) was used to breed a hybrid. Orchid blooms miltassia occurs in spring and autumn and lasts one and a half - two months. Orchid blooms only if the difference between night and day temperatures of 4 - 6 ° C.
This flower is far from being the easiest and requires quite serious care, so if you are new to this business, then take this plant is not recommended.
All plants are very demanding that as precisely as possible observe exactly the temperature conditions that they need. When buying a miltassia, note that she loves a moderate thermal regime. The optimum temperature in the room where the orchid will be located should be no more than 18-24 ° C, but at night the temperature should be 4-5 ° C lower. It is important to consider which miltonia was involved in crossing: if it is the one that loves the cold more, then the temperature regime should be from 14 to 18 ° С in the daytime. Air humidity for such plants plays an important role in growing. For normal flower development, the humidity in the room should fluctuate from 50 to 70%. It is also worth considering the fact that the higher the temperature in the room where the orchid grows, the greater should be the humidity of the air. If the humidity is less, the flower will stop growing or slow down the development. The hybrid of miltonia and brassia is good for direct sunlight, so when choosing a place where it will be located, pay attention to the brightest. The main thing is that the light should be long lasting, since it is a light-loving plant. The minimum light day that the hybrid needs is ten to twelve hours. The choice of pot and substrate is also considered one of the most important aspects of orchid cultivation in miltassia. As a substrate, it is best to use medium pieces of pine bark. The hybrid inherited a creep from the orchid of a brassie, that is, new sprouts turn out to be higher than the previous ones. In this regard, it must be planted a little under the slope. How to grow alstroemeria from seeds so that it pleases you with its future flowering? There are two strategies for growing alstroemeria. from seeds: immediately sowing them in priming in April-May or seedlings in February or March. If you plant seeds immediately in the pot with the ground, you will need less to thrash over the seedlings, but they will bloom only in the third year of life. And if you have patience and grow seedlingsAlstroemeria blooms can be expected in the second year.
Humidity for growing
Selection of pot and substrate
Growing alstroemeria from seeds
All plants are very demanding that as precisely as possible observe exactly the temperature conditions that they need. When buying a miltassia, note that she loves a moderate thermal regime. The optimum temperature in the room where the orchid will be located should be no more than 18-24 ° C, but at night the temperature should be 4-5 ° C lower. It is important to consider which miltonia was involved in crossing: if it is the one that loves the cold more, then the temperature regime should be from 14 to 18 ° С in the daytime.
Air humidity for such plants plays an important role in growing. For normal flower development, the humidity in the room should fluctuate from 50 to 70%. It is also worth considering the fact that the higher the temperature in the room where the orchid grows, the greater should be the humidity of the air. If the humidity is less, the flower will stop growing or slow down the development.
The hybrid of miltonia and brassia is good for direct sunlight, so when choosing a place where it will be located, pay attention to the brightest. The main thing is that the light should be long lasting, since it is a light-loving plant. The minimum light day that the hybrid needs is ten to twelve hours.
The choice of pot and substrate is also considered one of the most important aspects of orchid cultivation in miltassia. As a substrate, it is best to use medium pieces of pine bark. The hybrid inherited a creep from the orchid of a brassie, that is, new sprouts turn out to be higher than the previous ones. In this regard, it must be planted a little under the slope.
How to grow alstroemeria from seeds so that it pleases you with its future flowering? There are two strategies for growing alstroemeria. from seeds: immediately sowing them in priming in April-May or seedlings in February or March.
If you plant seeds immediately in the pot with the ground, you will need less to thrash over the seedlings, but they will bloom only in the third year of life. And if you have patience and grow seedlingsAlstroemeria blooms can be expected in the second year.
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The nightshade is surprisingly easy to keep at home. More in this article.
Selection and lighting
Alstroemeria is very loves the light. In the summer on the south window you will need shading, and in winter you can not be afraid of sunburn. For abundant flowering of alstroemeria, it takes about 14 hours of light day.
In summer, Alstroemeria will feel great when room temperature, and in winter - from +8 or +15 ° C. Summer temperature above +28 ° C will stop growth and discard buds. If the winter is too warm, flower buds will not be able to develop and in the summer the plant will not bloom.
Watering and moisture
In spring and summer water Alstroemeria should be moderated, waiting for the soil to dry out between waterings. In winter watering must be limited - the cooler the content, the less moisture the plant needs.
Waterlogging and drought are equally dangerous for alstroemeria. Alstromeria should be sprayed only in hot weather.
For prophylaxis diseases, you must remove all withered flowers and dried leaves, as well as old stems, leaving them 10 cm long. When the plant stops blooming, you need to cut its shoots to a height of 7 cm above the ground.
Landing Alstroemeria and care for it involves the presence of an annual transplant in the spring.
For a very powerful and fast-growing plant root system, a volumetric pot with a deep bottom is required. Quarter pot should take drainage in the form of pebbles or expanded clay.
Perfect soil mixture for adult alstroemeria it is:
- 2 shares of leafy ground
- 1 share of humus soil,
- 1 share of peat land,
- 1 share of pine bark,
- 1 share of perlite or vermiculite.
You can also use ready-made ground for azaleas.
Recommended several times a year. feed up plant mineral fertilizer. During flowering, it is useful to pamper Alstroemeria with a watering solution of ash. It is prepared like this: 1 tablespoon of ash per 3 liters of water.
Diseases and pests
Because of its susceptibility to many diseases, alstromeria needs preventive treatment "Fundazol" several times a year.
Among the pests, alstroemeria may be chosen by such representatives: spider mite, flower thrips, mealybug.
As we see Alstroemeria - This is not too capricious plant that can be grown indoors.
Even a beginner grower can grow alstroemeria from seeds, and caring for it is not difficult. You only need to treat the plant with love and attention - and Alstroemeria will answer you with a scattering of wonderful “Peruvian lilies” that bring wealth and happiness to the house.
Humidity and watering
In extremely high humidity, the miltassia does not need, but nevertheless its level should not fall below 60 percent. If your plant feels a lack of moisture, you will quickly find out about it. Sheets begin to deform. So if the leaves of your orchid folded into an accordion (this is exactly what it looks like) know that it is better to increase the humidity level. Use a humidifier.
Water miltassia with a hot shower. Water temperature is 30-40 degrees. After watering, the water should flow freely from the pot. Stagnation of water causes rotting of the roots, and then completely the death of the plant. The frequency of watering in summer and winter should be different. In winter, much less. Focus on the rate of drying of the substrate. Between watering it should dry completely.
Regarding the lighting, there is only one thing to say for sure: the light-throwing light-mute You can not keep it on the north or west windows. Most hybrids love direct sunlight and not a bit suffer from them. Others may get burned by the bright sun. Here you will have to watch your pet.
And here it is, the next problem. Miltassia needs feeding. But burning them down is pretty simple. You will find out if the tip of the spine turns black. Therefore, use only a specialized dressing for orchids, and diluted in a ratio of 1/3. Foliar nutrition is also effective. Spray the reverse side of the leaves with a very diluted mixture. Top dressing is necessary in the period of new growth
The orchid miltassia prefers to bloom in the fall. In the summer there is a period of active growth. As soon as you see that future pseudobulbs increasingly become similar not to ordinary sprouts, but to their future counterparts, reduce the amount of watering. For three days the orchid should stand idle absolutely dry. As soon as you notice new flower stalks, increase watering. After flowering, remove the spike. I am glad that flowering lasts a very long time. About a couple of months.
Variety of Camellia Varieties
She grew up in Japan since the days of the samurai. There, the interest in this flower is fading, then flashing again. Now camellia is grown in warm regions with a tropical climate: in the south of the United States, on the Black Sea coast of Russia and in other countries.
There are several species of these plants, in particular camelia oilseed, Chinese, Japanese, mountainous:
- Camellia oleifera. This is an oil Camellia, which grows along the banks of rivers and in the forests of China, at a height above sea level - from 500 to 1300 meters. Sometimes this species is cultivated to obtain seeds, from which the useful oil is squeezed. This is an evergreen tree that can grow up to 10 m. It spreads from September to mid-October with white flowers. Then there are fruits, which are a box with a lot of seeds.
Camellia sinensi. Chinese camellia prefers to grow in the subtropical and tropical mountain forests of Southeast Asia. It is a tree up to 10 meters high with fragrant flowers that appear in August. The fruits ripened in October-December are a flat tricuspid box. The leaves of the plant are used to make tea, so the second name of Chinese camellia is the tea plant.
Camellia japonica. Japanese camellia is a shrub or tree that grows up to 15 meters. It inhabits forests of Korea, China, and Japan. Plant blooms profusely from December to April. Flowers - 4 cm in diameter. They are terry, semi-double, simple, red, pink, white or variegated. On the basis of Japanese camellia garden varieties are bred. This camellia Buttermint, Adolphe audusson, Lavinia magg, Coquettii, Winter rose, Sea foam.
Irrigation and spraying rules
When the orchid begins to grow, it should be watered as often as possible and more abundantly. The main thing is not to forget to make holes in the bottom of the pot so that excess water can flow out of it. When watering is recommended to use a hot shower (water temperature 30-45 ° C). This type of irrigation imitates the natural conditions that are found in the homeland of this plant. Spray the flower also need, but only at the top. This has a beneficial effect on growth.
Miltassia, like other orchids, is grown for its outlandish, original and beautiful flowers.
And how flower growers are disappointed if they do not get a lot of long-awaited flowering! But in most cases, they are to blame for this themselves - they could not arrange for the plant elementary living and care conditions.
First of all, the orchid miltassia needs periodic rest, which consists in reducing the temperature and stopping abundant watering. The temperature regime for growing a plant is also important here - at night the temperature should decrease by at least 4 degrees.
If the flowers still appear, they must be cut, thereby achieving the release of new flower stalks.
In an apartment, such a regime is difficult to observe, but you need to try by varying the humidity, which can be lifted by a vessel with water or wet clay expanded next to the flower.
Varieties and types
Peggy Root Miltassia has long lanceolate leaves, reaching a length of 60 centimeters. Star-shaped flowers with a pink and purple hue.
The lower lip of the flower is lighter and, in contrast to other petals, is wider. The whole flower is covered with speckled spots of burgundy color. Nectar is released to attract insects.
May bloom without interruption,
Miltassia lavender kiss has short, elongated leaves and amazingly beautiful flowers in the form of radiant petals of pink color, covered with burgundy spots. The large lower lip is exclusively pink-purple. It has massive stamens and pistil. The specimen is not particularly capricious in growing,
Miltassia royal robe bush plants make up the elongated leaves of green color of medium tones.
The entire flower has a maroon-purple color with a lighter, hot pink lower lip. The variety is distinguished by the absence of any spots on the flowers and has a pure color.
Lancet, decorative inflorescences completely cover the bush with stars about 8-10 centimeters in size,
Miltassia estrelita has a more powerful dark green lanceolate foliage. Flowers, unlike other types of plants, smaller, measuring 4-6 centimeters. The color of star-shaped petals varies from pure white to slightly pink.
The sponge is always purple. Two brown specks may be present on the bud. Blooms wildly and with a large number of inflorescences around the bush. Exudes a light, pleasant aroma,
Miltassia dark star The bush consists of light lanceolate leaves. Flowers appear on high peduncles. The plant blooms beautiful inflorescences of purple tones - from bright light to burgundy color. Petals are decorated with brown spots.
The lower lip, on the contrary, has a brighter color with oval, contoured bright pale spots of purple specks. Flowers are large and heavy, reaching 10-12 centimeters in the perimeter,
Miltassia needs abundant watering, especially at high temperatures, but not to such an extent that water is no longer absorbed by it. Excess moisture contributes to the decay of the roots and psevdobulbochek.
As soon as new bulbs have formed and the orchid is about to blossom, watering is stopped and the substrate from the sprayer is sprayed only once a week. After three weeks watering is resumed again. The plant itself needs to be sprayed occasionally.
The soil for the plant is prepared from peat, ground bark of pine and dried fern roots in a ratio of 1: 2: 1. The bark and parts of other plants in the composition of the substrate are vital orchids, because they grow in nature on other plants.
At the same time they are not parasites, but extract nutrients from moisture and process them under the influence of sunlight through photosynthesis. At the bottom of the pot must be laid drainage of stones, because excessive moisture can destroy the root system of an orchid.
All types of miltassia are propagated with the help of bulbballs. This operation is attached to the spring plant transplant. Orchid plentifully watered, removed from the pot with a clod of earth and divided into bushes with one bulb and well-developed roots.
You should look at the roots, removing damaged and rotted. Transplantation of the miltassia is carried out in previously prepared containers with the substrate.
Strongly deepen the bulb is not necessary, just to cover the roots. Shtamb should be positioned with a slope, because.
foliage will form additional, anchoring roots.
Transplants and the separation of excess brooches should be made immediately after the orchid blooms, but not more often than in 3-4 years, since the bush tolerates this interference in its usual life very painfully.
Fertilizer for miltassia
Like any plant, miltassia needs nutrients.
For these purposes any complex fertilizer or a specially formulated mixture for orchids can serve.
In any case, you need to make dressing necessarily in the form diluted in water, otherwise the plant can get severe burns and die.
Therefore, it is better to dilute the dose recommended in the instructions with water twice. Fertilizers are applied either to the substrate when watering or sprinkling the leaves. It is necessary to apply both types of feeding alternately once every two weeks.
Miltonia - butterfly wings
Orchids of the Miltonia genus, with their lovely, wide-open flowers, look like pansies, so they have another name - pansies.
Like Cattleya, this genus is named for one of the earliest collectors of orchids, namely, in honor of the Englishman Edlaydzhen Milton.
Often, several straight, vertical panicles with yellow, red, white, or pink flowers develop simultaneously from small, flat false bulbs. These flowers fascinate us not only with their coloring, but also with a wonderful pattern that resembles eyes or drops.
Particularly exotic and bizarre look of the intersection of Miltonia with the genus Brassia, which are called Miltassia. The petals of flowers in Miltassia, as well as in orchids of the genus Brassia, are elongated and arranged on a panicle, like the legs of a spider.
Miltonia (lat. Miltonia) - genus of perennial herbaceous plants of the Orchid family.
The genus Miltonia includes about 20 species of flowering orchids. Egg-shaped, flattened bulbs are hidden by vaginas of linear or belt-like leaves (1-2), folded in the lower part.
The leaves are yellowish-green in color, as are the bulba. The side parts are usually with one or several flowers, the bloom is long, but the cut flowers wither immediately.
Miltonia is widely used to produce intergeneric hybrids.
Previously, this genus included all Central American and Brazilian species.common at different altitudes - in the mountains and valleys.
Subsequently, the alpine species were transferred to the Miltoniopsis genus.
Currently, representatives of the Miltonia clan are found in the lowland and lowland to the rainforest tropical forests of Central and Southern Brazil.
The genus Miltoniopsis (Miltoniopsis) combines 5 species, in which 1 to 2 linear leaves grow from each pale green bulb to a pseudobulum. The flowers are flat, large.
As a result of crossing miltoniopsis among themselves and with species of other genera, many hybrids were obtained. Plants of these two genera are epiphytic, ie, they settle on the trunks and branches of trees, but receive nutrients from the environment.
Miltonia is thermophilic, in winter the optimum temperature is about 20 ° C, night minimum 15 ° C. Miltoni Hybrids - Miltoniopsis Miltoniopsis hybr.
contain in cool conditions at 15 ° C, and the winter minimum for them is 12 ° C.
Miltonia very badly tolerates sharp fluctuations in temperature, and drafts for it can be simply destructive.
A bright place, preferably a western or eastern window, not shaded by trees from the street. On a hot south window, shading from a direct midday sun is required.
Abundant during growth in spring and summer, the soil should be all the time wet. In winter, watering is very limited, i.e. almost dry content.
These orchids are propagated by dividing the bush about once every 3 years at the end of summer. Each part should have several bulbs - pseudo-bulbs and a developed root system.
Miltonia white (Miltonia Candida) - with peduncles (1–2 grows from each bulba) approximately 40 cm long, on which a loose erect brush is formed with 3-5 fragrant flowers up to 9 cm in diameter. Yellow wavy sepals and petals in large reddish-brown specks and spots, and a white strongly wavy lip with a light purple or purple spot and three short brushes, the lip is almost round. It blooms in the fall.
Have Miltonia Ragnielli (Miltonia regnellii) thin glossy leaves and upright peduncles stretching upwards with 3–7 fragrant oblate flowers with white sepals and petals, and a light pink lip with pink – purple stripes and a white border.
Have miltoniopsis phalaenopsis (Miltoniopsis phalaenopsis) short peduncles with 3-5 flattened pure white flowers.
The lateral lobes of the lips are small, white with light crimson stripes and specks.
The middle lobe is white and deeply divided by a notch into two, at the base is a purple spot of irregular shape, washed out towards the periphery by small specks.
On each peduncle Miltoniopsis Retzl (Miltoniopsis roezlii) 2-5 fragrant white flowers are formed with a lilac - lilac spot at the base of each petal and an orange - yellow disc at the base of the lip.
Miltoniopsis vexillaria (Miltoniopsis vexillaria) characterized by large fragrant flowers, most of them pink with a white border or white with pink spots or stripes; at the base of the lip is a yellow spot.
Such an incredibly beautiful plant, as Miltonia Orchid is very popular with gardeners who grow it with pleasure at home. They named this amazing plant in honor of the very famous orchid collector Englishman Milton.
Such a herbaceous plant is a perennial and is directly related to a rather extensive family of orchids. In nature, it can most often be found in the forests of Colombia and Brazil.
Some time ago this genus united all species growing in the valleys and mountainous regions of Central America, as well as Brazil.
However, at the moment such mountain plants are separated into a separate genus, miltoniopsis.
The plant miltonia, on the other hand, prefers to grow in lowlands, in places with a rainy climate.
Such a plant has a sympodial growth pattern, and it is epiphytic. So, this orchid has aerial roots and stems, with pseudobulbs located at the base.
Its rather long leaves have a very interesting color that looks like yellow or gray. Flowers can be painted in a variety of colors.
At the same time on the surface of the petals are placed very unusual patterns similar to the wings of a butterfly.
This plant has false bulbs, from which it grows several stems that look like a panicle. They may vary in color. So, they are pink, white, red or yellow.
Seeing such a plant for the first time the last thing that can come to mind is that it is exotic. And all because it has, though very attractive, but quite simple view. Often flower growers call it pansies, because their flowers are very similar in color and shape.
This genus includes about 20 species of different plants, and there are also hybrids, with the most popular one being miltassia.
It needs warmth and good lighting, but the light must be diffused. Miltonia can also grow quite calmly in partial shade.
With sufficient lighting, leaf blades have a pinkish tinge.
The direct rays of the sun should not fall on the leaves, as they can leave burns on their surface.
How to water
In the spring-summer period, an intensive growth is observed, in connection with this, it is necessary to water the plant abundantly at this time. Make sure that the earth mixture does not dry completely, and also make sure to drain the liquid accumulated in the pan. Otherwise, it can lead to the death of miltonia.
Watering is recommended by the “hot shower” method. To do this, use water with a temperature of 45 degrees. Such a shower resembles a plant to rain in the places where it comes from. After irrigation, wait until all the liquid has drained, and then wipe the sheet plates dry.
In winter, reduce the amount of watering.
Fertilizer should be applied to the substrate 1 time in 2 weeks, following the instructions. It is allowed to use foliar fertilizing - this is when the leaves are sprayed with water, with nutrients dissolved in it. If the plant blooms profusely, it means that you feed correctly.
As a rule, the rest period begins after the pseudobulbs ripen. Young and old shoots should be the same size. At this time the orchid needs coolness (up to 15 degrees), and watering should be reduced.
Flower experts advise for this period to rearrange in a cool and fairly dry place. The duration of this period is about 8 weeks. In summer you can hang a container with a plant in the shade of trees in the garden.
In winter, miltonia also has a dormant period, during which growth slows down and flowering almost stops. It is necessary to begin to care for the plant normally after young flower stalks appear.
Transplanted 1 or 2 times a year. It is recommended to do immediately after the beginning of flowering, while the size of young shoots should reach 5 centimeters. More frequent transplants are not recommended.
The root system removed from the old pot must be cleaned of the substrate. In this case, such a procedure should be as carefully as possible. If necessary, take a larger container.
Drainage is laid out at the bottom, as well as in the center of the tank (it is better to take from plastic). The soil should be loose with pine chips, impurities and crushed charcoal. The first watering after transplantation is recommended to be carried out in 2-4 days, and before that it is necessary to moisten the foliage as often as possible.
Strongly young shoots should not be dug into the soil.
Miltonia brilliant (Miltonia spectabilis)
This plant is versatile, as it can grow calmly in warm and in cold. Slightly elongated pseudobulbs are flattened laterally.
Yellowish leaves have a belt-like shape. Quite large flowers are most often painted white-yellow. And also there are pink flowers with streaks of purple color.
It blooms in late summer and autumn.
Miltonia orchids, miltoniopsis, miltassia
Miltoniopsis orchids were isolated into a separate genus at the end of the 19th century, but they were previously classified as miltonia. The orchid miltassia is an intergeneric hybrid - it was obtained by crossing miltonia with brassia.
All these plants have an external similarity, and therefore are considered in one section.
Despite the similarity, care and maintenance of miltonia is different from home care for miltoniopis and miltassia, so you should not apply the same growing methods to these plants.
Flower Orchid Miltonia
The genus of orchids Miltonia (MILTONIA) includes about 20 species of flowering orchids, growing in nature in South America, epiphyte or epilitic. Miltonia blooms, lasts 3-4 weeks, but it is not worth cutting: its beautiful flowers wither in a few hours.
Miltonia snow-white (Miltonia candida) - a plant that blooms large, up to 9 cm in diameter, flowers, collected in 3-5 pieces. The species is obliged by its name to a snow-white lip.
Pay attention to the photo of the orchid miltonia white - in the base of the lips there is a light purple spot and three short keels. It blooms in the fall.
A view similar to the previous one - Miltonia clowesil has a 7-10-flowered inflorescence, up to 45 cm long. The flowers are yellow with chestnut-brown stripes, the lip in the lower part is purple-purple, in the upper part - white.
Miltonia Varshevich (Miltonia wascewiezii) different large paniculate inflorescences.
Sepals and petals are brownish-red with a yellow or white top, with a strongly wavy edge.
Lip flat wide pink-purple, red-brown in the center, white along the edge. It blooms in February and March.
Miltonia orchids with their wide-open flowers look like pansies, so they have another name - "pansies." The genus is named for one of the earliest collectors of orchids, namely, in honor of the Englishman Edlaydzhen Milton.
Care, maintenance and transplanting Miltonia orchids
Miltonia flower is one of the fairly easy to grow orchids. Its location requires a bright, but not sunny place. For normal development of the orchid miltonia at home, you need 10-15 hours of bright light per day.
In winter, natural lighting is supplemented with artificial lighting using fluorescent lamps. The air temperature in summer is +20 ... + 22 ° C, in winter - +17 +20 ° C. Night temperatures should be 3-4 ° C lower.
When caring for orchid miltonia at home, since the formation of sprouts, the flower is watered abundantly and fertilized every two weeks.
It is necessary to water very carefully, as pseudobulbs from overwetting easily rot. So does the enhanced fertilizer. The plant is not sprayed.
However, when caring for an orchid miltonia, it is worth remembering that these plants need high air humidity, about 80%, therefore it is recommended to be kept in a room greenhouse.
Many modern hybrids are content with relatively low humidity.
Miltonia orchid transplantation is made in the spring, immediately after flowering, every 3-4 years into a mixture consisting of bark, peat and fern rhizomes (2: 1: 1). Miltonia is propagated by dividing pseudobulbs during transplantation in spring.
Orchid care Miltoniopsis home care
The English botanist John Lindley described the miltonia genus in 1837.
The type species was the Brazilian Orchid Miltonia (Miltonia spectabilis), which were discovered in subsequent years, including those currently belonging to the genus Miltoniopsis (Miltoniopsis), were included in the Miltonia genus. However, in 1889, Alexander Godefroy-Lebefef found that the Colombian miltonium species are morphologically distinct from the Brazilian-born species and isolated them into an independent miltoniopsis genus. The Greek word opsis - “similar” just underlines their similarity with the miltonia family.
Confusion in the classification of miltonia and miltoniopsis is constantly present on the shelves of shops, since almost all the plants sold with the Miltonia tag are in fact hybrid hybrid miltoniops. The first intragenal hybrid Miltonia Bleuana (Miltoniopsis (Miltonia) vexillaria x Miltoniopsis (Miltonia) roezlii) was registered in 1889.
Since then, over 2000 Greek minioniopsis have been registered, mostly under the generic name Miltonia.
Miltoniopsis falenopsis, or moth (Miltoniopsis phalaenopsis) - this orchid has flowers that look like pansies. They are white with red and yellow patterns, relatively small (up to 5 cm). It blooms in July - October.
The view needs a bright diffused light, good ventilation, a little low temperature throughout the year and in the winter dormancy period.
Miltoniopsis Retzla (Miltoniopsis roezlii) is an orchid with 2-5 fragrant white flowers with a purple-purple spot at the base of each petal and an orange disc at the base of the lip.
Miltoniopsis is a sympodial, epiphytic orchid of cool or moderate content.
Most plants sold in stores bloom in summer, which makes it difficult to grow them: in summer, these orchids must be kept at a low temperature of + 10 ... + 16 ° C, in winter - at a temperature of + 18 ... + 20 ° C.
Prefer partial shade on the eastern or relatively bright northern windows. Watering the plants is carried out only in the morning, in the intervals between watering the substrate should dry well.
When caring for miltoniopsis, the necessary air humidity (80-90%) is maintained without spraying, which is not recommended for this species.
Transplanted into pots, a mixture of bark, peat, pieces of foam (3: 1: 1) with the addition of a small amount of sand and dolomite flour.
How to care for miltonia orchid
Miltonia orchid at home will grow well and bloom if it creates an environment close to that in which it grows in natural conditions.
Since miltonia in nature grows in the shade of subtropical and tropical forests, at home it should be placed under strong diffused light, reliably protected from direct sunlight.
Eastern or western window sills are most suitable for the plant, but if all your windows face south, drape them with gauze, a thin curtain or translucent paper.
During the growing season, miltonia at home feels good in the daytime at 18-22 ºC, and at night the temperature should be lowered by 4-6 ºC. During the rest period, a comfortable temperature will be 16-18 ºC during the day and 14-16 ºC at night.
Protect the plant from drafts and sudden changes in temperature.
Miltonia, accustomed to tropical rainfall, needs regular and abundant watering, especially in summer, when it forms new shoots.
How to care for miltonia? How frequent and abundant should the watering of this orchid be at different times of the year, and how much humidity should the air be in?
Miltonia should be watered once every 4-5 days, but do not forget to pour out excess water from the pan in time to minimize the risk of rotting of the roots and pseudobulbs of the plant.
For the same reason, a drainage layer should be laid in a pot of orchids under the substrate.
In winter, it is necessary to switch to moderate watering - once every 3-4 weeks, because during this period it is more excusable to allow a slight drying of the substrate than its waterlogging. Miltonia, which is in a dormant state in winter, may not be watered at all.
If the substrate in a pot with miltonia dries longer than 36 hours, it means that it is too dense, and there are few voids in it. Or that the room temperature is too low.
When irrigating, they do not moisten the substrate or the orchid, but gently pour water in a thin stream along the inner wall of the pot.
You can moisturize miltonia by immersion, controlling that the rhizomes and pseudobulbs of the plant are not soaked, and the leaf axils are not flooded.
For irrigation, use rainwater or separated water temperature 40-42 ºC.
Regarding the humidity of the air, the typical 40-50% orchid for an apartment is not enough, and you will have to raise the level to 60-70%, because the thirsty plants have leaves twisting and bending.
How can I increase the humidity in the apartment? For example:
- - place a vessel with water or wet expanded clay near the orchid,
- - Spray the air around the miltonia several times a day, trying to prevent water from falling on the plant itself, as this may cause stains on it.
However, high humidity requires good ventilation and a constant flow of fresh air.
This orchid does not like anxiety, therefore, miltonia transplantation at home is carried out no more often than once every 3-4 years. Determine that it is time to move the orchid in a large container, you can on the following grounds:
- - salted, crushed, flattened or foul-smelling substrate,
- - miltonia's air roots sticking out of the pot in a large amount, among which there are many dry,
- - The plant has slowed growth and development.
Replant the plant is best in the spring, before the start of active growth. A miltonia pot is better to choose a plastic one, since it keeps moisture longer than the ceramic one.
As a substrate, you can use the purchased soil for orchids by adding vermiculite or agroperlite, which tend to accumulate moisture.
At the bottom of the pot as a drainage layer put a large fraction of the bark, and then the small. And you can make the substrate yourself from foam, pine bark, wine cork, acadama and a few pieces of birch coal.
The acidity of the soil should be in the range of 5.5-6.5 pH. At the bottom of the pot for stability, you can put a couple of pebbles.
Before transplanting, it is necessary to moisten the substrate well, press in the plastic pot and carefully remove the plant from it. Old substrate must be removed from the roots.
If pieces of bark are ingrown into the roots, soak the orchid root system for a short time in a pale pink solution of potassium permanganate, and if the stuck or ingrown pieces of the substrate do not move away, carefully separate them, lower the miltonia roots into the new pot and, keeping the plant suspended, gradually sprinkle it around the substrate, slightly sealing it. The first few days after transplantation, miltonia is not watered, but the humidity of the air creates an increased one.
Caring for miltonia orchid involves regular plant fertilization with special fertilizers for epiphytes and orchids from April to September, and the dose should be half as much as recommended in the instructions.
Regular application of feedings - once every 2-3 weeks. Root top dressing can alternate with foliar, sprinkling the plant with highly diluted fertilizer.
In winter, if the plant has entered a period of rest, feeding is stopped.
Care for miltonia during flowering
Miltonia is a whimsical sissy that requires care, but when her amazing flowers open up, she can forgive all the whims.
In order for miltonia to bloom, you need to create the conditions we described for it, observe the regime of watering, fertilizing and let it rest annually.
During the period of active growth and flowering, keep the pot in a place so that from midday the sun's rays do not fall on the plant.
To do this, it is better to put miltonia on the east or west window sill, but in no case on the north - it is better then to keep the plant on the south window, covering the glass to the middle with gauze or paper.
When the plant is content with its content, the leaves acquire a slightly pinkish tint, the flowers become saturated in color, and the aroma is more intense.
Under ideal conditions and with proper care, miltonia can bloom almost the whole year, but for this you need to try.
Firstly, it needs a period of rest every year, and secondly, as soon as after the rest of the miltonia the first peduncle begins to form, care for it is resumed, gradually restoring the usual regime of watering and fertilizing.
The flowering on one arrow lasts five or six weeks, but if you ensure that the miltonia remain unchanged and you water it with rainwater, the flowering may be longer.
Miltonia after flowering
Since the full and prolonged flowering of miltonia directly depends on how well she rested, it is very important to introduce the plant correctly into the rest period, even if there are no external signs of its fatigue.
The orchid is transferred to a room with normal air humidity and a temperature of 16-18 ºC in the daytime and 14-16 ºC at night, stop feeding and gradually reduce watering to 1 time in 4 weeks. Miltonia rests 2-3 months.
The fact that it is ready to grow again, grow and bloom, you will be prompted by the emerging flower arrow.
Sometimes the salinity of the substrate leads to the fact that the tips of the miltonia begin to dry on the leaves, and it loses its decorative effect. To restore the salt balance of the soil, it is enough to switch to watering the orchid with soft rainwater.
Excessive moistening can lead to rotting of the miltonia roots, and as soon as you find signs of rot, cut off all the affected roots, cut the sections with crushed coal, transplant the plant into a fresh sterile substrate and reduce watering.
Miltonia turns yellow
The reasons for this phenomenon may be several:
- - too much sun
- - water got into the leaf bosoms,
- - low air humidity in the room,
- - in miltonia, due to improper irrigation, compaction of the substrate or too concentrated dressings, the root system is damaged.
If you got miltonia without roots, or the root system of a plant died from improper care, it is necessary to reanimate the orchid, which can last from one month to one year. The process begins with daily soaking of miltonia for 3-4 hours in water at a temperature of 21 ºC. Once every two weeks you can add growth stimulant to the water.
As soon as the first roots begin to grow, stop the growth stimulant supplements, and increase the duration of the session by 2 hours. As soon as the roots grow 5 cm, the orchid can be planted in the substrate.
Thrips, scale insects, aphids, spider mites and whiteflies are considered the main pests of miltonia. All of them are sucking insects feeding on cell sap.
Destroy them with solutions of insectoacaricides - Aktellik, Bankol, Biotlin or Mospilan - prepared in accordance with the instructions.
Ensure that chemicals do not enter the substrate during processing.
Features of planting camellias
You can admire this plant at home if you put it in a pot of the appropriate diameter. Soil take one that is intended for the cultivation of rhododendrons, azaleas. If not, you can cook it yourself.
To do this, take one part of leafy soil, peat, and coniferous soil and mix with half of the sand. Camellia prefers acidic soils with a pH reaction of 4.5-5.
Pick a pot is not very deep, but its width should be sufficient. At the bottom of the tank, pour claydite or other drainage, then the soil and plant the plant. At the same time make sure that the root neck is above ground level.
It is necessary to replant a plant 1-2 times a year in the fall or at the beginning of winter. For better branching after transplanting, pinch off the top of the plant.
Terms of keeping camellia
Camellia will grow well in a cool room. The air temperature in summer should reach + 18 + 20 ° С, in winter - + 8 + 10 ° С, during the flowering period - + 15 ° С.
For the camellia to bloom well, it needs a short daylight hours. Optimally, if it is 12-14 hours.
Bookmark flower buds occurs at a temperature of + 18 + 20 ° C. If the temperature drops below, and the place where the plant is contained will be shady, then the kidneys may not form at all. If the temperature rises above + 20 ° C, then flowering may become premature, which will affect the quality of the flowers. In this case, the buds can fall altogether.
Camellia blooms from December to February. At this time, you can not move the plant to another place, turn the pot around its axis. For the growth of axillary buds in October-November pruned shoots are made.
Watering and fertilizing the camellia
In summer, the plant needs to be watered when the top layer dries. In winter, watering is reduced, but not stopped. If the camellia does not have enough water, it will begin to shed its leaves, and if it becomes too wet, they begin to grow brown.
It should be watered only with separated water. It is recommended to put the containers with camellia on pallets on which sand or expanded clay is poured. They are moistened periodically to create a suitable microclimate for the plant.
Feed camellia should be once every 3 weeks, year-round, using full mineral fertilizer. Well, if there are trace elements, but calcium and magnesium camellia does not like. Therefore, before buying read the composition of the fertilizer. For top dressing, 1 gram of it is diluted in 1 liter of water, then it is poured over camellia on moist soil.
Camellia Breeding Methods
Camellia is propagated by seed or cuttings, the latter method is used more often. To do this, in January or July, cut off apical non-lignified cuttings 6-8 centimeters long. They should be with 3-5 developed leaves. They do not need to be put in water, they must be planted in a prepared substrate. It is made from peat and sand, taken in equal proportions.
For better rooting, you need to soak the cuttings in a solution of heteroauxin or root, and then land in the prepared soil. You can first dip a slice in phytohormone powder, and then land. After that, the plant is watered from the watering can, put on the windowsill, where there is no direct sunlight.
Rooting occurs one and a half to two months. Why cuttings are transplanted into pots, where they will grow until next year. Then you need to transplant camellia into a slightly larger container.
If you want to multiply the camellia with seeds, then soak them for a day in a damp cloth, put in a warm place. Then plant one seed in 5-centimeter pots or in a box. When sprouts appear two true leaves, they dive, spreading out less often or in separate pots. If you immediately planted the seeds in separate small containers, then there is no need to dive. When the seedlings grow, they are provided with a large area of food, transplanted into pots with a diameter of 10 cm.
How to grow camellia - see the video:
Fertilizer and dressing
It is necessary to feed a flower during a new growth, approximately two to three times a week. It is important to note that fertilizers are special for orchids, since fertilizers of other colors differ in composition and may adversely affect the growth of miltassia.
It is best not to disturb and replant the plant, but if you really need to do this, then you will need to choose the right time. Often they use the moment when the miltassia has already faded, or when only the newly appeared shoots reach about five centimeters. This is the most favorable time for a miltassia orchid transplant.
How to propagate miltassia at home
Miltassia propagation occurs vegetatively. It will take a large bush of orchids divided in half. Pay attention to at least three pseudobulbs remain on each newly formed plant.
Mistakes in the care of the flower
The most common mistakes in caring for miltassia at home are:
- Deviation from comfortable conditions for plant growth and reproduction. If you create the wrong conditions for a hybrid, it may not develop at all or grow too slowly.
- Too abundant watering threatens that the excess water will not have time to be removed, and this can lead to rotting of the roots.
- The lack of light can cause the flower to stop growing. After all, for its normal development requires bright sunlight.
- Poor quality fertilizer will cause damage to the flower, because some fertilizers in its composition have such ingredients that can be dangerous to the orchid. Because of this, it can stop in development or the abyss.
- Incorrect transplant. By making a mistake here, you can damage the roots, as a result of which the plant will die.
- Small pot. The size of the pot is very important, because if it is too small, the roots will "feel" uncomfortable. Because of this, orchid slows in growth.
Orchid miltassia - a capricious plant that requires special care and a lot of attention. If you study well the requirements of this beauty, then you can not worry and risk settling her in your house.
Types and varieties of miltonia
There are 11 species and 6 natural hybrids in the Miltonia genus, many of which not only earned popularity among amateur growers, but also are used by breeders for breeding new varieties and hybrids.
It is also known about 40 intergeneric artificial hybrids from crossing miltonia with brassia, oncidium, Kochleida, aspasia, odontoglossum, komparettiya and other orchids.
Among the most popular species in the culture of miltonia are the following:
Miltonia Varshevicha (Miltonia wascewiezii)
- Orchid with large paniculate inflorescences, consisting of dark red flowers with a strongly wavy edge, white or yellow top and a wide purple-pink lip with a red-brown spot in the middle and a white border along the edges.
The culture of Renegli miltonia, yellowish, brilliant or magnificent and hybrid miltonia are also in demand in culture.