Karnika (Krajina bee) is a highly productive breed, very popular with European beekeepers. For our relative simplicity and high rates of honey collection, this variety is also valued here in Russia. Homeland Karnik are the Alps of Austria and Yugoslavia. According to many beekeepers, according to the characteristics, this variety combines the best qualities of Carpathian and gray Caucasian bees.
Breed of karnik bees and their characteristics in appearance
One of the distinguishing features of the Krajina bee is a very unusual appearance. Karnik has not yellow, like most other varieties, color, but gray with silver inclusions. Each border of these insects is very thick, and the hairs themselves are short. As a result, the bee looks shaggy.
The size of this breed is not too large. The working insect weighs about 105 g, the drone is 230 g. The uterus of the karnik bees are also quite miniature - up to 185-205 g. The proboscis length in insects of this species is 6.4-6.8 mm. For individual individuals, this figure can reach up to 8 mm. There are several types of karnik breed. In our country, mainly Polish bees are bred in Poland.
Karnik is a bee that has gained popularity among beekeepers primarily for its high rates of honey collection. In this regard, the breed is superior to most other species. Only one day a family can collect up to 6-15 kg of honey.
Also the advantage of this breed is the ability not to lose in productivity even in the poorest honey crops. The good profitability of those apiaries where karnik is raised is also explained by the fact that these bees are very economical in terms of spending stocks in the winter time. The maximum fecundity of the uterus of this breed is 1400-2000 eggs per year. This is actually a very good indicator. The ability to grow large amounts of brood can significantly increase the profitability of the farm.
Karnika is a breed of bees friendly and gentle. Animals or people without good reason, these insects never attack. The beekeeper is free to open the hive and perform all the necessary manipulations. At the same time, bees do not show any aggression and only begin to actively run along the honeycomb.
Pros and cons of breed
Some deficiency of the breed is considered to be the propensity to swarm. In this regard, the karnik is similar to bees bakfast. However, with proper care and on rich honeycages, this deficiency practically does not manifest itself. Moreover, with timely measures taken, these bees quickly move from the swarm to the working state.
The advantages of the breed, many beekeepers include, among other things, and the ability to navigate well in space. Alien hives with their bees are never confused. They do not differ in the aristocracy. At the same time, karnik bees can protect their own nests very well.
Features of honey collection
Karnik - bees, whose performance characteristics are very good, the best results are shown on early bribes. That is, most of the honey they collect in the spring. At the same time insects can work actively already at a temperature of 10-12 degrees. This breed is not too sensitive to poor honey collection. At the same time, it also easily switches from bad to good at the first opportunity. The best results Krajinsky bees show on a red clover. But on other medosborakh able to express themselves to the maximum. In the summer, in bad weather, insects do not fly out of the hive.
First of all, a karnik fills the brood portion of the nest with honey. Then the insects go to the shop. The honey signet of these bees is often dry and light.
Sometimes beekeepers are interested in which bee is better - a carpathian or a karnik. There is no single answer to this question. The productivity indicators of both these species are approximately the same. However, the activity of collecting from Karpatka, in contrast to Karnik, who prefers to “work” at most in the spring, depends on the frequency of flowering of good honey plants during the whole warm season. Thus, the expediency of breeding a particular species is determined only by the characteristics of the flora of this particular area.
Karnik is a breed of bees that is capable of enduring low temperatures without harm to itself. In terms of resistance to cold, it is only slightly inferior to the hardiest in this regard, the Central Russian variety. At the same time, it surpasses the Caucasus in terms of winter hardiness.
Until recently, beekeepers attributed to the characteristic features of this bee a spasmodic development. Overwintering the Krainskii breed in rather weak families. In the winter the bees have about 6-9 full frames. This feature is primarily related to the fact that the beekeepers in Germany and Austria, the countries in which krainka is the most popular, have long bred this species in small hives with a back cover. But since now specialized stores in Europe have begun to offer special extensions that allow expanding hives arbitrarily to any size, the lines of these bees wintering with strong families have appeared. However, in principle, the breed does not change at all, but rather, comes to its original state. The fact is that in this way these bees wintered once in Hungary and Romania.
With different kinds of diseases, the owners of apiaries specializing in the breeding of this breed of bees have to fight extremely rarely. Karnik - the bee is very resistant to both foulbrood and Nozematosis. In this regard, it is not inferior even to a very unpretentious Central Russian bee. Diseases of the brood in this breed almost never occur. This is primarily due to the high vitality and vigor of insects. The only exception is lime lime (ascospherosis). Recently, beekeepers have recorded a rather frequent occurrence of a similar problem in the Krajina bee.
What to do to prevent swarming
So, karnik is a bee prone to swarming. So what should the beekeeper have to do to prevent the loss of a part of Krajina bees in springtime? Swarming in these insects occurs as a result of:
- a sharp decrease in ferromones in the uterus and, as a consequence, the emergence of a large number of troter,
- instinctive readiness of young bees to begin collecting nectar in the absence of it in early spring.
If the breed of bees bakfast and karnik stop the construction of honeycombs and do not fly out of the hive, and the uterus has reduced egg laying - it means that the insects have prepared for swarming. You can prevent it by taking the following measures:
- strengthening the ventilation of the hive to stimulate the construction of additional cells,
- reducing incoming light.
Also, beekeepers often struggle with swarming by expanding the nest using a multi-part design. In this case, the uterus is fenced off with a dividing grid, and the brood is forcibly moved to another section. This way you can avoid overloading the family. In young worker bees, additional space appears to collect nectar, and the uterus is given the opportunity to actively reproduce.
How to treat ascospherosis
The breed of karnik bees, the reviews about which are not bad, to such a disease as calcareous offspring, as already mentioned, unfortunately, is not very stable. The insect mold Ascosphaera apis, which affects larvae and pupae of any species, causes this disease in insects. In a natural way, this fungus from the hives never disappears. Because of its high vitality, bees cannot cope with it on their own.
To determine the infection can be primarily on the white bloom, reminiscent of a calcareous, on the body of the larvae. Often, the latter also increase in size, since the fungus grows not only outside, but also inside their bodies. White plaque with ascospheresis appears on the cell lid. At the final stage of development of the fungus, the larva turns into a solid lime lump. The worker bees themselves throw it out of the hive.
Infection occurs most often due to too humid microclimate at low temperatures. There is also a risk of developing the disease if the beekeeper does not follow the basic rules of hygiene when working with a hive. Most often the infection is brought trite through dirty inventory. Other bees (from already infected families) can also be carriers.
If the family has become ill with ascospheresis, the frame with infected offspring should be removed first of all from the hive. Next, carry out the treatment with drugs "Askotsin", "Unisan" or "Nystatin". Of folk remedies garlic wrapped in cheesecloth is often used. Bees are transplanted into another, clean hive. Nest cut. Garlic is placed in several places - in the corners, on the framework, etc.
Karnik Bees: Breed Reviews
Russian beekeepers praise this variety, above all, of course, for its high productivity. Judging by the reviews of many beekeepers, with good care, this breed can produce honey by 20-30% more than most others. At the same time, the product itself is simply excellent taste.
The ability to easily endure harsh winters is one of the merits that distinguish bees of the karnik. Reviews of this breed from Russian beekeepers are also good for this reason. After all, the climate in our country is harsh. And that is why many productive bee breeds in Russia, and especially in the northern regions, cannot be bred. The only thing that a beekeeper needs to know when he decides to do just the farm is that it is impossible to put the frame on the drain too late. This may cause a weakening of the family, and consequently, its death in the winter.
Experienced beekeepers are also not advised to try to cross this bee with other breeds. Of these experiments, usually nothing good comes out.
As you can see, karnik is a very productive bee and quite unpretentious. Honey from this variety can easily get the maximum amount. But, of course, good results in the breeding of this breed can be achieved only if all the necessary technologies are observed. In the spring of the bees must be monitored to prevent swarming. It is allowed to work with the hive using only clean, disinfected equipment.
Their name is associated with the region Krajina, located on the territory of present Slovenia. Karnik from Europe differ in appearance from the original Austrian insects and are sometimes referred to as autonomous species.
Family productivity averages 50-70 kg of honey. The Krainska bee confirmed it on various honey collections, overtaking other breeds, especially on an early bribe, and, thanks to the length of the proboscis, on a red clover. This species is characterized by increased robility, but after taking measures to prevent swarming, insects easily go over to working condition. A special feature of Karnika is a slight propolisation of the nests. There are cases of "quiet" shift and the coexistence of two queens.
The most important characteristic is wavy development. The bee overwinters a rather weak family with no more than 6–9 frames of rue, respectively, using little food. In the spring, Krainka is developing unusually fast, filling honeycombs. This species is ideal for spring honey collection.
Due to its remarkable vitality, Karnik has resistance to toxicosis. It is also fairly resistant to Nosematosis and European Foulbrood. The bee is well oriented, finds alternative honey plants and can quickly switch to more profitable ones. Tendency to theft is low, but protects its reserves well.
There are several breeding lines of Karnika, but we will consider only some of them.
- Pees is one of the oldest strains. To maintain it, two conditions were observed: isolated places for crossing and regular reinforcement of the population with the original material maintained by the author. Much attention was paid to saving the species, so today it is one of the most numerous.
- Karnika Troisek is another of the oldest breeding lines. Bees are tough, neat, peaceful, well sit on the framework. Family development is gradual with a maximum increase in June-July. The uterus stops worming too late, but at temperatures above 5 degrees Celsius it can renew it even in winter. Hybridization is successful only within related lines.
- Line Troisek Wintersbach has a behavior typical of the Karnik breed. The bee is resistant to diseases, is characterized by medium brood, is moderate in food, is peaceful, has a high rate of development, in June it reaches a peak. Suitable for industrial beekeeping. Gives excellent breeding results within the breed.
- The Lower Austrian line is a cross between Karnika and the northern bee. The brood begins late, but intensely, and at the time of the bribe gain strength. Need a spacious hive. In winter, unlike other breeds, does not weaken.
- Karnik Troisek Celle is in an evolving state. Insects are very calm, low productivity, but after the uterus reaches three years can increase dramatically. When mating with other breeds, the characters do not transmit, therefore, good breeding results are only within related lines.
- Karnika Sclenar is extremely aggressive. Works well on late honey plants. Recommended only purebred breeding, crossing with others gives the nastiness and robility.
Karnik Bees in Winter
These bees first appeared in the south-eastern part of Central Europe. They were popular at that time in Carinthia and the Upper Extreme. In modern times, these areas are called Slovenia. This is where the name of the bees comes from - Krainskiye or Carinthian. Already in 1880, the name of this population changed to Apis mellifica carnica Polltn, they began to occur in the territories:
In the late nineteenth century, bees began to spread in other countries and regions. Due to their merits, they significantly surpassed the popularity of even Germanic dark bees. Karnik bees are peculiarities of this species in their merits and behavior.
Features of the Karnik breed bees
The body of insects has a light shade, thanks to the alternation of gray and black colors. The individual is not large, with a thick down. The proboscis of an adult insect reaches six whole and eight tenths of a millimeter. One adult bee weighs one hundred and eleven milligrams. One of the most important characteristics is that the Karnik bees are very calm and peaceful individuals.
The ability to quickly multiply was initially perceived by beekeepers as increased robility. But this is not entirely true if you apply the right approach to them. Only in the non-lactating period, you need to be very careful and take all necessary measures. For this, experienced beekeepers simply insert several additional frames and break out the queen cells. Insects react to such manipulations positively and quickly come out of the swarm. If you do not respond in time, then a third of the families from the whole apiary can fly away.
These bees have another feature. They work great on honey crops from grasses.In addition, individuals of this breed are able to fly for honey even in bad weather, which cannot be said about other breeds. Thanks to this feature, beekeepers from Karnik collect a lot of honey.
As soon as the amount of honey collection decreases, the workers actively begin to prepare for winter. The uterus stops laying eggs, and the family leaves for the winter.
It should be noted! In the cold season, Karnik eats little, thus able to winter well with a minimum of mortality.
It is very convenient to work at such an apiary, because Karnik’s peace-lovingness allows you to approach the hive without a smoker and a beekeeping mask. During the inspection workers do not pay the slightest attention to the invasion of their lives. They can bunches hanging from the frame. In addition, this breed is practically not sick.
Advantages and disadvantages
The advantages of this bee family include:
- The family is able to quickly multiply in the spring after hibernation,
- Insects take bribes from any kind of grass and plants,
- Early start preparing for the winter,
- They have a great winter, they need a little feed,
- The family gives off a lot of wax,
- Quickly get out of the swarm,
- Do not get sick
- Well tolerate moving to another place
- Do not steal someone else's honey from neighboring hives,
- Peaceable. You can work without smoke and protection.
All the pros and cons were taken from reviews of beekeepers who have a Karnik breed of bees; their disadvantage is that there is very little propolis from these individuals, and in the absence of a bribe there is a risk of bees swarming. This breed of bees feels comfortable in areas with a mild climate.
By weight, the beekeeper Karnik differ significantly. A fertile individual weighs two hundred and five milligrams, infertile - one hundred and eighty-five. In the spring, during the period when the build-up of strength occurs, the uterus is able to lay from one and a half to two thousand eggs per day.
Note. Like the bees themselves, their uterus is very peaceful and does not pay attention to the fact that the beekeeper conducts inspection of the hive. She even at this time is engaged in laying eggs.
In addition, the replacement of the old uterus on the young passes completely unnoticed. This queen is very expensive in the market because she puts aside a little queen cell. But if the pollen enters the hive in greater quantities than usual, then the queen will significantly increase the number of queen cells.
Karnik's bee packages
Many are interested in where you can take a family of bees of the Karnik breed. These bee packages can be ordered in special stores. The kit includes:
- Three frames of the type dadan, in which there are larvae, and one covering frame. These frames are fixed both at the top and at the bottom, thanks to which they will be conveniently and safely transported.
- Family of bees of the Karnik breed.
- Bee queen, which turned no more than one year. On it stick a white label.
- A bee family generally weighs at least one kilogram of two hundred grams. This weight is set by standards GOST 20728-75.
- Food for bees in the form of cakes with honey. It weighs at least one and a half kilograms and is packed in a plastic bag. It is laid on top of the frame.
- Water in a bottle with a special device for convenient use by bees. It is also mounted at the top above the frame in a horizontal position.
A box of fiberboard with a capacity for two beepacks of standard sizes with a width of thirty-six centimeters, a length of fifty-one centimeters and a height of forty-two centimeters. This box is a package for a pack of bees.
Karnik Beekeeping from Austria
Beekeeping in Austria has long been a difficult path of transformation from peasant to intensive. Now it is a separate branch in agriculture, which occupies not the last place in the popularity rating. In this country there are more than thirty thousand beekeepers who collect at least seven thousand tons of honey a year and breed up to thirty thousand queen bees of certain breeds.
Such productivity is due to the fact that the Karnik Bee breed is popular in keeping in the country. Engaged in the breeding of these insects at the beginning of the last century. Special centers and breeding grounds are engaged in breeding queens of this breed. Farms in which there is an apiary, are registered with the veterinary services.
Interesting. In addition, in Austria it is forbidden to breed other species of bees, the illegal importation of insects is prohibited by law. Here only purebred breed Karnik is welcomed, which is capable of collecting nectar on the country's poor fields.
Insects of the Karnik breed fully justify their maintenance, therefore they are in demand in beekeeping. Their value lies in the ability of the family to breed and hard work.
Description and photo
Beekeepers distinguish four natural breeds or races of honey bees. Karnik is one of them. It appeared in the Austrian county of Krajna in the nineteenth century, now it is the territory of Slovenia.
During this time, the breed has spread throughout the world, through selection many of its strains have been derived. The formation of race was influenced by the Italian and Cypriot bees.
Despite this, the main advantage of the karnik - exceptional calm - remained unchanged. Beekeepers say that the uterus is worm even when they hold the frame with it in their hands. The bee is medium in size, gray in color, its mass ranges from 100 to 230 milligrams. In a day, the uterus can lay up to two thousand eggs, which indicates a good fecundity of the species.
Bees collect honey when the first flowers appear, finish work at the end of the summer and work in any weather. Hence, the indicators of good honey content, which average up to sixty kilograms per family.
In describing the breed of the karnik bee, it should be noted that it tolerates climate change well and winters well, spending very little food. During the winter, the family eats her no more than six kilograms. The insect is resistant to disease and after wintering in the hive there is little submission.
Karnik refers to the gray bee, the main color of her body is dark gray. Sometimes on the first tergites there are yellow stripes. This happened due to cross-breeding of the karnik with the Italian bee.
The insect pubescence is short, thick and silvery. Uterus, as a rule, is black, but sometimes striped. This breed is characterized by a longer than the rest, proboscis, which grows up to seven millimeters. Thanks to this, an individual can collect nectar even in the most hard-to-reach places. The working bee weighs a little over one hundred milligrams, the uterus is about two hundred, and the drone weighs two hundred and thirty. The size of the bee refers to the average species.
Some beekeepers note high royalness of the karnik, others, on the contrary, claim that it is not. Different reviews were observed in different habitats of this breed.
At the same time, experts say that even if signs of swarming are available, it is fairly easy to stop. To do this, you just need to put additional frames in the hive in order to provide the bees with work.
Karnik bees are genetically unstable. If an alien drone enters the hive, all the offspring lose all good qualities without moving to a new species. Only the dominant quality can remain, and this is primarily the calm of the breed.
Therefore, experts recommend crossbreeding only within a single subspecies.
The offspring of the karnik breed begins to develop with the appearance of the first pollen and matures much earlier than in other species. Therefore, by mid-May, the strength of the swarm is finally growing.
A bee per day lays an average of two thousand eggs and this process continues until there is pollen. After that, the family ceases to grow and thus its number can be regulated. The family winters with a small composition, and therefore consumes less food.
Advantages and disadvantages
Krajina bee is different from itself similar absolute tranquility and lack of irritability. This makes it popular for content in all apiaries.
It does not require large expenditures in terms of feed, consuming it during the wintering period a very small amount. Diligence is inherent in it genetically, it is well tolerated by changes in the weather and therefore the yield of honey in the apiary is very high.
Beekeepers note that after the appearance of bees of this breed in the apiary, the honey harvest grows by almost thirty percent.
Also, unlike other bee species, the karnik tolerates transportation very well. During the move, the temperature in the hive rises and almost all bee species tolerate this badly. Krajina bee in this regard is an exception, individuals behave very calmly.
Breed is very resistant to various diseases. With proper care and good climatic conditions, the bees do not suffer from acarapidosis, paralysis, padevogo toxicosis.
Of the shortcomings of these bees can be noted swarming. But even with proper beekeeping, it is possible in rare cases. Individuals of this race practically do not produce propolis.
Some consider this a disadvantage, and some, on the contrary, as a deliverance from too frequent hive cleaning. Also, this species does not like a long and harsh winter.
If it is delayed, reproduction may begin late. Because of this, more feed will go away and the swarm will be low.
Karnik breed bees feel great in any territory. But most of all they like to live near clover and rapeseed fields. If heather, buckwheat or sunflower grows close by, professionals recommend other insects.
Bees do not get sick, if you follow the purity of their hives. Despite the fact that the Krainskaya bee practically does not produce propolis, it still forms on the frames and walls of the bee house and needs to be removed.
The frequency of placement of hives on the ground can be much lower than when caring for other types of bees. Due to the excellent orientation of the terrain, karnik will very easily find their home.
Working bees lay out nectar in two places, including where the bee-field breeds offspring. This may interfere with the maturing of the young. To avoid this, it is recommended to pick up beehives with a vertical expansion of the nest for breeding karnik.
Although the bees of this breed are resistant to many diseases, periodically you need to invite a veterinarian to confirm their good health.If you want to get a lot of honey in the apiary and are not interested in frequent cleaning of beehives, the Krajina bee will fully suit you. This breed is very hardworking, does not get sick and consumes little feed in winter.
And most importantly - you can not be afraid to approach the bee house without protective equipment. Bees are very peaceful and rarely can show aggression.
Characteristics and features of the breed
Karnik bees are common in Western Europe. They are considered to be intensively bred by insects, which determine the place of origin. The breed originated in Yugoslavia on the slopes of the Alps.
- weight from 185 to 230 mg,
- the color is gray-silver, the presence of a yellow color indicates mixed breed,
- abdomen shape - pointed, proboscis length - about 6.5 mm,
- peacefulness, a rare manifestation of aggression,
- resistance to cold environmental conditions
- the ability to quickly move from one plant to another when collecting pollen and nectar,
- the fecundity of the bee-maid per day - up to 2000 eggs.
Beekeepers choose representatives of this breed because of the ability to quickly adapt, peace-loving disposition, high productivity. In the early collection of honey insects perfectly cope with their responsibilities.
- Subspecies diversity determines the ability of bee colonies to make propolis. Species that inhabit the southern terrain, produce bee glue many times more than the subspecies of the northern latitudes. Some bee families do not use propolis at all.
- The production of white signet is an indicator of the quality of the work done by the Karnik bees. Depending on the variety, different quantities of dry seals are made, but this process is inherent in all bee colonies of the breed presented.
- The manifestation of excellent skills in the construction of honeycombs. Negative factors do not affect skills: early period, absence of bee-maids, bad bribes, sealed queen cells.
- Representatives of the breed show the ability to have a good memory, since the changes occurring in the environment do not change the usual course of life and working process.
The fertility of the uterus greatly affects the productivity of the bee family, with which the Krainsky breed has full order.
The bees of this breed exhibit a high ability to reproduce offspring, which is directly related to the fertility of the beekeeper Karnik. She lays up to 2 thousand eggs per day. This leads to an accelerated build-up of family strength, therefore, it is recommended to take measures to prevent swarms:
- airing hives
- limiting the incoming light
- expansion of space with simultaneous restriction of the uterus from the nest with the help of the lattice.
After amplification, the bee colony is changing the uterus of the Karnik variety. The best time to perform is spring, which will favorably affect the decline of the swarm.
Representatives of the breed rarely show anger and aggression, therefore sometimes they replace the uterus on their own with low fertility or illness. Insects lay the queen mothers, from which comes a new maternal specimen. With this new bee-maid kill the old queen.
Breed of Karnik Bees
Karnik breed consists of breeding subspecies of bees, which show some differences between themselves. The main pedigree features and characteristics are preserved regardless of the variety.
Karnik Bees are a peep - a subspecies that appeared a long time ago. To maintain it, 2 rules were followed:
- Isolation plot for crossing.
- Constant population enhancement due to the introduction of initial materials.
The conservation of the subspecies was given a lot of effort, time and attention, so it is most common among beekeepers. A characteristic feature of the peezian species is the insect leaving the brood. Because of this, the beekeeper is forced to take care of him, feeding and nursing.
Representatives of the subspecies Sclenar are recognized as the most aggressive of all the subspecies of the Karnik breed. Because of this, it is not recommended to cross them with other species, it will cause increased malice and tendency to swarm.
Distribution in beekeeping is associated with the ability of Sclenars to late honey collection. All summer and September they can actively collect nectar, pollen from late honey plants and produce honey.
The Karnik tripeck bees, a long-bred subspecies, are now widely distributed among German beekeepers. Individuals do not show a propensity to swarm, are distinguished by a love of purity, the absence of aggression.
Families develop gradually, the maximum increase is observed in the first half of summer. The queen bee ends up late in breeding, but can resume the process even in winter if the temperature rises above 5 degrees. The brood is numerous, but often the bees throw it, so the beekeeper nurses him independently.
From the other breeding lines are highly economical. More often they are purchased for regions that show problems with honey collection.
Hollesberg is a subspecies distinguished by a special desire for hard work in insects. The strength of bee colonies and their productivity surpass other breed lines and certain types of bees. This determines the distribution of the Hollesbreg species among beekeepers.
The subspecies of Karnik varroatholerantz is a selection line displaying resistance to ticks.Krajina bees independently reset Varroa mites, take care of the affected individuals, open the honeycomb and pull out infected larvae.
Collect pollen, nectar from the end of spring until autumn, and also padevy honey. Bee families are distinguished by economy, strong health, peace-loving. A characteristic breed trait is the friendly protection of nests by the whole family.
Their characteristics can be used to familiarize themselves with the basic properties of the Karnik Bee breed:
- The main part of the bees is characterized by a peaceful nature. But there are populations prone to aggression.
- Due to the calm behavior of the karnik, the beekeeper can inspect the hives without resorting to the use of protective nets and fumigation. Insects, however, remain in place, completely unresponsive to humans.
- Representatives of the breed are very hardworking. They work not only in sunny weather, but also in the slightest clearings in rainy and foggy weather. In addition, they always return to the hive with a full-fledged bribe and quickly move to the best options for sources of honey collection.
- The collection of nectar is started already at 10 degrees of heat and continues to work until late autumn.
- Insects overwinter by small families. Begin to develop rapidly with the appearance of the first spring heat, which allows for early honey collection.
- Insects tolerate overwintering without any problems, even if very low temperatures persist for a long time.
- Increased resilience allows you to get out of wintering with a minimum amount of subs.
- Carry transportation without any problems, during which the temperature in the hive almost does not increase.
- Despite the increased craving for the formation of swarms, during the conduct of anti-war activities quickly go into working condition and start collecting nectar.
- Resistant to parasitic diseases. Under particularly unfavorable conditions, Nosema can be affected.
- They are easy to navigate the terrain and are distinguished by excellent coordination, which makes it possible to maintain a pit in the halls.
- Quickly learn new housing.
- Do not fly into other people's hives and do not steal honey. At the same time, perfectly protect your home.
Some characteristic features of karnik bees distinguish them from their relatives:
- They produce very little propolis (it can be said that this product is completely absent), since they almost never use it.
- The honey seal has a dry consistency and is painted white. True, this feature can vary.
- The long proboscis allows you to get nectar, even from those colors that are not available for other bees.
- Very economical, care about feed. Immediately after the cessation of the honey collection, they begin to moderately use fodder, which allows them to go out with wintering with minimal losses.
- Have excellent construction abilities. With the onset of spring, the bee-family starts building honeycombs and during the season, even with small bribes, they build up a large area.
- Karnik bees are distinguished by increased fertility, which is especially appreciated by beekeepers.
- The breed is prone to a quiet change of the queen bee. This process occurs unnoticed, without affecting the life of the bee family.
- With a good medical base, do not stop work on collecting bribes and building honeycombs, even preparing for swarming.
- They have an excellent fixed memory, so that the behavior of insects does not depend on external conditions.
The breed of karnik bees has several varieties, which are characterized by some distinctive features: character, behavior, productivity, breeding characteristics.
This is the oldest strain of the breed. Insects are able to take bribes from any honey plants and simultaneously work with several plant species. They are very calm, assiduous and peace-loving. Development begins very early and does not stop until October. The peak of development falls on May.
Bees live in large families, which allows you to effectively use more than 2-3 bribes per season. Characterized by a very high degree of prosperity. But it is easily adjusted by special means. If you select honey in time, swarms are not formed.
In purebred breeding, peep retains all its inherent properties. Hybrids inherit characteristic features in the first two generations.
Insects possess rare serenity, but are able to show aggression. The development is gradual, most effective for collecting nectar from late honey plants. Even in September, work fine. Create large and medium bee families. Swarms form extremely rarely.
Genetic properties are stable only when breeding purebred insects. Already in the first generation of hybrids, signs of splitting are observed.
A distinctive feature is the intensive development of offspring, which is observed in the spring, but only in the presence of pollen. If there is no pollen, the bee can stop worms.
Insects are very clean and hardworking, not prone to the formation of swarms.
The strain is genetically unstable. When hybridization completely lost the original quality.
Features of beemaps
Uterus karnik very prolific. During the day, they are able to lay about 2000 eggs, which is considered an excellent indicator. But in the absence of pollen, the uterus stops laying, which leads to a decrease in the number of bee colonies and its degeneration.
Nuances of landing and replacing the uterus
Old uterus show less activity, which leads to a deterioration of fertility, a decrease in honey collection, the development of diseases and problems with hibernation. Therefore, it is necessary to plant new bee-maids. But in order for the new queen to succeed, it is necessary to take into account some factors.
The optimal time for replanting is spring and early summer. During this period, there are more young insects in the hive than old ones, which facilitates survival. Replanting is also possible in late summer and early autumn, when the inhabitants of the hive become calmer.
Before planting a new queen, it is necessary to remove the old bee-maid and honeycombs with larvae. Best of all, the process takes place in small hives.
Karnika Bee: Origin
The second name of the breed is the Krainska bee, after the name of the Krajina region, located in Slovenia. Initially, the breed was widely distributed in Western European countries, especially in Germany and Austria. On the territory of the post-Soviet space, the Krainsky bee became commonplace after the purchase prices for bee packages had decreased.
This phenomenon occurred as a result of the disordered selection work with the bees of this breed, as a result of which part of the initial characteristics was lost, the adaptation properties of the bees began to change, several new species were bred.
Important! Several subspecies of the Krajina bee appeared, which were combined under one common name of the karnik.
Krainsky bee: species
The most well-known species of the breed are:
- Pees It is one of the oldest strains. When breeding these bees, special attention was paid to isolation when crossing with simultaneous constant podilivaniem original material. Today, this species is one of the most numerous,
- Troisek Wintersbach. This subspecies is characterized by the preservation of most of the properties of a karnik bee: lack of aggressiveness, immunity to disease, high rates of development, moderation in food. Ideal for industrial use,
- Karnika Troisek. It is one of the oldest breeding lines, which accounts for the presence of almost all the typical characteristics of the breed of the bees of the karnik: weak robility, peacefulness, gradual even development of the family, stable wormy worms, maximum saturation of the framework,
- Troisek Celle. New species, breeding work which continues. The bee is characterized by a complete absence of aggression and weak robility, which can increase dramatically with the presence of the uterus older than 3 years. Selection works are advisable only within the species, since in this case there is a guaranteed transfer of the signs of the breed,
- Lower Austrian line. The result of the crossing of the northern bee and karnik. A characteristic feature is good winter hardiness and intensive late brood. However, despite this, for the main bribe, the family is gaining momentum. For individuals of this species, the hives should be spacious,
- Karnika Sclenar. For this species, a characteristic feature is aggressiveness and excellent work on late honey plants. Breeding is recommended only in its pure form, when crossed, the negative qualities of bees are enhanced: robility and anger.
Important! After acquiring a Krajina bee, try to maintain the purity of the species - this will guarantee a constant high productivity of your bees.
Karnika bee: breed features
Among the characteristic features of karnik bees are the following:
- Karnik bees produce propolis in very small quantities. Some beekeepers say that this breed does not use propolis at all. The development of propolis by karnik bees, according to other professionals, is increased in the species found in the southern regions. Such a variation in the assessment of the issue, whether propolis of a bee of a karnik is developed or not, is explained by a large species diversity,
- Krajina bee is characterized by the production of dry white seal, which is an indicator of quality work. And although deviations in this indicator are sometimes possible, for the vast majority of species this is a stable feature,
- Excellent construction skills allow bees to delay a significant area of honeycombs over the season. Neither the early period, nor bad bribes, and sometimes even the absence of the uterus (or sealed queen cells), serve as an obstacle to the termination of this process.
- The breed of the bee of the karnik has a rather strong fixed memory, which allows the insects not to leave the usual rhythm of life even under the changed external conditions.
Important! The productivity of the bees is largely dependent on the productivity of the beekeeper. On this side, the breed also proved to be the best.
The karnik bee has one more characteristic feature: the rapid spring development is due to the unusually high fertility of the uterus, which can lay from 1400 to 2000 eggs daily. However, one should always take into account the rapid build-up of family strength and take measures to prevent swarming:
- Strengthen the hive ventilation,
- Limit the amount of incoming light
- Expand the nest with simultaneous isolation of the uterus with a special grille.
Uterus change in the family
Due to the lack of aggressiveness and malice in the nature, in most cases in the family there is a quiet change of the uterus: the bees, sensing the unproductiveness or illness of the bee-woman, lay the mother queen and deduce the young queen.
In most cases, young beekeepers of the karnik breed appear spontaneously, but sometimes the beekeeper can push families into this process through their actions:
- The division of the hive into 2 parts by a lattice - the part of the bees left without the queen takes the bee-woman to itself, after which the unification takes place. The young queen kills the old one. A prerequisite for separation should be the presence in each part of a one-day sowing,
- Damage to the beekeeper - the queen cuts off the middle and hind legs on one side, and this is done as short as possible. In this case, the bees lay the mother liquor, because they feel the inability of the queen to intensive reproduction. The young uterus after the release kills the old one.
Important! Bees of the karnik variety are replaced after the family gains strength in the spring - this is the best time to prevent swarming and conduct this type of work. Later, the bees will begin to intensively collect honey, and in the fall the uterus may die during the mating round, which is highly undesirable.
Initially, Karnik as a breed of bee was called a little differently - Krainski. This breed name came from the region in which it was bred - Krajina, in Slovenia. This type of bee was very popular in Western Europe, especially in Austria and Germany. In Russia and other countries, the distribution of these bees went only when the prices for Karnik pchelopakety dropped significantly.
And this happened due to the fact that peace-loving bees showed a drawback - they quickly succumb to diseases if their living conditions are up to a little bit disturbed. Because of this, many began to refuse to acquire an elite expensive breed and switched to more simple-keeping bees. And yet, Karnik's bees have earned rave reviews from many beekeepers and, thanks to their many advantages, have become popular in most European countries.
What does Karnik look like?
The appearance of the breed is quite original and can be immediately distinguished from the rest. The first impression that you will have from meeting these workers can be expressed briefly in three words - calm, peaceful, gray. If we talk in more detail, we should highlight the following differences:
- The silver-gray color is a striking difference, since it is believed that any admixture of yellow or any points and spots on the body is the influence of some other breed. Only the purebred bee of the Karnik breed will have a completely grayish body.
- Its size is smaller than that of other bees. The weight of the bee-woman reaches 205 mg, and the drones up to 230 mg.
- At the same time the proboscis is much longer than usual, due to which these toilers also extract nectar in hard-to-reach places or during the dry period. The length of the proboscis can even reach 7 mm, although more often it reaches 6.4 - 6.8 mm.
- Even the peaceable nature of the bees is visible, they practically do not attack the beekeeper and continue their work while you inspect the framework.
Distinctive features of life
In the Karnik breed, the following characteristics are distinguished:
- The most pleasant feature of such bees for beekeepers is their calm and peaceful nature. Even when inspecting the framework or transporting the hive, they do not worry, continue their activities, and the temperature in the hive does not rise. Beekeepers do not even use a smoker and net to protect them when working with these workers.
- Despite the southern origin of the breed, Karnik bees tolerate any weather conditions very well, and even severe winters. For winter hardiness, they are inferior only to the Central Russian breed of bees, surpassing even the Caucasian. Due to this, Karnik is popular in Siberia.
- Their important feature is the early honey collection. And because the breed is suitable for breeding bees only in those regions where in early spring you can collect pollen and nectar. Otherwise, the bees may die.
- Due to the structure of the proboscis, they can collect nectar even from hard-to-reach plants. And in the dry period, when other bees are left without honey, Karnik worker bees produce significant stocks of the product.
- Karnik's womb is very prolific. They are able to postpone up to two thousand larvae. Due to this, the family is able to quickly increase the number of worker bees and make the family strong by the beginning of the honey harvest, regardless of how difficult the winter turned out to be.
- Another feature of the beekeeper Karnik - they quietly and without much war replace each other. Replacing the old uterus occurs naturally and so quietly that it can not even notice. There is also such that for some time in one hive there can be two Karnik's uterus at once without any consequences for the whole swarm.
- But the mothers themselves, they set aside no more than two, and therefore should especially appreciate every womb. Artificially increase their update is quite difficult. It is because of this that the prices for the Karnika pchelomat are increased.
- The uterus lays many larvae in only one case — an abundance of pollen brought by worker bees.As soon as its entry into the hive ceases, the work of the uterus also stops.
- In beekeeping, this type of bee is also valued for its special productivity - they are able to collect up to 70 kg of honey.
- Interestingly, the Karnik bees can do without propolis. This building material is used very rarely, only in some areas south of Belgrade, and then in small quantities. Most of the bees of this breed do without it.
- The honey signet in such hives is usually light and dry, but this change may change due to the change of conditions. Some beekeepers consider this a significant disadvantage.
- The unpleasant peculiarity of these bees lies in their excessive loyalty. And because they often fly off, if you do not keep track of their behavior. But with this, beekeepers have learned to cope. In order not to happen this fall, they just add additional empty frames. Due to this, the workers go into working condition and continue to produce honey.
- Karnik bees have another feature of life in the hive - they lay brood and honey on all of the frames in a row, because of which they very quickly fill all the frames and even the store. In some cases, this complicates the work of the beekeeper.
- Another disadvantage is the low resistance to diseases, especially to Nosema. But this is not exactly a proven fact. Experienced beekeepers believe that only those bees that have a mixture of breeds suffer from this. If Karnik is “pure”, without impurities, then resistance to diseases is higher in her. Those who breed them, on the contrary, found quite strong resistance to many dangerous diseases. So, if you keep a thoroughbred Karnik, and monitor the cleanliness of the apiary and hives, then not only Nosema, but also paralysis, Akarapidoza, and other diseases do not disturb these families.
- The wintering of the bees shows another pleasant feature - these workers are easy to feed, since by winter they drastically reduce the number of swarm and eat very little.
- For breeding bees of the Karnik breed, you should take care that they do not interbreed with other species. Otherwise there will be a loss of all their qualities. It is believed that the majority of their merits are not dominant characteristics, and therefore, when crossed, they do not pass on to a new species. Such genetic instability affects the breed. It is believed that if Karnik is crossed with other species, the offspring may turn out to be of poor quality. So try to keep your peace-loving laborers apart.
- It is believed that this species of bees does not steal honey from others, but it also protects its reserves very well.
- They have a well-developed orientation, both in the hive itself and in the surrounding area. They quickly find the opportunity to collect nectar where other bees will not find it.
- Karnik is not afraid of any weather. It can be seen at work and on a rainy and foggy day.
Since their own variations of Karnik were derived in different regions, there are several subspecies of them that differ from each other. Nevertheless, the foundation of the breed remains the same - they are all calm, hardworking, resistant to cold and economical. Among the most popular species of the breed are the following:
- Pees is a feature of this strain in the fact that the bees throw all their broods and the beekeeper has to take extra care of their offspring, feeding and nursing personally.
- Troisek is one of the most popular in Germany subspecies. Their broods are slightly larger, but also the bees may not leave the larvae to the end, which places the responsibility on the beekeeper’s shoulders. Nevertheless, they are very economical and the least voracious of all varieties. Most often they are purchased for breeding in those regions where honey collection is difficult for various reasons. Also, this strain has a low level of roaming.
- But for a good wintering they brought out the so-called Lower Austrian strain - these workers at least take out the late brood, but they take good care of it, which makes the family strong even in the cold season. In the autumn, the family grows and becomes strong even before the onset of cold weather.
- Hollesberg is a subspecies of Karnik with especially hard-working bees, whose productivity is difficult to compare with any other species.
- Sclenar is another popular breed. But they are more aggressive than other representatives of Karnik. These workers work just on late honey plants, and even in September they can actively collect nectar and produce honey.
- When choosing a particular strain for breeding, the Karnik breed is recommended to take into account their characteristics and choose the option that best suits your region of residence.
- Do not try to cross any of the strains with other breeds of bees, since nothing good will come of it. All crossings are recommended to be carried out strictly within the framework of the subspecies that you have chosen for breeding.
- It is noticed that the Karniki family becomes especially productive if it simultaneously contains the Krajina uterus and the Italian variety of drones. Such families will be particularly large, strong, and the production of honey will increase significantly.
- An excellent option for keeping Karniki bees is considered to be a number of abundantly blooming clover and canola. But if in your region the main honey collection comes from buckwheat and heather, then it is better to choose another bee breed. Also in some southern regions of the country, this breed is not recommended to be bred, for example, if you need to ensure the entire period of honey collection from sunflower, which has a long flowering period.
- If you need to reduce the risk of prosperity, then be sure to get the frame with brood and put empty ones in place of them. But do not install them on the edges of the hive. This should be done inside, between other frames, otherwise the extreme cells will not be filled.
Video: Karnik - the characteristic of bees.
“A wonderful breed of bees. I have such. By the way, thanks to their excellent breeding, he managed to expand the apiary fairly decently in three years. Working with them is a pleasure. Both in the winter, and in the summer do not deliver any special difficulties. And even with robility as such did not come across. Whether I have a subspecies of them just from those that are less rejuvenating, or I intuitively create proper conditions for them. Honey, by the way, the bees give a decent amount and very tasty! I'm not even going to change for any others ”- Maxim.
“I have been breeding bees for a long time. But constantly faced with aggressiveness. The first time I saw Karnik in Germany in an apiary with a friend and simply did not believe that they could be so calm. Everyone was waiting to be attacked, but they did not react to the person, even when they were transferred from place to place. I decided to take myself the same for reproduction and the first sample. I noticed that they easily interbreed with other species, although not all offspring at the same time come out to be as peaceful, but still much calmer than before. Now it is much easier to work in the apiary, even though the previous bees are still with me. The influence of Karnika is positive on the whole apiary ”- Pavel.
“But I have this whole bee species and got sick. When buying a bee package and the uterus, the seller just convinced that they are very resistant to diseases, which is what bribed them. But it turned out that not so persistent. Either I was badly caring for them, or they gave me just an unbreeding breed, but the result was deplorable. As a result, I left a carpathian in the apiary, with which it also works quite well and it gives enough honey ”- Andrey.