Arched greenhouses are ideal for growing flowers, mushrooms, heat-loving crops, any vegetables, seedlings. They are seasonal and year-round. Due to the oval shape of the roof, plants receive the maximum amount of light and heat. What features does this design have? How to build it and the better cover? Is it necessary to build a foundation for construction? The answers to these and other questions, as well as a description of the problems that may be encountered during construction, are in this review.
From the Roman patrician to the native gardener
Arc-shaped greenhouses became known in our country only 10-15 years ago. Since then, they have been used in country houses and kitchen gardens, in farms and in the industrial cultivation of vegetables.
It is interesting! Exotic flowers were grown in the first Roman greenhouses. During the Middle Ages, the Catholic Church declared greenhouses to be witchcraft, the idea came back only in the Renaissance. Peter I brought a scheme of a greenhouse from Europe and during his rule grapes, peaches and apricots were bearing fruit in Russian greenhouses.
A standard arched greenhouse looks like an arcuate design with straight walls 2-3 m wide, 2.5-3 m high, from 2 to 30 m long. The most common option is 2x3x6 m with two beds and a passage of 80 cm. Airing is carried out through two doors and two transom above them, located on the front side.
What is attractive greenhouse arch configuration
The advantages should include the following characteristics:
- The area can be increased at any time by adding several sections.
- The structure may be lower than the analogue with vertical walls.
- Easy to disassemble, move and assemble.
- Well passes a sunlight.
- It tolerates harsh winters. The snow just rolls off the roof.
- Steadily resists wind loads. Dougie weather storms better than triangular roofs. Proof - bird eggs, fragile, but durable, thanks to the shape.
- The walls of the arched greenhouse acquire an arched shape only from the middle. So, under them you can grow tall plants.
- The absence of corners leads to a decrease in the required length of covering material and to an increase in the service life.
- In the arched greenhouse the minimum number of seams, in contrast to the design in the form of a house.
- To build a building by yourself is easy and inexpensive.
- The house for plants, which is carefully tended, has been in operation for more than 10 years.
Disadvantages of an arched greenhouse
There are not so many defects in the design, but it is better to learn about them in advance:
- Difficult to provide optimal ventilation. Two windows and two doors on opposite sides create a strong draft. To eliminate the disadvantage, practitioners construct lateral transoms along the entire length of the building.
- Limiting the types of coverage. For an arched frame, polycarbonate or film is ideal. Glass cover the rounded structure is almost impossible.
- It is inconvenient to place shelves along the walls.
- The arcuate shape reflects part of the sun's rays.
- The light enters through the southern wall and leaves the room through the north. It is not suitable for sun-loving plants. The disadvantage is easily eliminated by attaching a reflective film to the north side.
Polycarbonate Coated Greenhouses
Arched greenhouses made of polycarbonate are produced in numerous factories. Their range is so wide that it is easy to choose a building, based on the impulses of the soul and the state of the wallet.
Attention! Buy a greenhouse better from the manufacturer. The fewer parts, the stronger the design and easier the installation. If you live in the central or northern part of the country, where there are heavy snowfalls, the thickness of the polycarbonate should be at least 4 mm.
Famous manufacturers of such brands as Atlant, Agrosfera, Uralochka, Kremlevskaya, Umnitsa-Nurse, and the like offer hundreds of different models. Developers are working to improve the quality of buildings. They are produced from a reinforced double profile, galvanized steel pipe, aluminum profile with a powder coating. With vents on the ends, on the roof, on the side walls. The last sensation was a house for plants with a sliding roof from a Siberian manufacturer.
Factory greenhouses can be purchased at prices ranging from 10 to 50 thousand rubles. And you can do it yourself that will be much more economical.
Low cost shelter with film cover
You can build an arched greenhouse with your own hands from plastic (PVC or metal-plastic pipes), from wooden boards and bars, from metal (profile, pipes, wire). Possible coating - cellular polycarbonate or film (reinforced, spunbond). Consider all the options.
What you need for a greenhouse with a film coating
For the construction of an arched greenhouse 3x2x6 it will take several days, a plan and the following materials:
- the boards covered with antiseptic solution. Wood will last longer if it is saturated with linseed oil, resin and burned with a blowtorch. Such training will take 3-5 days
- PVC pipes (if you use metal-plastic, the structure will be stronger),
- 4 boards and bars,
- dense or reinforced polyethylene. Dense plastic film serves 2 years, reinforced - 3. Reinforced annually loses 8% of light transmission, simple - more than 10%,
- 36 metal rods with a height of 1 m
- metal hinges for fixing pipes,
- screws and screwdriver, nails and hammer,
- hinges, locks, handles for doors and vents.
Attention! In various sources indicated that the arch of the greenhouse under the film width and height can be arbitrary. But practitioners advise the length of the arch to be projected to the width of the film, for example, 12 or 16 m. If you buy a roll 16 m wide, the arch should be 15 m. 0.5 cm on each side will remain for fixing at the base. This approach will help to rationally use the film.
PVC greenhouse assembly
After choosing a place to build an arched greenhouse with your own hands, you can get to work:
- Flatten the plot. Mount the base of the boards in the form of a rectangular box. Strengthen each corner with reinforcement.
- On the perimeter of the base to dig the bars at a distance of 50-70 cm from one another. Armature should be positioned so that 40-50 cm were in the ground, and 60 cm above.
- Put a piece of PVC pipe on one side of the rod. Arc, putting the second side of the pipe on the second rod. Thus form 10-12 arches.
- Attach all pipes to the wooden base with loops using a screwdriver. Corners reinforced bars.
- Strengthen the design, securing a segment of a six-meter pipe from the inside, at the top of the arches.
- Make and attach the ends with window and door openings.
How to stretch the film
The next step is to cover the base. To stretch the film is better on a windless day, then it will not sag.
Attention! If you cover the wall with foil from the north side, more heat will remain in the room.
- Spread the film evenly on the arches so that there is a reserve on both sides and stretch it. Cover the covering material on the slats, wrapping them at least 1 time. The rest of the film is covered with earth. It is better that the canvas was continuous.
- Near the door and window openings film should be bent inward.
- Next, you need to measure the doorway and in accordance with its size to make a door from a bar. Close her canvas, cutting off the excess.
- Attach the handle and hang the door on the metal hinges. Just make the planned number of vents.
Arched greenhouse under the film will be stable, because it is reinforced stiffener. In the autumn the structure should be disassembled and removed for the winter, as the film will not withstand the pressure of snow.
Step by step installation instructions for wooden frame
After choosing a place for a vegetable garden under the roof and preparing a project, you need to purchase everything you need. Then treat the tree with antiseptic substance, safe for plants, and proceed to construction.
Board. When designing a polycarbonate greenhouse, please note that the standard sheet sizes are 210x600 cm and 201x1200 cm.
- Draw a pattern for the future arc on any thin and durable material, for example, on plywood.
- Cut into boards 45 mm wide, 7 mm thick, from 3 m long, depending on the project. For arch greenhouse with a width of 6m - 12 arcs.
- Strip alternately glue to the template with white glue. Strengthen with special plastic ties or ties from the old car camera.
- When the tree dries, it will acquire an arched shape.
- Arcs attach to the wooden frame self-tapping screws.
- Shoot wood ends with a door and windows on the drawing. Put them in their place.
Secrets of fixing cellular polycarbonate
For fixing cellular polycarbonate, you will need screws and heat washers. The task of the thermo washer is to fix, seal and eliminate the cold bridges. They serve up to 15 years.
Attention! When installing polycarbonate gardeners often make mistakes. Overtighten the screws. Used for fastening rivets, nails, inappropriate washers. Install self-tapping screws not perpendicular to the surface. Such defects are unacceptable.
- Lay the polymer sheets on the arc with an overlap of 6-8 cm.
- To glue the joints with aluminum self-adhesive tape.
- Drill holes for screws with a step of 30-40 cm. The holes should be 1-2 mm larger than usual, taking into account the thermal expansion of the nut.
- Strengthen sheets, making sure that the side with UV protection remains on top.
Arched greenhouse made of polycarbonate perfectly maintains snow and storm load. If the wooden frame is periodically processed and painted with waterproof paint, then the structure will be used for more than 10 years.
Solid foundation under the metal frame
The foundation for the metal frame - is required. After all, if the lifetime of the structure is more than 20 years, then its foundation should be made of strong and durable materials.
Attention! The foundation of concrete should be buried to the level of soil freezing, otherwise it will "lead" in the frosty period.
The strip foundation made of bricks and concrete is completely reliable, for its construction it is necessary to follow simple recommendations:
- Choose a sunny, windless place. Mark the dimensions of the foundation, based on the plan. Dig a trench around the perimeter of the future construction. The width of the ditch should be 20 cm, depth - 10 cm.
- Mount the formwork from any planks, reinforce it with reinforcement. Pour concrete into the trench, tamping it with a bayonet to remove air bubbles.
- The horizontal of the concrete strip should be checked using the building level.
- Anchor bolts (12 mm) should be inserted into the ends and sides of the tape in accordance with the base of the future frame.
- After the concrete has completely set, several layers of brickwork can be laid out. It is necessary to control the complete filling of the joints with the solution and the coincidence with the locations of the anchor bolts.
- Before the construction of the frame, you need to drill holes in it for the anchor bolts and fasten the connections with nuts.
- On the foundation must put a single layer of waterproofing material.
Profile pipe frame: step by step
For the construction of the frame will need the following components:
- 10 pipes 40x20 mm
- 40 jumpers for frames 20x20 mm wide, 670 mm long,
- 2 pipes for longitudinal beams 40x40 mm, length - 4 m.
- 2 pipes for cross beams 40x40 mm, length - 3 m.
- Fix longitudinal pipes along the perimeter of the finished foundation.
- Weld to them transverse.
- Bend the required number of arches with a pipe bender.
- The first arc should be welded to the longitudinal tube so that the edges of the base and the arc coincide. To control their actions, it is better to use a plumb line.
- Alternately, you need to install all the arcs using jumpers.
- If everything was done correctly, then the last welded arch will fall just on the edge of the longitudinal bases.
- Now you should weld the ends with partitions under the door and under the vents.
- Half the work is done. The final step will be to mount the polycarbonate with screws and thermo washers.
- It remains to hang the doors and windows on the hinges and install handles on them.
A solid strong greenhouse of an arched type on a capital foundation will serve you for decades without requiring rebuilding and alterations.
Such a building is not afraid of hurricane winds, snowstorms, sweltering summer heat. In it, any plants are comfortable and cozy, and they sincerely thank for the care of generous crops.
More than 10 years ago, people learned to make agrofibre, a nonwoven polymeric material produced using spunbond technology. Often it is called that. It is used in construction, medicine, agriculture, it is used for the production of clothing and packaging. Such widespread use is due to the relative cheapness of production, as well as the remarkable properties of agrofibre.
The thin structure makes it look like a regular canvas, very light and durable, it lets in light, water and air, does not rot, does not mold, is not toxic. Spunbond indifferent to the effects of acids, alkalis, low or high temperatures. Such qualities are best suited for harboring vegetables from the cold weather; farmers of European countries have long enjoyed this.
The agrofibre is so light that it is not necessary to build a frame for it, it is simply laid on the beds, pressing it along the edges with earth or pegs — even the most fragile plant will withstand its weight. Spunbond can be left on seedlings for a long time, in contrast to the film, which will have to be removed and laid all the time (or it is better to pull it onto the frame, because its weight will break the plants). You can just water from above - the material will perfectly let moisture, light and air to the plant.
Periodically, it will have to be removed only for weeding. And if you use several types of the same polymer material, you can even achieve that weeds will not grow between the rows. Agrofibre is sold in large rolls. The most common width: 1.6 m or 3.2 m. Rolls can contain material from 10 m to 1500 m, which distinguishes it from the plastic film, which is difficult to find a large width.
Advantages and types of film
There are several reasons why a greenhouse is used to cover the greenhouse. Select the most significant:
- material very lightaccordingly, the installation and installation process is greatly simplified,
- such a greenhouse is good passes air and sunlight, providing optimal conditions for growing plants,
- film has low weight, but differs in high wear resistance and reliability.
Among cons there is only one, but very significant - the film is afraid of cuts.
With regard to the range, you can select such subtypes of the material:
- Hydrophilic stabilized film: eliminates the formation of condensate on the walls of the structure, which, by the way, can harm plants. Moisture is distributed evenly and trickles down the walls, but does not drip.
- Ethylene vinyl acetate copolymer. It is characterized by high strength, hydrophilicity, transparency (up to 92%). Resistant to strong wind gusts, temperature extremes.
- Light stabilized fabric. It incorporates special light-stabilizing components, therefore it easily prevents the destructive force that UV rays have.
- Film with additives. Significantly increases the strength of the structure, is characterized by an antistatic effect, can be hydrophilic, scare off parasites.
- Reinforced film. Very durable: the thickness of its threads is up to 0.3 millimeters, due to this it withstands heavy loads. But it is characterized by low light transmission.
- Material "Svetlitsa". It has a yellowish tint, ideal for use in different climatic zones. The strength index is 3 times higher than that of similar products in this range.
- Heat film. Reliably protects against sudden changes in temperature and the skeleton of the structure, and the plants that are inside.
In a separate category is to provide covering nonwoven materials. They are increasingly used for arranging greenhouses and greenhouses. There are a wide range of products on the market; for example, you can choose spunbond, agrompan, Agrotex other.
Distinctive advantages nonwovens:
- pass UV rays and moisture well, but they are characterized by the presence of a stabilizer, which completely eliminates the harmful effects of sunlight on grown plants,
- non-woven materials guarantee the maintenance of an optimal microclimate because they do not absorb excess moisture. The soil also does not dry up,
- the greenhouse itself heats up quickly and cools down slowly,
- to care for such a surface as easy as possible.
Often gardeners ask themselves: is it possible to use ordinary food film as a covering material for a greenhouse? The answer will be unequivocal: not. The fact is that this product is made of high-pressure polyethylene. In this regard, high strength does not possess.
Choose the material for the frame
The frame is of key importance in the structure of the greenhouse, as it provides resilience in relation to strong gusts of wind and temperature extremes. That is why the frame, first of all, should be reliable.
Agrovlokno for greenhouses and other materials for shelter
In addition to the film for the shelter of the greenhouse, you can use a number of other materials. In particular:
- glass. Good thermal insulation of the room, transmits light. But each sheet of glass weighs a lot, which implies the arrangement of a reinforced frame. The material itself is very fragile,
- agrofibre. Synthetic canvas, similar in properties to non-woven fabric. Presented in an incredibly wide range. Its most famous varieties are agrospan, agrotex, spunbnot, agril, as well as pegas-agro, lutrasil, and others,
- cellular polycarbonate. It is characterized by high transparency, heat insulation. Sheet strength is enough to withstand strong hail, gusts of wind, snow. The material is lightweight, flexible, so it is often used to create arched structures.
Methods of fastening the film to the frame
You can select several methods:
- rake nailed to the ends. Unreinforced film often breaks on nails from strong gusts of wind. And this method allows you to avoid unpleasant consequences: the material is attached only on the ends of the structure,
- rake. It involves the use of wooden strips, screws or nails for fixing the film. Also suitable packing tape: you can fix it with staples,
- clips, clips. Sold in any hardware store. Significantly simplifies the procedure, moreover, are inexpensive,
- eyelets and elastic cord. The fixation system involves snapping PFH in the profile with the film (on the side walls, roofs, ends of the structure).
- rope, rope, elastic cord. The main condition to be followed is to tie up the greenhouse in the form of Z, that is, diagonally between two parallel cords,
- grid. First of all, the greenhouse is covered with a film, then - with a grid. The latter is tied to the body.
Film bonding methods
All methods of bonding the film can be divided into hot and cold.
Hot. You need to prepare a soldering iron (or iron), fluoroplastic tape.
- we impose cloths of a film at each other. The width of the overlap should be 1-2 cm
- iron or a soldering iron tip through a fluoroplastic tape slowly spend on the surface.
It will, most likely, not immediately, therefore, in the beginning it is better to practice.
There is another method that involves using blowtorch and wide strips of metal (5-10 cm).
- two sheets of film are laid between a flat surface and strips of metal in such a way that an overlap of 1-1.5 cm is obtained,
- Using a blowtorch, heat the joint.
Cold. Assume the use of various adhesives, such as BF-4, BF-2, "Moment". Prior to the start of the work, the places of the intended bonding on the surface of the film are processed chromic anhydride (25% solution will do).
You can use and special superglue for bonding plastic film. In this case, the seam will turn out not only strong, but even.
Not only its efficiency, but also the qualitative, quantitative characteristics of the crop directly depend on the choice of the location of the greenhouse, compliance with the rules of installation.
You can stop your choice from one of the types of structures, based on the tasks set before you:
- according to the term of use - spring-summer and year-round,
- by type of construction - arched and hangar, block and tunnel,
- by the method of erection - shelving, hydroponic or soil,
- to destination - seedlings and vegetables,
- by type of coating used - from polymer, glass or film,
- on the material of which the frame is made - wooden, aluminum, plastic, made of galvanized.
After you decide on the type of construction, you need to choose the most successful place for its installation, focusing to the cardinal points. In this regard, there are two main positions:
- latitudinal: the sides of the structure are oriented to the north and south, the facades are to the east and west,
- meridional: the side slopes look to the west and east, while the facades of the greenhouse - to the north and south.
The territory allocated for the facility must be carefully prepared:
- it needs to be cleared of garbage,
- check that there are no holes in the ground,
- the surface must be smooth: the presence of a slope will inevitably lead to a distortion of the structure.
If, however, it is not possible to find a completely flat area, the foundation for the greenhouse must be laid without fail. You can use different materials: timber, blocks, concrete.
Step-by-step instructions for installing a greenhouse under the film
Carefully prepare the area set aside for construction. Well we tamp the ground. We reinforce the box of boards in the corners with the help of reinforcement.
Along the perimeter of the foundation we fix several rods of reinforcement. It is important that they are equally spaced apart. The construction of an area of 3 × 6 m will take about 35 rods.
We dig the rods into the ground to a depth of half a meter and carefully strengthen them.
After the bars are strengthened, you need to put PVC pipes on them (cut in advance). This will connect the reinforcing bars located opposite each other.
Using a screwdriver, fix the PVC pipe with metal loops.
We carry out additional reinforcement of the structure, using a bar (50 x 50 mm section is ideal)
We strengthen the corners of the structure with a bar. This will significantly increase its reliability.
We connect with each other several PVC pipes. It is important that their total length is equal to the length of the greenhouse. The next step is to fix the long pipe to the transverse arcs of the frame.
Cover the finished structure with a film. You can use any of the methods described in this article (section "Methods of attaching a film to the greenhouse frame")
We wrap the front and back parts of the frame with foil.
- We make measurements of the doorway,
- We bring down the timber, according to the data,
- We fix the film and cut off its excess,
- Fix the door on the frame of the greenhouse with metal hinges,
- Similarly, install the vents.
Choice of type of construction
The most common and versatile designs are arch-type greenhouses with a metal or plastic frame and a coating of plastic film.
Such greenhouses have the following features:
- Easy to assemble.
- Relatively low cost of materials.
- Resistance to stress at different times of the year, due to the design features.
- High ability of covering material to transmit sunlight.
- Protection of a crop against moisture overload.
- The film is not susceptible to fungi.
- Vulnerability of covering material to the negative impact of natural factors. If you constantly find it in the sun, it becomes less reliable, and within six months it becomes unusable.
- Reduced light transmission due to accumulation of dust on the surface. It is necessary to regularly clean the film from dust.
- Loss of elasticity over time.
Some special types of film are devoid of negative properties. It is recommended to choose the material to solve specific problems.
Single and gable roof
Drawing greenhouse with wooden frame
Before you start assembling a greenhouse, you need to prepare a place for it in the garden. This place should have good illumination and be fairly even.
Soil preparation should begin after the end of the harvest season. The selected area is dug up and cleared from weeds. To increase fertility, fertilizers are applied to the ground, and the plot itself is leveled.
Next you need to carry out those preparatory activities that can not be implemented after the installation of the structure. For example, for a permanent greenhouse with heating you need to bring the necessary communications.
The area where the fasteners and support elements will be installed is sealed. Ideally, a strip foundation is poured under the greenhouse. However, you can do without it, if the load on the soil is small. In this case, a wooden box is assembled around the perimeter, which stiffens the whole structure.
Preparation of materials
Production of greenhouses should begin with the acquisition of the necessary materials. Consider a simple greenhouse made of plastic or metal pipes. To build it we need:
- Pipes from the selected material. Their length and quantity depends on the desired size of the greenhouse. Pipe diameter - up to 30 mm.
- Wooden boards for the base.
- Metal pins up to 1 meter long and up to 20 mm in diameter. It should be noted that the arches will be put on these pins, which means that they should easily enter the holes in the pipes.
- Metal pins driven into the corners of the box to increase the rigidity of the structure.
- Pipe from the main material along the length of the greenhouse. It will fit on top of the arches to ensure the sustainability of the greenhouse.
- Hinges for windows and doors at the rate of 2 hinges for each window and 3 hinges for the door.
- Other tools and consumables - mounting hinges for pipes, screws, nails.
Having prepared everything you need, you can proceed to the assembly of the main structure.
First of all, it is necessary to prepare the wood used for the manufacture of the base. It is necessarily impregnated with antiseptic and antifungal drugs. This must be done to protect against the rapid destruction of wood from rotting and the formation of fungi.
Wood treatment with special compounds
To increase durability, the tree can also be impregnated with oil solutions, burned with a blowtorch, or tar. Since all this takes time, you need to take care of preparing the tree in advance.
Once all materials are ready, you can proceed to the assembly of the entire structure according to the prepared drawings. They can be taken from this material or developed independently, taking into account all the additional features.
Drawing of the arched greenhouse
Building a greenhouse comes down to a few simple steps:
- From boards the box which will be the basis of our greenhouse gets off.
- At the corners of the perimeter, metal pins are driven into the ground, holding it in one place.
- On the long side of the perimeter, from the outside, metal rods are driven into the ground to a depth of at least half a meter. They will wear the pipe arches. The distance between the driven pins is 50 cm. On the opposite side, similar actions are performed.
- A plastic pipe is put on the fittings opposite each other so that it forms an arch.
- Below the pipe is attached to the wooden base mounting loops. To simplify the process it is recommended to use a screwdriver for this purpose.
- Similar actions are made with the other arches.
- A longitudinal pipe is installed at the top of the greenhouse, which connects to each arch, combining them into a single structure. Fastenings can be made with plastic clips or special fasteners for plastic pipes. The second option is preferable because of its reliability.
- In the corners of the box, the greenhouse is reinforced with props from battens 50x50mm.
- In one of the ends of the greenhouse put the frame for the door. It can be made of wood or reliably welded plastic pipes.
- A door and locking mechanisms are installed on the hinges in the door frame. The door should close tightly, excluding the possibility of cold air entering the room.
- Similarly, windows are installed for ventilation. The higher such a window will be, the better.
- The finished frame, door frame, door and vents are covered with covering material.
- If the greenhouse is small and does not require the cultivation of special crops, then the fertile soil is covered over the existing soil. More spacious rooms can be equipped with shelves and racks for various purposes.
This video will help to more thoroughly understand the intricacies of building a greenhouse from the film with your own hands:
If the size of the greenhouse is large, then it becomes necessary to connect different pieces of film. The simplest, but not recommended way is to glue the joints with a wide adhesive tape.
You can also solder the edges of the film. This will require a simple iron. The pieces of film are laid on a flat and solid surface. The joined edges overlap each other and are covered on top with a newspaper. It will not allow polyethylene to stick to a hot surface. With an iron heated to 120 degrees, we gently draw along the junction line, briefly lingering so that the polyethylene can melt enough. The result will be a single piece of covering material of the required dimensions, which is not inferior in strength to other parts of it.
Soldering film iron
This method requires some practice, so we recommend to practice on unnecessary pieces of film.Insufficient heating will not give the necessary soldering, and overheating will completely melt the joint.
Wood frame example
The finished result of such a greenhouse is shown in the photo:
Currently there are several types of greenhouse films. Depending on the desired result, you should select the appropriate type. The following types of polymers are considered the most popular and used in gardening:
- Polyvinyl chloride.
- Light scattering.
Consider each type in more detail in order to be able to choose the most suitable material.
Plain plastic film
The easiest and cheapest material for the greenhouse. It has high light transmission and low weight. Material of medium thickness is able to protect plants from even small hail.
The disadvantages of such a material include poor heat retention, low hydrophilicity and high wear. It also strongly attracts dirt and dust, which impair the penetration of sunlight.
It can be used as the most budget option for temporary greenhouses dismantled after the end of the harvest season.
Polyvinyl chloride or pvc
This material is used for growing plants that require additional heat. PVC retains heat well even at night. It is used to cultivate such thermophilic crops as bell peppers and eggplants.
Disadvantages also have a large number, including poor light conductivity, high dust attraction and low elasticity.
In addition, PVC does not cope well with low temperatures, which makes it impossible to use it year-round. Already at 15 degrees of frost, the film should be removed and hidden before warming. The material is about 2-3 times more expensive than its polyethylene analogues.
Winter and summer greenhouses
All greenhouses can be divided into two large groups: winter and summer. They differ in the presence of a heating system in the winter greenhouse, which allows plants to be grown in such a greenhouse all year round. The summer greenhouse is intended for faster ripening of fruits and protection of plants from accidental frosts.
Winter greenhouses are usually more substantial than summer greenhouses. They are built closer to home, sometimes even attaching them from the south side of the house. So they are closer to the heat source. Winter greenhouses are almost never made of film. The heating system can be either connected to the house heating system or be autonomous. For this, a greenhouse is made in the oven.
Arched, single and gable greenhouses
Type of roof for the greenhouse everyone chooses based on the location of the greenhouse. As well as their personal preferences. We can only suggest the advantages and disadvantages of each of them.
Shed roof usually choose, attaching a greenhouse with their own hands to the house. This type of roof is simple in construction, economical. Under such a roof you can make an inexpensive, but solid base from a wooden beam or metal profile pipe. The disadvantage of this roof is that snow will accumulate on such a roof.
Gable roof, like a shed can have a cheap and durable frame. It is a bit more expensive than a shed, but more aesthetic. But on such a roof will also accumulate snow. Consider this factor when choosing a roof for the greenhouse.
Types of greenhouses. Video review
And finally arched roof. A very popular type of roofing and it is deserved. Economical, quickly built, he won his niche very quickly. In combination with cellular polycarbonate, such a greenhouse has almost all the advantages. It is not going to snow, it is very resistant to winds and the dispersion of sunlight in it goes naturally. The only drawback can be a frame for this type of roofing. To make a durable and reliable frame will be more expensive and more difficult than for previous types of roofing. Let's talk about frames for greenhouses with our own hands.
Types and materials for the frame of the greenhouse
We continue to answer the question of how to build a greenhouse with your own hands. If you decide to build a greenhouse on your plot, choose the type of roof for your future greenhouse, now you need to think about choosing the material for the greenhouse frame. What to build a greenhouse?
Greenhouse frame can be made from:
It is very easy to work with wooden frames. The tree is easy to process, from it you can build a greenhouse of almost any kind. The disadvantage of this construction is susceptibility to rotting wood. Therefore, the entire timber before construction has to be treated with special impregnations.
In order to assemble the metal frame, you need good skills. After all, the metal will have to either weld or make bolted connections. Such a framework for the greenhouse is very expensive. But it is very durable, reliable and will last more than a dozen years. Such a framework is suitable for capital greenhouses.
Today, the construction of greenhouses made of plastic pipes is gaining popularity. This type of construction is relatively cheap, even beginners can make it. Moreover, such a building does not take much time. The disadvantage of such a frame is its low strength. Over time, plastic pipes bend, the greenhouse loses its shape. Therefore, as a capital structure, such a frame is not suitable.
Glass greenhouse do it yourself
How to build a greenhouse with your own hands? If you want to build a capital and durable greenhouse with your own hands, then glass greenhouse is a good option. Moreover, such a greenhouse will not necessarily be expensive. After all, it can be built from old window frames.
Many people, replacing old wooden windows with plastic ones, simply throw the frames onto the trash. So the material for your greenhouse can be obtained for free. You will only need to process the wood window frames and fasten them together. You will even have windows and window vents ready for airing plants on hot days.
Film greenhouse do it yourself
This greenhouse, although it requires frequent change of film, is still common. Because the film is easy to install and cheap. In addition, with care, can withstand several seasons. Not suitable for a winter greenhouse with their own hands, but copes with the functions of the summer very well.
An ideal design for a greenhouse film would be a frame of plastic pipes curved arch. This arch is built in one day, it is cheap and even one person can handle it. The arch is closed with a film. And for the winter it can be cleaned. Several such greenhouse can be modernized if agrofibre (geotextile) is used instead of film.
Greenhouse from agrofibre do it yourself
Geotextiles can be used as a material covering the greenhouse with their own hands. He well passes water and steam. Your plants will be irrigated with rainwater and will be able to "breathe" freely. White geotextile gives enough light for plants, and at the same time will not allow the sun's rays to burn the foliage. This greenhouse needs less airing than that made from other materials. Agrofibre durable material, unlike the film. You can use it for many years. He is not torn, not afraid of puncturing, well stretched. Today it is a good alternative to film.
Greenhouse made of polycarbonate DIY
Such greenhouses do their own hands for all types of roofing and frames. They are arched and single-double-slope. Polycarbonate is fixed to both wood and metal. They cover the framework of plastic and aluminum pipes. In general, this is a universal material for building a greenhouse with your own hands. When choosing a polycarbonate, pay attention to its thickness and weight. Choose sheets with a thickness of 4 mm. Better than 6-8 mm. In addition, the sheet should be quite heavy. Do not forget that polycarbonate can not be fixed in a horizontal position. Condensate in the comb should slide freely and drain. Otherwise, polycarbonate will quickly overgrow algae and lose its transparency.
Technology of building a metal frame for the greenhouse
To make a metal greenhouse durable, it is desirable to use pipes with a diameter of 20-25 mm or shaped pipes with a cross section of 20x40 mm. In addition to these, you will need material for the base - it can be sleepers, a thick, tarred timber or a metal corner.
Pipes using special equipment bend to give them the shape of an arc.
On the photo - manual pipe bender
Further, a base for a future greenhouse is constructed from the sleepers, timber or corner. In a wooden base with a pitch of about 1 meter, holes are drilled with a depth of 8-10 cm and a diameter equal to the cross-section of the pipe.
The ends of metal arcs are inserted into these holes. The arc is welded or bolted to the metal base.
Further instruction is as follows:
- All arcs (see Fastening a greenhouse arcs: recommendations and tips) at the top point are connected to each other with a ridge rail - a pipe of the desired length,
- On the sides of the greenhouse also run pipes are attached, giving the structure rigidity. Fastening is made by welding or bolts,
Note! When bolting do not drill the pipes themselves - this will reduce their strength. Weld the brackets to them and fasten the runs and the ridge rail with bolts to the brackets.
- The ends of the greenhouse are reinforced with vertical lintels, between which the doors are arranged.
Scheme of the frame of the profile tubes
Features of use
In general, metal and film - not the best neighbors. The fact is that under the hot sun the metal frame is very hot, and the film in contact with it begins to literally melt.
To prevent this from happening, the greenhouse frame must be painted, and in white or another light color. Paint will protect metal from corrosion.
Better yet, wrap the arches and lintels with a cloth or put pieces of the cut along the old hose on them.
Council The easiest way to purchase a finished frame of the greenhouse from the film and collect it in place. Usually, all its parts are well fitted to each other, carefully processed and painted, have special clips for fixing the film.
How to make a wooden frame
For corner and door pillars, the top and bottom strapping is best to take a strong timber section 50x50 mm. Side racks, stitches and lintels can be made from a bar of a smaller section or from boards.
If a concrete or brick strip foundation is not made under the greenhouse, a massive timber of 50x100 mm or more is chosen for the foundation. After assembling the base equal to the perimeter of the greenhouse in the plan, racks are attached to it at a distance of 1-1.2 meters.
Their height can be about one and a half meters. On the upper perimeter of the rack tied binding ropes.
To enhance the design, the corner and adjacent posts are connected by diagonal stubs.
The next stage is the installation of rafters and ridge bar. Between the rafters can also be connected horizontal runs.
In the end, between the middle racks at the ends of the building, the frames of the doors and the windows located above them are hung.
Council It is better to fasten all wooden elements with each other in the butt and strengthen the fastening with metal corners or brackets.
In more detail about construction of the wooden greenhouse you learn, having seen video.
The disadvantages of the wooden frame and how to eliminate them
The great advantage of wood is that it practically does not heat up under the sun, which is good for film coating. But he also has drawbacks, which are easiest to level up before putting the film on the greenhouse.
- If the wood is poorly processed, its rough surface quickly wipe the film. To prevent this from happening, all sawn timber must be well sanded before use.
- Wood, like any other natural material, is subject to rotting and damage by insect pests. The most problematic areas are the places of contact with the film, in which moisture accumulates.
Therefore, before the construction starts, the timber must be soaked with an antiseptic in 2-3 layers and dried thoroughly.
Do not forget to process the ends
Council It is advisable to repeat this procedure at the end of each season after removing the film. When using a fixed perennial coating processing is performed using a spray gun.
Plastic Pipe Frame
Greenhouses made of film on a PVC pipe frame are the lightest, most practical and easy to manufacture. Plastic pipes do not need processing, they do not heat up, they easily bend along the desired radius.
In addition, they do not corrode, do not rot, and therefore are considered the most durable. They are not afraid of and temperature drops, and high humidity, and other atmospheric influences.
The frame of them is going like this:
- A rectangular base is placed on the leveled piece of land, knocked out of boards planted on an edge and impregnated with an antiseptic.
- In the corners of the base are driven into the ground pieces of metal reinforcement, fixing it in place.
- The same pieces of reinforcement, but longer, are driven in outside, along the long sides of the base with a step of 50-70 cm.
- At the ends of the formed pins, located opposite each other, plastic pipes are bent, curved arc.
For reference. The length of the pipes produced by our industry is 6 meters. It is enough for the device greenhouse width of 3 meters and a height of more than 2 meters.
Installation of the arch greenhouse from plastic pipes
- Additionally, the ends of the arcs with metal brackets are attached to a wooden base.
- In the upper part, all the arcs are interconnected from the inside by a straight pipe, the length of which is equal to the length of the greenhouse. Fastening is carried out using plastic clamps.
The price of such a structure is very small, since plastic pipes are inexpensive.
Why it is worth choosing agrofibre for greenhouses?
- Durability and reliability of the material.
- Resistance to strong wind and even large hail.
- The safety of the plant in a slight frost or during precipitation.
- In the heat does not dry out the plant.
- It protects the plant from UV due to its structure.
- Durability, ease of cleaning.
How to make a greenhouse of agrofibre do it yourself
How to make such a greenhouse
In order to personally produce a greenhouse, it is necessary to purchase a certain amount of agrofiber, as well as several PVC pipes, which will be used as arcs.
Determining the size of the greenhouse and acquiring agrofibre, keep in mind that it is not necessary to look for the same size of material, it can easily be sewn on a sewing machine.
Making arc. Purchased PVC pipes are very easy to bend with your hands. After you have given the works to them in shape, put them on the ground beforehand, around the perimeter of the future greenhouse, pins. The location of the arcs depends on the size of the greenhouse.
Covered with agrofiber arc can be both before and after they have been installed. But it is best to insert the arc into the finished folds of the material, in this case, if you do not need to use the greenhouse, you can simply fold it. It can also be easily reinstalled. In the case of using this option, for convenience, you can use clips.
If you need a high greenhouse, then you need to buy a little more PVC pipes, and connect them together with special fittings.
As you can see, if you want to save the greenhouse frame under the film, it is quite possible to assemble yourself from any available materials. To get an early harvest, it is best to do it in the fall, and cover it with a film - in the spring.
In this case, the future beds will be covered with snow all winter, preventing them from freezing to death, and at the beginning of the season you will not have to spend time assembling the frame.
Types of agrofibre
Different types of agrofibre are used differently in the garden and in the garden. They can protect plants from wind, hail, rain, cold, birds or insects, shade from direct sunlight, and, as a tender seedling, and young trees or bushes. It is also successfully used for soil mulching.
Spunbond is black and white, except for the color differs density. White is used as a covering material for greenhouses, greenhouses, just beds instead of film. It is easy to work with him, that is why greenhouses are made with his own hands. Black, which has the effect of mulching, successfully eliminates the beds from weeds. The most common density is 50-60 g / m2, it does not transmit light, which means that nothing grows under it. It is often used in this way: cut in the right places, spread on a bed, sow or plant plants in slots.
The cloth perfectly passes water, keeps heat, but without light under it nothing grows - a wonderful way to get rid of the constant weed. So they often grow strawberries and strawberries - they ripen earlier, and the berries do not touch the ground.
White agropolotno release different density, from 15 g / m2 to 120 g / m2. Thin, with a density of 15 g / m2, 17 g / m2, 23 g / m2 is usually used when growing early greens or vegetables. They are covered with vegetation on the beds or inside the greenhouses (mini-greenhouses are arranged) from frost down to -4 °, snow, rain or hail, sunburn, and pests.
With a cloth with a density of 30 g / m2, in addition to the beds, it is still possible to cover trees and shrubs from frost down to -6 °, or you can put it into production of greenhouses. To make a greenhouse with your own hands, it is better to take not a film, but an agro-weave with a density of 42 g / m2 or even 55 g / m2. It is able to maintain a comfortable temperature inside with frost up to 10 degrees, with stronger frosts, it is recommended to make another covering layer from less dense agro-weaves. It does not collect condensate in contrast to the film, it is better to let in sunlight and air.
One more indisputable plus of its operation is durability. If you cover a bed with a seedling with a film, take it off for watering, airing, weeding, then lay it again, it will be enough for season 1, and you do not need to remove the polymer sheet as often, after using it, it is dried and stored in a dark dry room away from rodents. Thus, it can work for at least 3 seasons.
Cellular polycarbonate is a modern plastic with a cellular structure. It is durable, resistant to aggressive media, incredibly light due to its cellular structure, produced by the manufacturer in sheets of various colors. Like a thin spunbond, it can transmit 90% of the light. Manufacturers produce a product of different luminosity: from transparent to tinted in different shades. Available separately for indoor and outdoor use, so for exterior work sheets are covered on both sides with a film that is impervious to ultraviolet rays.
Polycarbonate does not burn, is indifferent to most chemicals, it withstands strong mechanical resistance at any temperature, and saves heat perfectly. Polycarbonate roof does not break through the largest hail. And if it is still possible to break it, it will not shatter into pieces, like glass. In addition, it has the flexibility without heating (you can just bend it with an arc just with your hands), low mass, and sound insulation. These qualities made it very popular in construction.
Originally developed for construction purposes, this film is actively used in household farming. It is a multi-layered polyethylene reinforced with fiberglass.
The material can withstand increased loads and does not lose its properties in the cold season. This allows it to be used for permanent greenhouses.
The downside is the reduced conductivity of sunlight due to the additional elements in the composition and the increased cost.
This material is perfect for regions with low temperatures. The special composition of the film allows you to retain heat well, without losing its physical properties at low temperatures. It has a very high conductivity of light, which is both an advantage and a disadvantage.
In the cold season, this property will have a positive effect on plant growth. However, with an increase in the length of daylight hours, it can adversely affect their condition, causing overheating.
Film with infrared elements
This material can not be called ukryvnym, as in greenhouses it is used in part. These devices work from the electrical network and emit infrared light, warming up the plants and accelerating their growth. With the help of infrared film can grow plants year-round.
Their negative sides are dependence on current source and relatively high cost.
Light scattering film
With the help of special additives was obtained material that can evenly diffuse sunlight. Thanks to him, the plants continue to receive the necessary dose of ultraviolet radiation, however, they are fully protected from burns due to direct rays.
Now the gardener can independently choose any time convenient for himself to water the plants, without fear of harming them.
Do-it-yourself greenhouse film: selection and preparation of the site
If you decide to build a greenhouse to give, be prepared to face minor problems on your way. Before embarking on a wooden structure, you need to determine the location of the greenhouse. There are two types of greenhouses: stationary and collapsible.
On a large plot it is much easier to choose the space free from trees - nothing should obscure the greenhouse walls. Ideally, place it near the bushes or near the fence. Shrubs will not cast a shadow on the greenhouse, and their roots will not harm future greenhouse plants.
If there is not enough space on the plot, you can build a single-site greenhouse that will be placed right next to the house. It should be installed only on the south side of the building, so that most of the day it is illuminated by the sun. The place for the construction of the greenhouse should be carefully removed from the old leaves and plants, if possible, align the fossa and elevation.
The second stage of preparation is the choice of the size and variety of the greenhouse. Not all farmers have the opportunity to build a large greenhouse, the optimal size is the construction of 3x6 meters. Depending on the type of crops grown, the beds inside can be placed differently.
It is not recommended to combine cucumbers and tomatoes under the same roof - they need different modes of temperature and humidity, as well as the length of daylight.
When building a freestanding greenhouse, several types of structures can be distinguished - tunnel (arched), two-slope, in the form of a pyramid. The most common version of a wooden greenhouse for its own use is a double-sided construction with straight walls, covered with plastic wrap.
Cellular polycarbonate is considered to be the best covering material for greenhouses. It is very durable, strong and has high heat-saving properties. The material well passes and distributes solar radiation, with time it does not cloud, retaining its properties.
The main disadvantage is its weight. Polycarbonate greenhouses must be installed on sturdy metal structures. The frame made of improvised means may simply not sustain the total weight of the material and fall apart.
This material is actively used by gardeners when growing various plants. It passes light and air well, has low weight and reasonable cost.
Due to the high air permeability, it retains heat poorly, which limits its use until the warmer seasons. Also considered very short-lived material. It becomes unusable after 3 years of use.
What material should be used for greenhouses, each gardener decides for himself. For example, PVC and copolymer compounds are suitable for heat preservation. Plain and armored film should be considered universal for all situations.
A greenhouse made of paper with your own hands will help to increase the quantity and quality of the harvested crop by increasing the growing time. Own designs will be much cheaper than their counterparts, made by industrial methods and sold in specialized stores. The simplicity of assembling such greenhouses allows you to create them even gardeners who have no practical experience in such matters.
The greenhouse with their own hands from wood under the film: the necessary materials
It is necessary to create a greenhouse construction project - prepare drawings, make the calculation of the required amount of material and fasteners.
For dvukhskatnoy greenhouse size 3x6 need to buy materials:
- For a framework of bars 100х100 mm,
- For racks and crossbars wooden slats 50x50 mm
- Greenhouse coating film (polycarbonate - in rare cases),
- Fastening materials.
The timber should be dry, even and without knots. It is not necessary to purchase material for a frame made of expensive wood, for a greenhouse suitable wood and cheaper.
It is possible to build a greenhouse with your own hands in one day, having a little experience with a tree and a friend in the field.
Construction of the greenhouse begins with the construction of the foundation, then the racks are built, firmly fixed at the base. Only then you can mount the crossbar, while you need to remember that greenhouses need ventilation, windows and doors. It is desirable to take into account these nuances when drawing designs.
Greenhouse assembly tips:
- All elements of the greenhouse should be built on the level and plumb. Failure to do so may result in improper installation of the greenhouse structure.
- To cover a large greenhouse is better to use high-quality polyethylene or PVC film. It is better to invest in a building once, than to change the coverage every season.
- Think over the ventilation system, lighting and heating the greenhouse.
- Installing a large greenhouse is best done together with a partner. Alone you can not cope with stretching the canvas on the roof structure.
The purchased tree must be treated with a special solution from desiccation, mold and fungus. If the tree is of good quality and the frame is assembled correctly, the greenhouse can last up to 7 years under the conditions of the correct choice of greenhouse cover and careful operation.
Winter wooden greenhouse should be covered with a dense material - PVC film, which is able to retain heat well. Quite durable, but expensive plastic film "Stable" can withstand great frosts. However, the film itself will not be enough if winter is predominantly cold in the region, in which case you need to think about heating and high-quality lighting of the greenhouse.
Greenhouse from the film with his own hands: covering greenhouses
Cover the frame of the greenhouse can be polycarbonate sheets, glass or different types of film. An overview of all types of coatings, their main characteristics, advantages and disadvantages can be found on any construction site.
In a small area you can place a greenhouse "Perchina-M" - the metal base and polycarbonate shelter will serve you for a long time, but the price for these greenhouses is quite high.
The film is considered the most economical option to cover the greenhouse design. At the same time, the useful life of an ordinary polyethylene film is very short - the whole season, but there are also more durable film coatings with which you can cover a greenhouse and use it all year round and several seasons in a row. For the cultivation of tomato seedlings in the famous Krivyanka use professional film greenhouses.
Cheap polyethylene film does not withstand frost in winter; it can tear under the weight of snow and a gust of strong wind. Even if a miracle happened, and the film survived the winter, it loses its properties - it dims and poorly conducts light. The air under the film in the sun heats up very quickly, but also quickly the heat leaves at night.
Such sudden changes in temperature without additional heating can lead to plant disease or their death.
Small greenhouses can be covered with high-quality Svetlitsa film. This film has many positive characteristics - it retains heat well, provides full tightness and fights against such a problem as condensate.
Covering a greenhouse with a film with your own hands is quite simple - the process of laying material begins with the roof of the structure. To fix the film can be wooden strips, rope or mesh. The choice of laying the film also determines the duration of the greenhouse. When fixing the film with strips and nails, the covering material can be damaged, then cold air can get into the greenhouse or run off of water during precipitation. If you cover the film with a grid, with strong winds, the film under it can move, and each time you have to re-cover the greenhouse with it.
Film greenhouses: collapsible ready-made structures
Prefabricated greenhouse construction is a great option for those who grow vegetables only in spring and autumn. In winter, such greenhouses are dismantled.
Hungarian-type designs are especially popular. The framework consists of a metal pipe 4-5.5 cm in diameter, which must be painted to avoid corrosion. To make the frame as strong as possible, the crate must be dense. The greenhouse is covered with a thick film that withstands small frosts. To maintain the temperature level in the greenhouse you need to install a heater. If it is not possible to carry out heating in the greenhouse, you can cover it with a film cover. It is recommended to close the end windows and the door with fabric or plastic curtains for the winter to prevent drafts from occurring.
Specialist in greenhouse construction Sergey Mozgovoy gives good feedback to greenhouses, which Kakhovka produces.
Large greenhouses for the winter can be disassembled, but not everyone has a place to hide it until next season. Many farm warehouses in winter provide a structure storage service for a certain fee - so you can be sure that no one will take care of your property if you are not at the cottage.
Greenhouses from the film do it yourself (video)
Cheap greenhouses for giving can be made with your own hands from wooden beams and covering material. Depending on the region where you plan to install the greenhouse, you will need to choose a coating for the greenhouse - plain or cold-resistant film. For the winter period it is important to adjust heating and the correct lighting in the greenhouse.