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Turkey crosses are intended mainly for industrial breeding. But now many private farms are buying hybrid birds. They are characterized by rapid growth, high body weight. That is why it is profitable to grow them, with a moderate cost of feed, they get high meat yield.
Crosses are divided into heavy, medium and light. They come from America, Western Europe, some are derived in our country. The best suppliers of crosses - France, the Netherlands, Hungary, Germany, United Kingdom.
What is cross
Before you talk about crosses, you should determine what they are, what distinguishes them from turkey breeds.
Breeders to improve the quality of turkey produce lines with one or two distinctive features. For example, high mass, vitality or egg production.
The offspring in the lines should inherit these traits. One breed or several takes part in the creation of lines.
To improve the quality of the lines they are crossed together. Hybrids surpass their parents in many ways. This phenomenon in genetics is called heterosis. The lines that crossed improved offspring when crossed are considered “matching”.
The combination of lines, parents and hybrids is called cross. Two, three or four lines take part in creating the cross. Accordingly, they are called two-line, three-line or four-line. By weight categories crosses are divided into heavy, light and medium.
White wide-breasted breed
White wide-chested turkeys are not cross-country, but many lines have been created on their basis. Inside the breed itself, there are three crosses that were bred by the British company River Rest on the basis of ten lines. Crosses have the following characteristics:
- Lightweight at 13 weeks weighs 3.8 kg, at 20 weeks the weight of males is 8-9 kg, females 4.5-5.5 kg
- Average at 13 weeks of age weighs 4.1 kg, at 20 weeks - 15-17 kg (males), 6-7 kg of females.
- Heavy at 13 weeks has a weight of 5.2 kg, at 20 weeks males weigh 22-25 kg, females - 10-11 kg.
White wide-breasted turkey grows up to 90-100 days, the yield of meat in this breed is high, it has an excellent presentation. Turkey sweeps begin at 9 months.
White wide-breasted turkeys
For half a year they lay up to 100-120 pieces. Fertilized about 85-90% of the testicles, turkey poults are displayed in 60-70% of cases. The breed is capricious in its content, does not tolerate low temperatures, the birds get sick during the first frosts. Because its cultivation is popular in the southern regions.
White Wide Breasted Hybrid
Wide-breasted white breed became the ancestor of several Hybrid crosses. Brought them in the middle of the last century, in the USA. Birds differ in their special composition of meat, it is high in protein, and low in fat and cholesterol. They also grow quickly and gain weight. Well adapted to any conditions of detention. The best-known hybrid wide-breasted turkey crosses are:
- Hybrid Converter (heavy cross)
- Hybrid Grade Maker (middle cross)
Highbridge Converter reaches downhole in 140-150 days. By that time, heavy cross-country turkeys weigh 22-24 kilograms, and turkeys weigh 12 kilograms. Rapid growth and moderate feed costs make the breed popular in many countries. White meat wide-breasted Highbreed converter has a tasty, and the carcass has a great commodity house.
Hybrid Grade Maker refers to the average type of cross. In 120-140 days, males weigh about 18-20 kg, and females weigh 10 kg. The best appearance of meat and carcass have a turkey in 10-12 weeks. It even puts on a photo in supermarkets, and in commercials. Although the weight of turkeys by that time is small, up to 4-5 kg, birds are often sent for slaughter at this particular age.
The most popular cross among industrial farms and private farms. Obtained by crossing females from BIG-5 lines and males of BUT-8 cross. Turkeys at the time of slaughter can reach 22-24 kilograms, and turkeys - 11 kilograms.
At the same time, the output of meat is 80-85%, not a single pet gives this indicator. Turkeys grow rapidly, at 4.5 months they weigh 4.5 kilograms. Feed costs are moderate, because wide-chested breed is beneficial for breeding.
Feathers in males and females BIG-6 are white, without a single spot, tight to the body. Turkeys have a lush tail.
The build of birds is strong, the body is long, the breast is wide and deep, about 30% of the meat is concentrated in it. Legs are high, widely placed, powerful hips.
The head is of medium size, “decoration” in males of bright red color. In appearance and characteristics, BIG-6 is similar to Highbridge Converter, but surpasses it in weight gain.
White turkey middle cross Big-9 is distinguished by good endurance and fecundity. For half a year, she lays about 120 eggs, turkey poults are derived from them in 80-85% of cases. This allows you to successfully breed birds, even on farms and households.
Turkeys quickly gain weight, at 17 weeks their weight is about 17 kilograms, and at 20 weeks - 21 kilograms. Females weigh about two times less, but grow faster. At the same time, the breed requires very little feed, the consumption per kilogram of weight is lower than that of BIG-6. Cross became the ancestor of several new lines.
BUT-8 is another white and wide-chested turkey made by the same British breeders who bred the previous two crosses.
It belongs to the light type, the males at 20 weeks gain weight about 17 kilograms, and the females - 8.5 kilograms. The feed consumption for these birds increases almost by half with age.
Because farmers prefer to send them for slaughter in 13-17 weeks, a maximum of twenty. Otherwise, the cost of feeding will exceed the benefit of the received meat.
In appearance turkey BIG-8 are similar to other broilers. Their feathers are white and dense, without dark specks. The body is long, strong, with a well-developed breast. The legs are high and wide apart.
Turkeys have a beautifully curved neck, bright growths on the head, and a magnificent tail. Because many poultry farmers, lovers value the breed also for its decorative qualities, turkeys are often put up in the photo of private farms.
Turkeys Cross Universal launched in Russia, belong to the light type. At 16 weeks, males weigh about 6.5 kg, while females weigh 4.5 kg. Bred the breed by crossing two lines U1 and U2.
The wagon loses to its foreign "colleagues" in the rate of weight gain, the final weight before slaughter.
The positive side is vitality, unpretentiousness in food (you can feed with ordinary feed).
Turkey does not carry too many eggs, only 60-70 pieces per year. But 85-90% of them are fertilized, turkey poults are born in almost 100% of cases. Good fertility and well-developed maternal instinct makes the Universal popular among private farmers. On the basis of cross-country a new breed "Victoria" is being created.
Cross turkeys Khidon was bred in the Netherlands, refers to the heavy type. Before slaughter, adult males weigh about 18–20 kg. The cost of feed for birds is small, the weight gain is good. The output of finished products from males is slightly higher than that of females.
They carry turkeys from 80 to 100 eggs for six months. In general, the productivity of birds is 80%, which makes their breeding profitable. True, he loses BIG-6 in terms of weight gain, because many companies prefer to breed exactly BIG-6 hybrid.
Another disadvantage of the Khidon turkeys is the heavy breeding and rearing of turkeys. Young animals are afraid of dampness, drafts, temperature changes. Because in the first weeks of the little chicks need individuals care. Natural fertilization, due to the large weight of turkeys, is also difficult. And for the artificial required experience. Therefore, this breed is not recommended for beginner poultry farmers.
Victoria turkeys: features of heavy cross
To create Victoria turkeys used two lines of birds. Paternal line was chosen heavy cross "white wide-breasted", characterized by high weight, strong, well-developed muscles and chest.
The maternal line was represented by females with fast growth rates, especially at an early age, early maturity and good fecundity.
From both lines, Victoria's crosses inherited all the best qualities, and today are one of the best domestic breeds.
Birds have pure white plumage, a well developed body and an average weight - the weight of adult males is 12–13 kg, females - up to 8 kg. The body is well built, chest broad, muscular.
Birds are characterized by very fast growth, endurance, and high survival - under natural conditions, the loss of turkey poults is not more than 10%, with an incubation method - about 20%.
Turkey has a good egg production - in 4–5 months they give about 80–90 eggs.
Conditions of detention
Turkeys are not demanding for conditions. This cross has a high resistance to changing situations, stressful situations, and, unlike foreign analogues, is very hardy.
At home, this breed can be kept both in cages and in a spacious poultry house.
In summer, adult birds can be kept in an open-air cage outside; in winter, they normally feel even indoors without heating.
The ideal conditions for these crosses is a spacious and bright house with good ventilation.
Birds are quite susceptible to moisture and drafts, so the room where they are kept should always be dry. It is better to use dry and warm materials as bedding for nests: straw, hay.
If turkeys grow on the street, it is necessary to equip a canopy over the aviary, which will protect them from rain and strong wind.
For cage maintenance, care should be taken to ensure that the birds have enough space. Cells should be located in a dry, bright and well ventilated area.
Happy birds need to release in the open-air cage for walking. Also important for them is the natural rhythm of day and night. Care should be taken to ensure that at night the house was dark and sunlight was available during the day.
What to feed
Victoria Cross refers to the broiler breed of turkeys. To grow a good carcass, the diet of poultry must contain sufficient amounts of vitamins and protein. However, the turkeys of this breed are prone to obesity, so their diet should be approached correctly.
A balanced diet for adults implies a three-time variety of feeding. In the morning and in the evening you can feed the birds with a combined mixture and grain. Daily feeding should consist of fresh wet porridge mixed with a large amount of greenery. In the summer, green food should be at least half of the total diet of poultry.
In winter, grain can be used as feed. Turkeys are very fond of any cereals, but especially wheat, oats, barley, buckwheat - they contain a lot of fiber, which has a positive effect on digestion.
To make turkeys grow well and not hurt, you need to add foods rich in amino acids and minerals to the basic diet.
So the addition of soybean or sunflower meal to the feed will provide the birds with the amino acids, and fish and meat and bone meal with calcium and phosphorus.
In drawing up the summer ration of adult turkeys, one should focus on the following feed intake rates:
- cereals - 110–150 g / day,
- bran - 25–40 g,
- green food (grass, clover, alfalfa, vegetable tops) - 400–500 g,
- vegetables (fresh carrots, beets, cabbage) - up to 200 g,
- bone meal - 3-5 g,
- chalk - 10 g
For the winter period, the amount of dry food (grain) increases to 250–300 g. For winter, it is necessary to prepare a lot of inexpensive, but healthy food: silage, hay, fresh vegetables (carrots, beets).
For daytime feeding, you can cook boiled potatoes instead of cereal, which is mixed with silage, vegetables, and vitamin supplements.
It is also necessary to ensure that there is always fine gravel, sand and a shell in the feeders.
Feed for newborns and young chicks is different from the adult diet. On the second day after birth, turkey poults are given boiled egg, fresh uncooked cottage cheese, millet, porridge and finely chopped greens.
For hatched chicks, you can make carrot juice, or grate fresh carrots on a fine grater. All small turkey poults, including Victoria's cross, are actively responding to bright food, however, the newborn turkey still does not hear well and practically does not see it, so in order to attract it to food, you need to gently tap the feeder.
From two weeks of age, boiled potatoes can be added to the diet of chicks, mixed with chopped greens, fresh vegetables, and cornmeal.
At the age of six weeks, the birds begin to accustom to the grain, and from four months they are completely transferred to adult food. In feeding the chicks should follow the frequency of feeding.
Very young chicks are required to be fed 6–8 times / day, then gradually the number of feedings decreases and by the 16th week it becomes three times a day.
How to breed
Victoria cross turkeys divorce without much difficulty. The females begin to show early maternal feelings, are not capricious, like turkeys of other breeds, and are very caring chickens. For hatching eggs and taking care of the offspring, it is better to use turkeys of ages 2–4 years, but males are better to be selected by ages of 2–3 years, since they have high reproductive qualities.
For a good increase in offspring at home, it’s enough for a flock of 10 turkeys to have one turkey. Egg laying occurs in the middle of spring, and the incubation period lasts about 4 weeks.
Since the turkey belonging to Victoria Cross is not particularly large in size, no more than 18–20 eggs should be laid for hatching.
In order for this whole hen to feel comfortable, it is necessary to create the following conditions:
- to clean the room where the nest will be located, to provide adequate ventilation and air temperature over 10 ° C,
- Considering the high susceptibility of young poults to infectious diseases, the hen's nest is recommended to be placed in isolation, separately from other birds,
- it is better to use a wooden or plastic box 50–60 cm high and 50x70 cm wide for arranging the nest - metal containers are not recommended because the metal cools quickly, which is why eggs and the hen itself can freeze,
- the nest should be dry and warm - this can be achieved by using straw or hay flooring,
- next to the nest should be placed a feeder with healthy food and a drinker so that the hen can feed and return to the nest, as well as a container of sand - birds like to swim in it.
Turkey is a very responsible hen. She can sit in the nest for several days without food and movement. So that the bird does not weaken, it must be taken out for a walk every day for a few minutes.
In the last days, when the time of the appearance of chicks comes, the hen does not leave the eggs, so you need to bring food to her nest. A turkey, unlike chickens and ducks, takes care of its babies for a long time.
Even when the children become completely independent, she still does not leave the pack.
Turkeys crosses: characteristics, overview
Fermaved.ru »Poultry» Turkeys »Types of turkey crosses
Turkey crosses are often used for industrial structures. But today it is often found that small private farms acquire such hybrid breeds. Turkeys cross differ from others in that they very quickly gain weight and have a fairly large body weight.It is thanks to these many poultry farmers it is profitable to grow them, but at the same time spend the minimum amount of feed.
Types of turkey crosses
Cross - what is it
Cross turkeys are of several types. Or rather three:
They all have different origins. Some are from America, others from western Europe, and some were grown on the territory of the Russian Federation. But today, France, Germany, Great Britain, and Hungary are considered to be the best suppliers.
In order to improve the productive performance of turkeys, breeders select several branches of distinctive characteristics. The main ones are a high percentage of bird mass, long-term viability, and of course, egg production. Every future offspring should inherit all of these qualities.
For this breeders use several species of birds.
In order to get the best view, several breeds are crossed among themselves, which are considered the best of the entire breeding line.
By all indicators - the hybrid always exceeds its "parents" in its main characteristics. Scientists call this feature heterosis.
When several branches of different breeds are crossed among themselves, the resulting breed first bears the name “combined”.
But the connection of branches, parents and hybrids among themselves is just called - cross turkeys. In order to create a cross, use two, three, and then four lines. Because of this, they get their name two-linear, three-linear, four-linear. But by weight they are divided into heavy, medium and light.
- Heavy cross turkeys are Hybrid Converter, Big-6, Hidon.
- The middle cross is Hybrid Converter, BIG-9.
- Easy cross - Victoria Cross, turkey cross wagon, Booth - 8.
Wide-breasted white rock
This type does not apply to crosses, but it is thanks to him that many varieties have appeared today. Wide-breasted became the basis for the creation of other different breeds. Even in the breed itself contains 3 other cross.
According to the table of crosses, Victoria is the heaviest turkey. Wide-breasted was derived by a British company based on other lines. It is rumored that the white appearance was created on the basis of ten different lines.
And own the following characteristics:
- heavy - at thirteen weeks their weight is five and a half kilograms, at twenty weeks the turkey weighs twenty-five kilograms, and the turkey weighs eleven kilograms,
- medium - at thirteen weeks, their weight is four kilograms, at twenty weeks they can reach twenty kilograms - these are turkeys, and turkeys - six to seven kilograms,
- lightweight - thirteen weeks 3 and a half kilograms, at twenty weeks males gain eight to nine kilograms, and females - four and a half kilograms.
White-breasted white grows up to the hundredth day of its life. They are distinguished by the fact that they have a high percentage of meat at the exit, they always have an excellent presentation. The first time the bird leaves the clutch at nine months.
For 6 months, they carry up to a hundred eggs, of which as many as 90 percent are fertilized. Of these, 70 percent is the output of babies.
According to reviews of poultry farmers, the breed itself is quite whimsical, does not tolerate low temperatures, except for this, it is very easy to catch cold. That is why, most often, this breed is bred in the south.
Wide-Breasted White Hybrid
Popular crosses are considered types of Hybrid. It is this wide-breasted species that has become the “cause” of the appearance of several breeds — merge crosses. They first appeared in America.
The main difference between birds is an excellent composition of meat, which includes proteins, but a small percentage of fat and cholesterol. Also an important advantage of this type is that they grow very quickly and develop well.
They adapt very well to completely different living conditions. The most famous hybrids of this species are considered:
- Hybrid Converter - refers to heavy cross,
- Hybrid Grade Maker - refers to the middle cross.
The converter this cross reaches in the downhole age - this is 145-155 days from birth. Already by this time turkeys of a heavy variety gain weight in 24-25 kg, and females - 13 kg.
In the world, they are famous for their two main, positive qualities - this is a very fast growth rate and at the same time the minimum cost of food.
In the opinion of many poultry farmers, the meat is very tasty and tender, and the carcass is always an excellent presentation. Growing is not difficult.
Grade - the average type of birds, already at 123-133 days from birth, the male reaches 19-21 kg, and females 11 kilograms. It is said that it is best to be slaughtered at twelve weeks.
Very often a photo of a carcass can be seen on advertisements and various production booklets.
But there is a small minus, at this moment the weight of the bird is no more than four kilograms, although it is during this period that the bird is sent for slaughter.
Big - 6 - these are heavy cross-country turkeys. This is a very popular and relevant view among avian industrialists. Often can be found on small farms and large enterprises.
This cross appeared due to the crossing of the BIG-5 branch and the BUT-8 cross. At the time of the slaughter, the males reach more than 23 kilograms, and the females - eleven kilograms.
The main thing - the output of meat is over 80 percent, the cultivation is simple. Poults are born white.
Birds grow very quickly, already at three months of age, their weight is 5 kilograms. It takes a little feed to feed, which is why the breed is beneficial for breeding. The plumage of these birds is always white, very tight to the body.
The structure of the body is very strong and powerful, the trunk is oblong, the chest is very large and strong, almost 31 percent of the meat is in it.
The tail is very lush and noticeable, the legs are powerful and long, rather wide apart, and the head is of medium size.
Also refers to a variety of white little idea, distinguished by its good endurance and a large percentage of fecundity. Within 6 months one bird can carry more than 125 eggs. The percentage of withdrawal from masonry - 85.
Similar to the percentage of brood cross Victoria. Turkeys cross BIG -9 heavy look. Because of this, they are great for breeding, both for large industrial farms, and for small.
The birds quickly gain their weight, already at the seventeenth week, their weight is seventeen pounds.
At twenty weeks the weight is 22 kilograms. Here females usually weigh two times less, but they grow faster. One of the positive qualities of this cross is that they do not require a lot of feed. Unlike Big - 6, this Big - 9 needs a smaller amount of feed. Big - 9 was the start for many new lines. It is better to take Canadian origin. The best crosses among whites.
Turkey cross is a relatively new type of turkey that belongs to white turkeys. This cross was created by British scientists, who also derived the two species described above.
But-8 is a light species, a turkey at the age of seventeen weeks reaches a maximum weight of seventeen kilograms, and a female weighs 9 kilograms. Also, experts emphasize that the waste of feed on birds increases with a factor of two.
Because of this, most farmers advise to send poults for slaughter between the ages of 14 and 17 weeks, the converter is average.
Otherwise, because of this, you will spend a lot on food, and even after selling the carcasses you will not be able to beat off the amount spent on feed. According to the external description and mind, the carcass is no different from the others. The converter of this kind is positive.
Feeding little ideas will not be a big hassle. The feathers are white in color and in their structure, they are very dense without any dark spots. The trunk is oblong, strong, and the chest is well developed.
The legs are very strong in structure and widely spaced.
Turkeys have a very strong and expressive neck, there are also bright growths on the head of the bird and a magnificent tail stands out. Consider this view can be more in the photo. It is because of this that most farmers wind up this species for decorative purposes.
Universal - the type of turkeys, which was bred in Russia, refers to the light type. Already at sixteen weeks turkeys weigh six and a half pounds, and females - four and a half pounds. The species appeared due to selective crosses of two branches U1 and U2. Unfortunately, the wagon gives the rear along with other foreign breeds. The main factors for which the view lags behind:
But there are also positives - it is a long life expectancy and unpretentiousness in the diet. They rush badly - they can give only 65 to 75 eggs a year.
This species belongs to the heavy species, was bred in the Netherlands. Adult males are slaughtered at a weight of twenty kilograms. You need a little feed, the breed itself is not whimsical and has a good weight gain. In feeding, they are not whimsical.
The technology of growing broiler turkeys BIG - 6 for 150 days from chick to carcass 25 kg
In one year, they will carry from 90 to 110 eggs. But one more minutely small egg production is heavy cultivation and breeding. Kids are very afraid of dampness, drafts and sudden changes in temperature.
Also for such breed the convector is necessary. It is not recommended to grow at home. White turkeys come in all varieties.
From the many lines of white birds create new crosses that amaze with their qualities.
Breeds and crosses of turkeys
Breeds and crosses of turkeys
An important reserve for increasing meat production in the country is the development of turkey breeding on an industrial basis.
This bird is early ripening, characterized by strongly developed musculature, excellent meat qualities.
By chemical composition, dietary qualities and taste advantages turkey meat is superior to meat of other types of poultry. The bulk of the muscle tissue of turkey carcasses belongs to white meat.
In the breast muscles of turkeys contain up to 25% protein, and in the whole carcass 21%. Turkey meat is poor in fat (8-12%).
Slaughter yield with intensive cultivation of turkey poults can reach 85-90%. The yield of edible parts reaches 70%.
For meat production, turkeys with white plumage are more suitable: white wide-breasted, Moscow white, North Caucasian white.
The main source of turkey meat in our country is white wide-breasted breed (fig.15). This is a universal breed created in the United States based on white Dutch and English turkeys. The bird has excellent meat productivity in combination with good reproductive qualities, vitality and early maturity.
Adult females live weight - 8-9 kg, males - 13-16 kg. Egg production - 80-100 eggs and more.
Currently, the country uses lines and crosses of white wide-breasted turkeys. Using this breed, 3 crosses were obtained: light, medium and heavy, which differ in body weight, growth rate and fecundity.
Fig. 15. White wide-breasted turkey breed
Light cross hybrids are grown for up to 56 days and get poults weighing 2-2.3 kg with feed costs of 2 kg / kg gain.
Hybrids of medium cross grow up to 90 days weighing 4-4.5 kg with feed costs of 2.7 kg / kg increase.
Hybrids of heavy crosses are grown for 120 days (17 weeks) with a live weight of 7.5 kg with feed costs of 2.9-3.3 kg / kg gain.
Cross "Hidon" - obtained on the basis of white wide-chested breed. Grown 4-5 months. The poults have a live weight of 4.5-11 kg, feed costs 2.5-3 kg.
Cross "BYuT - 8" - by the age of 18 weeks, males weigh 15 kg, feed costs 2.1-2.5 kg.
Cross "Universal" - live weight at 16 weeks of males 6.5–7 kg, females 4.0–4.5 kg.
Poults are grown for meat on the floor using deep bedding, cages and a combined method. Lung crosses poults are grown in cages.
In Russia, in addition to white broad-chested breed, they breed bronze and white North Caucasian, white Moscow and Tikhorek black turkeys.
Bronze wide chest The breed was created in the USA on the basis of bronze turkeys as a result of selection and selection of birds with a high growth rate, good development of pectoral muscles, a large body weight and minimal feed costs per unit of production.
Bronze Turkey obtained in the US by crossing local black domestic turkeys with wild North American and black English. The body shape and color of plumage bronze turkeys look like wild ones.
It should be noted that now in America in the wild there are bronze turkeys, which are used as the most valuable genotypes in the creation of new breeds and crosses.
The plumage of the body is black, with copper-bronze tint on the neck and upper chest in males, on the wing feather feathers and tail cover feathers are located transversely
Gray-white and brown stripes. I
Adult turkeys weigh 9-11 kg, turkeys - 17-20 kg. The egg production of the bird of the best lines for the biological cycle - 70-90 eggs. The hatchability of eggs is about 73%.
In the Moscow region in 1940-1960. Two breeds of turkeys were created: the Moscow Bronze and the Moscow White.
Moscow white turkeys are obtained by crossing local white turkeys with turkeys of Dutch and Beltsville breeds, Moscow bronze - as a result of the crossing of local and North Caucasian turkeys with turkeys of bronze wide-chest breed.
Their productive qualities are similar. Thus, the live weight of male white turkeys at 17 weeks of age is 5.3 kg, bronze 5.1 kg, females, respectively, 4.1 and 3.7 kg.
At 52 weeks of age, white turkeys have a live weight of 12.6 kg, turkeys 6.6 kg, bronze - 12.4 and 6.5 kg, respectively.
North Caucasian white The breed was created at the North Caucasus zonal experimental station for poultry farming by crossing turkeys of the bronze North Caucasian breed with white wide-chested turkeys. The bird has high meat qualities and high egg production. The best turkeys take down to 150 eggs. On live weight the bird is close to white wide-chested turkeys.
North Caucasian Bronze The breed was created in the Stavropol Territory in 1956 under the methodological guidance of specialists from the poultry farming department of the TAAA (Figure 16). When breeding, local Caucasian turkeys were crossed first with bronze and then with bronze wide-breasted turkeys.
Fig. 16. North Caucasian Bronze breed of turkeys
The bird is characterized by good meat qualities and high viability. The plumage (black with bronze ebb) is the same as in bronze turkeys. Adult turkeys weigh 7-8 kg, turkeys - 13-15 kg. Egg production - 80-90 eggs and more. The bird is common and well acclimated in various climatic zones, used to improve the local birds.
Turkeys are well adapted to the conditions of the south. They are bred not only in Russia, but also in Ukraine, in Central Asia, Transcaucasia, Bulgaria and Germany.
In the conditions of the Stavropol Territory were withdrawn Tikhoretsk black turkeys (Fig. 17).
Fig. 17. Black Tikhoretsk turkeys
Currently, they are kept in small farms and in the courtyard of amateur poultry farmers. The bird is well adapted to local conditions, unpretentious, willingly eats grain waste, herbs, local food.
Live weight of adult males 9–10 kg, females 4–5 kg, egg production 80–90 eggs. Turkeys can be kept in cages.
They serve as a valuable gene pool and can be used in breeding new breeds and crosses.
Cross country turkeys are distinguished by high egg production rates - about 75-155 eggs per year. Birds begin to rush at the age of 10 months, in turkey poults equipped according to all the rules, they do not stop doing this even in winter. The females have a well-developed maternal instinct, if necessary they place eggs of other birds. The best hens are two-year-old females, turkeys insemination is not required. Proper breeding guarantees fertilization of about 80% of the eggs, ¾ of which reach full hatching. The survival rate of young stock is 90% or more.
Eggs crosses give tasty and large, with the taste of cream cheese - an ideal component of various salads.Read more about the benefits of turkey eggs here.
Since the last century, turkeys have interested large industrialists with a quick weight gain, high indicators of the quality of dietary meat. A systematic work began on the selection of broiler breeds of poultry, gaining a record weight in females up to 11 kg, and in males 25-30 kg. Experts recommend buying for breeding: Cross Big 6, bronze wide-chested, hybrid Converter, Universal.
Meat breed turkeys tend to have several advantages over other animals:
- high yield of meat products
- unpretentious conditions of detention
- nursing ability
To obtain a high quality carcass, turkeys must be fed with balanced feed, which are made up to meet all requirements. Also turkeys need to be provided with seasonal vegetables and green mass.
Bronze wide chest
Characteristic features of the breed is a strong constitution, bulk chest, a large yield of meat and egg products.
In turkeys, the thoracic part reaches 30% of the total meat yield.
Bronze wide-breasted turkeys have brown plumage, the back is painted in shades of bronze with green.
There are small dots and stripes on the back of females, and coal-colored stripes on the male.
- Precocity. After 20 weeks after birth, turkeys reach a weight of 14 kg, turkeys are slightly lighter - 8 kg.
- Good survival rate.
- Disease resistance.
- Egg production, a high percentage of fertilized eggs.
- Tendency to brooding, turkeys can be planted on the eggs of other poultry.
Turkey poults quickly gain weight, are resistant to diseases, unpretentious to feed. They grow up to 4 months of age to put it to the slaughter. They are no longer kept on the farm due to increasing feed costs, because turkeys need more food, not only to maintain weight, but also to build muscle.
The disadvantages of the breed include the inability to keep on pasture, but this is offset by undemanding quality of feed.
Big 6 turkeys, when grown at home, reach a weight of 12 kg for females, and males grow about 25 kg. The bird is distinguished by a white plumage, only in the chest area is a small black area. Representatives of the breed have large paws, bulging muscles on the chest, broad back, large wings.
Manufacturers appreciate Big 6 for a set of qualities:
- Significant weight indicators.
- The rapid growth of turkey poults, do not fatten longer than 4 months of age.
- The yield of meat from the carcass reaches 80%, bacon - 30% of the total weight.
- Egg production up to 100 eggs during the year, turkeys begin to sweep from 7 months.
- Qualitative down and feathers.
Big 6 turkey meat breeds cannot be kept together with another bird in the compound, so as not to provoke constant fights.
The minuses of the breed include hereditary diseases inherent in broiler breed. Work is underway on the decoding of the genome, and in consequence will bring the bird more resistant to diseases, but with the preservation of the output indicators of the dietary product.
Hybrid Converter with snow-white plumage and wide pectoral muscles repeats indicators of broiler breed Big 6.
Adults male and female reach 24 and 11 kg respectively.
The breed was obtained after crossing bronze wide-breasted turkeys with representatives of the Dutch breed, and the results were recognized among breeders.
Turkey Bronze 708 Description - a majestic look, massive build and a bronze cast of feathers. The cross was specially bred by the breeders in order to get a lot of meat in a short time and with minimal cost. Cross breeding with local turkeys is allowed to increase growth rates and reproductive capacity.
Willingness of females to lay eggs begins at 10 months of age. During the year, the turkey blows 120 brown-shelled eggs, the highly developed maternal instinct allows it to even hatch other eggs. In the cross, hatchability of young animals and survival is kept at 90%.
Young animals are allowed to be slaughtered at the age of 24 weeks. The weight of females reaches up to 10 kg, and males from 20 kg and more.
Cross BYuT 8 attracts the attention with the snow-white color of feathers, a convex body, a red beak with a beard, a curved neck, and strong legs. Canadian breeders have bred a wide-breasted rock, although they are related rather to a medium-sized bird. Turkeys reach a weight of 11 kg, and turkeys - 26 kg.
After crossing two cross lines, a new breed appeared - Cross Universal.
Selection work was carried out to improve the quality indicators of meat, with the aim of obtaining a greater yield of products at lower feed costs.
Representatives of the breed have snow-white plumage, extensive sternum, large body, thin legs.
With full feeding, females grow up to 10 kg, males up to 20 kg, and juveniles up to 4 months reach 7 kg.
- high egg production rates
- turkeys fertilize 90% of eggs
- almost all youngsters survive
The cross has a foreign counterpart with slightly higher rates of precocity. But the domestic breed has one specificity, so farmers are happy to grow Universals in the compound. Cross can independently multiply, foreign breed is inseminated artificially.
Bred by crossing a bronze wide-chested breed with local turkeys.
A distinctive feature of males is the coal-black color of feathers with a greenish sheen.
They relate to the light type, but the slaughter yield of meat products reaches 60%, while meat types - 80%.
Females weigh 6 kg, and males weigh 11 kg.
Juveniles weigh up to 4 kg in four months, but in the compound they grow to maturity.
The females have average egg production, but they become excellent hens for all types of poultry. The advantage is the ability to winter in unheated poultry houses, and the disadvantage is the need for extensive walking.
In terms of productivity, the breed repeats the Moscow bronze, but already with improved quality indicators of meat, the presentation of the carcass, higher egg production and snow-white plumage. Adult males reach weight in 17 kg, and females - 9 kg. During the year, the turkey blows 110 eggs, fertilization and hatching - 80%.
Representatives of the breed feel good on pastures, independently looking for food. The bird has a medium-sized body, a small head, an elongated neck, and a plumage of copper-brown color. The female weighs 5 kg, and the male weighs 10 kg. They note the shortcomings of the breed: low egg production, poor hatchability and low taste parameters of meat.
Meat breeds of turkeys are in demand not only in industry, but are also suitable for home breeding. Although the small farmer will not be able to provide the bird with a full-fledged diet, stable temperature indicators and separate enclosures so that turkeys do not spend calories on the move. But even at home you can reach a weight of 10 to 18 kg in females and males, respectively.
In the video - tips on breeding turkeys:
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Now the poultry farmers have a great choice: interesting crosses and breeds of turkeys have been bred. We will not be able to tell about all, but it is worth mentioning some.
Big 6 was bred by a British company. Big 6 fell in love with poultry farmers, because it is distinguished by high precocity, and, which is important for poults, viability. They give a lot of meat.
- on the neck and head - "decoration" of a bright red color,
- chest wide, bulging forward,
- legs are long
- the plumage is white, dense, glitters,
- at 17 weeks turkeys weigh up to 16.5 kg, turkeys a little less.
Big 6 has a big meat yield - 78-80%.
Cross turkey big 6 has white plumage and a black spot on the chest
Universal was obtained in Russia, for this crossed two lines.
- the birds have white feathers,
- at 16 weeks, males gain up to 6.5 kg, and females weigh slightly less:
- breast bird with good muscling,
- preservation of turkey poults - 98%,
Despite the fact that the Universal is inferior to foreign crosses, the owners of household plots willingly buy up these turkeys, since for their breeding does not require artificial insemination. In addition, this bird is stress-resistant, easily adapts to new conditions. It is unpretentious in cultivation and nutrition.
Cross Turkey Universal is unpretentious in content
Victoria created two lines of turkeys. The paternal line was distinguished by high body weight. It was necessary to note muscularity of the breast, and the fact that the chicks quickly grew and gained weight. The maternal line - with high energy growth, and still gives a new advantage - fecundity. Victoria turkeys collected all the best qualities of their parents.
By the time of slaughter, Victoria turkeys gain weight up to 13 kg, and turkeys weigh up to 8 kg.
This cross was bred in Canada. Two breeds of turkeys were crossed: Bronze wide-breasted and White Dutch.
- white plumage, lush in the tail,
- wide chest
- different meat qualities
- have a high degree of precociosity.
These birds are unpretentious, grow large: turkeys - 19-22 kg, turkeys - 9-12 kg.
What is different from meat breeds?
Meat breeds and crosses have a number of differences. So the breed combines individuals with a set of common hereditary characteristics - for example, resistance to diseases, egg production rates, color of feathers, weight, build, behavioral responses. If birds of the same breed intersect, the offspring will inherit all parental qualities, with crosses everything is different - since their parents are hybrids, hereditary characteristics will not be transmitted, and the offspring will eventually begin to shrink and degenerate.
Definition of inbreeding
Inbreeding is a closely related breeding of animals of the same breed. It is produced in order to consolidate the optimal hereditary characteristics of poultry for breeding. It is desirable to cross the offspring first with one parent, then with a descendant obtained during the previous crossing. With long-term inbreeding, productivity indicators are falling, so it is advisable to pair inbred individuals with representatives of other areas or refresh blood by purchasing males of a similar breed in another herd.
Hybrid grade maker - crosses, obtained as a result of long-term experiments on the selection of selected breeds of turkeys. Initially, scientists set a goal to get a breed with an impressive live weight and good taste of meat. Grade Maker is a medium-sized hybrid cross bred in Canada. White plumage, cover rather fluffy. Turkeys are characterized by a powerful wide chest. Growth rates of birds are high - at the age of 4 months they grow to 10-20 kg (males are about twice as large as females).
In America and Canada, the Grade Maker breed is called "holiday" because it is this cross that most often falls on the table for Thanksgiving Day.
Advantages of Grade Makers:
- quick weight gain
- good payback
- tasty dietary meat,
- resistance to negative environmental factors due to strong immunity,
- presentation of carcasses.
Grow cross can be in any climatic conditions, including the harsh Siberian cold. The main thing is to maintain a constant temperature in the house at least 28 degrees, to monitor the humidity (the birds do not tolerate dampness). On 1 males take about 8 turkeys, no longer needed, because turkeys are aggressive and constantly fight with each other. Other requirements - the presence of comfortable perches, a sufficient amount of sunlight, containers with clean sand, where birds will be cleaned from parasites, the absence of drafts. Recommended vaccination against rhinotracheitis, coccidiosis, atypical plague. Inoculate only healthy strong turkeys.
The minimum number of meals - 3 times a day. Birds are gaining weight well, in order to avoid obesity for them settling pens settles. During active mating, the crosses are fed up to 5 times a day. The basis of the diet - germinated and dry grain, a sufficient amount of fresh herbs is necessary.
Victoria cross turkeys were bred in the North Caucasus. The basis of selection is colored and white wide-breasted turkeys of various breeds. Direction refers to light meat broilers. The plumage is snow-white, so the carcass looks beautiful even after plucking. Turkey has an excellent taste and belongs to the delicious varieties of meat. Victoria - large birds that have a compact build. Muscle mass builds up on the chest and legs.
- The live weight of turkeys is 6 kg for females and almost 9 kg for males.
- Turkeys for meat slaughtered at the age of 5 months, turkeys - a month later.
- Egg production figures are about 84 eggs per season, birds carry eggs for 5 months.
- The birds are healthy and strong, they rarely get sick, they are not whimsical in caring.
- Victoria Cross is ideal for grazing and can withstand harsh climatic conditions.
Consider that the direction refers to the lungs, so you will not get very big carcasses.
Victoria's cross-country eggs and youngsters are quite difficult to find on sale, because current production capacities do not overlap the demand.
Turkeys are suitable for cellular and outdoor cultivation. Young animals need warmth and lack of drafts - until the bird is stronger, it needs attentive care. “Healthy” length of daylight is 14-16 hours, so additional lighting is required in winter. Watch for litter - it should be dry and clean. To the composition of the feed Victoria crosses are not whimsical.
How to choose the right breed for LPH
Breeds of turkeys, unlike breeds of other birds, there is not so much. For breeding in subsidiary personal farms it is best to choose:
- North Caucasian Bronze - it is ideal for grazing; it starts at the age of 9-10 months within six months. One specimen gives 80 large eggs in a light fawn shell.
- Bronze wide chest - relatively small birds, which rush begin after 10 months to the kilograms. Crosses have similar external characteristics in North Caucasus, strong pectoral muscles, and a large body.
- White wide chested - birds with tender meat, grow quickly, adapt well to any climatic conditions. Live weight is relatively small, egg production is good.
The main factors that should be considered when choosing - the cost of maintenance, productivity, meat quality, payback.
White turkeys are much more compact than bronze, they have a rounded torso.
In the video we will see turkeys of various breeds and learn about the features of their content.
List of current turkey crosses
Many people like turkey meat for its taste, nutrient content and low-calorie nutritiveness, and this stimulates poultry houses to start some types of turkeys in their households that will provide healthy and dietary meat to the family. There are types of turkeys with a high level of egg production, it makes sense to get them to people who want to get fresh homemade eggs daily. After the novice poultry farmer decided to breed this large poultry, he has a logical question - how to choose turkeys with optimal qualities and certain conditions of housing, because everyone knows that the turkey is very demanding to care.
Breeding work to improve one type of turkey or another involves identifying lines of young stock according to certain characteristics - high weight of the carcass, egg production, vitality of both one and several breeds. Then breeders cross several lines of parents and their offspring, as well as successful hybrids, as a result of which they receive a cross that has its own distinctive features.
In this article we will acquaint you with the most popular turkey crosses, knowledge of which will help determine the choice of poultry for domestic or industrial breeding.
Cross turkey "Kharkov-56"
Cross turkey "Kharkiv-56" refers to the middle type, derived on the basis of the Institute of Poultry NAAS, which currently continues to work with the breeding herd. The bird of this cross-country is adapted for walking and relatively well adapted for trouble-free keeping and local feeds. At 13 weeks of age, the live weight of the bird is 2-2.5 kg, at 17 weeks - 2.5-2.7 kg, at 20 weeks - 2.8 - 3.2 kg, while the share of slaughter yield can reach 85 %
Adult males can weigh about 20 kg, and females - 10. Eggs of turkeys begin at about 8 months, therefore, by 6 months of age, birds should be chosen whose qualities you want to see in their offspring - weight, body structure, and others. From 4 months of age, it is recommended to separate males from females in order to avoid harassment and injury to the latter. Turkeys of the Kharkiv-56 cross-country during mating need help - you need to bend over the turkey and support the female under the wings until the process is complete.
Big 6 broiler turkeys
Bronze North Caucasus Turkey created in the 50s of the last century on the basis of local turkeys by crossing them with imported bronze. They have an elongated body, deep chest and bronze plumage. The live weight of adult males is 15-17 kg, females - 5-7 kg, laying hens give 80-90 eggs per cycle.
This bird is very well adapted to grazing, unpretentious. The disadvantage of it is considered unattractive presentation of the carcass, which shows dark spots of pigmented skin.
Today, the North Caucasian bronze are found mainly in small private farms engaged in breeding sheep: vacant during the warm seasons of the year are used as “housing” for this bird.
North Caucasian White Turkey Bred in the 70s of the last century by crossing the Bronze North Caucasian with white wide chest. They are characterized by high egg production, are well adapted to different content systems and, unlike bronze ones, they have white skin, which means that they have a more attractive look in carcasses.
White Moscow turkeys - The result of a complex reproductive crossing of white Dutch, white local and belstvile turkeys. This breed is characterized by high egg production, precociousness of meat, compactness of the carcass. The live weight of an adult bird is relatively small: on average one-year-old males, on average, 15-17 kg, in females - 6-7 kg.
Very promising modern crosses turkeys BYuT-8, BIG-6.
In the middle of the last century, black Tikhoretsk turkeys were widely bred in the Krasnodar Territory. They are distinguished by good adaptability to grazing, extremely unpretentious. Their live weight is also small: adult males weigh 10 kg, females 4-6 kg.
Cross turkey "BIG-5"
Cross turkeys "BIG-5" come from England, from where it began to spread everywhere. This a type of medium turkey with good meat qualities officially registered in 2008. Birds of this cross with a long deep body, wide convex chest, fleshy back and developed wings and legs. The plumage is white. The weight of females is about 10-11 kg, males - 17-19 kg. The weight of 16-week-old young stock can reach 7 kg with a reinforced diet.
Cross turkeys "BIG-6"
Cross turkeys "BIG-6" refers to the heavy type, is one of the most popular among breeders of domestic birds for excellent reproduction and meat characteristics.
This species was bred in 2008 by English breeders. Turkey "BIG-6" has a dense physique with strong bones, fleshy convex chest. The plumage is white with occasional black patches on the chest. The female can lay 110-120 eggs in one year. Adult male turkey "BIG-6" weighs 20-23 kg, the female - 10-13 kg. The share of slaughter yield can reach 80-85%.
The weight of 12-week-old young stock can reach 13-15 kg. This species of birds is rather unpretentious in cultivation, and also differs by an intensive weight gain at relatively low feed costs, for which “BIG-6” is very common among poultry farmers.
Cross turkeys "BIG-9"
Cross turkeys "BIG-9" refers to the heavy type, the content of which is not very difficult. This variety gives a good gain in live weight, compared with the spent feed on the turkey. Cross is popular for endurance, good performance and excellent meat characteristics.
The body of this species of turkey is dense, the legs are short, the chest is convex, the relatively small head is on the average length of the neck. White plumage. The weight of an adult male is about 18-21 kg, females 10-11 kg. For 26 weeks, the female is able to carry about 120 eggs, the hatchability of which is 85%, which allows you to successfully breed this cross in the household. It is from the "BIG-9" occurs several lines of turkeys, which derive the breeders.
Cross turkey "BJT-8"
Cross-turkeys "BJT-8" - medium-heavy type, the characteristic of which is characterized by precocity and a fairly large set of live weight. "BYT-8" was launched in England, the date of registration of the cross - 2007.
The appearance is specific - the body is quite large, round in shape, the head is large, elongated. Powerful medium length legs wide apart, chest well developed. The neck is slightly arched, of medium length. White plumage, growths on the head bright red. A 20-week-old turkey weighs about 17 kg, a turkey - 9 kg. It makes sense to slaughter a bird, whose age is 14-17 weeks, the cost of further maintenance significantly exceeds the increase in live weight.
Cross turkey "Universal"
Cross "Universal" refers to the light type. The cross was bred by Russian breeders who officially registered it in 2003. The weight of an adult male reaches 16 kg, females - 9 kg.
The bird of this species has a dense body, long developed legs and wings, a bulging and muscular chest. White plumage. Egg production is approximately 65 eggs per year, up to 90% of which are fertilized. The output of young stock at the level of 95%. "Universal" is popular in home breeding due to the viability and simplicity in the feed, despite the low weight of adult birds and low rates of increase in body weight.
Cross turkeys "Khidon"
Cross turkeys "Khidon" refers to the heavy types. This species was bred in the Netherlands, from where distribution to other countries began in the 1980s. Cross has a good degree of precocity. The weight of an adult 30-week-old male is 19–20 kg, and that of a female is 10–11 kg.
Egg production at the level of 100-110 pieces per year. The share of slaughter output is up to 80%. The disadvantages of cross-breeding include the difficulty of breeding and rearing young stock, which does not tolerate dampness, drafts, temperature changes and requires special ongoing care, as well as the complexity of natural fertilization and the need for artificial. This cross is not recommended for breeding novice poultry farmers.
Cross turkey "Victoria"
The turkey cross "Victoria" refers to a light type suitable for growing in households and cages of poultry farms. The weight of an adult male reaches 12 kg, females - 7-8 kg. The body is well built, rather wide chest well muscled, has a fairly rapid growth rate. Egg production - approximately 80-90 eggs with good fertilization, the yield of young animals using an incubator is up to 75%. Young turkeys "Victoria" have a good survival rate, the loss of turkey poults can reach 10%. The strengths of this species of bird are also their endurance, unpretentiousness in the diet and conditions of detention.