Dust mites (otherwise, house dust mites) are present in every room where a person lives or is. These synanthropic insects simply cannot live without humans, since the main food products of these creatures are dead cells of the human epidermis. In our article we will examine in detail what the dust mites look like and what they look like, whether they bite people. Let us tell you what methods are best to get rid of them and what preventive measures to take to further their non-proliferation.
Dust mites are very small insects (type - arthropods), belonging to the class of arachnids. But this does not mean that they are all like a spider. Their limbs are not so long, they are poorly developed, but meanwhile, their strength is enough to move freely. They crawl slowly, constantly looking for provisions, which, in most cases, are dead cells of the human epidermis or the skin of domestic animals.
What do dust mites really look like? Most of all, they resemble the bugs, if those have their wings torn off and their legs shortened. A special difference is the fact that they do not have an obvious division of the body into segments. Their whole carcass, if you can call it that, is a solid “cutlet” (in a reduced form, to the size of 0.1-0.5 mm), slightly narrowed to the stigma and thickened towards the back of the abdomen. In the front part, the stigma has a pair of small processes that resemble hypertrophied mites, with which the insect sends itself edible food into the mouth opening. Some compare them with hippos reduced to microscopic sizes. Here's what a dust mite looks like on a photo enlarged many times.
They live from 60 to 80 days, during which they manage to go through their entire life cycle, that is, to overeat and copulate, after which the female lays up to 60 eggs.
What is dust, and why dust mites live in it
For many, this will be a shock, but more than 20% of room dust consists of particles of dead skin layer flying around us, called the epidermis. And the more people live in an apartment, the richer the content of skin flakes in the total mixture will be. In addition to them, in the home dust mist are present:
- smoke particles (soot) 3%,
- fibers of various fabrics and paper - 12%,
- all sorts of mineral particles - 34%,
- flower pollen - 6%,
- other pollutants (fragments, flakes of animals, fluff, etc.) - 25%.
In winter, respectively, the pollen of flowers is less, but the clothes are more, and therefore these 6% migrate in favor of being showered from the upper winter clothes. This is what dust under a microscope looks like.
Favorite places to stay
The more carpets, upholstered furniture and other textile decoration and interior items in the house, the more and faster dust will form in it. For example, carpets are a favorite place to live for dust mites. They are always deposited a huge amount of "provisions". The next photo shows dust mites that feel great among carpet textile fibers.
Separately, it should be said about feather and down pillows, as well as mattresses. Scientists and here managed to put their hand, having calculated that up to two million dust mites reside permanently in an ordinary average double bed.And feather and down fillers, with a lack of sustenance, can themselves be food for these microscopic creatures.
Separate words deserve household items and other appliances. Older monitors, stereos, and DVD players are potential megalopolises and breeding grounds for dust mites. Among the microcircuits, capacitors, resistances and other electronic stuffing is always full of dust, but if it is full of dust, and nobody cleans it for a long time, the mites live in it particularly freely.
Where do they come from in dwellings
Themselves, ticks from house to house, of course, do not go. For them to overcome such a distance is akin to how a person goes through the whole of Mother Russia from Kaliningrad to Vladivostok. Therefore, they are carried by the wind, by people — on shoes, socks, clothing, or on animal fur. Any speck of dust circling down the street in a residential area may contain several “travelers” who were accidentally blown out of the window of a neighboring house by a draft.
Is it possible to see dust mites with the naked eye?
We will answer the question of how a dust mite looks with the naked eye that these creatures cannot be seen even under a magnifying glass. On average, the size of ticks is 0.2 mm, which means that without special equipment, these creatures simply cannot be detected. And the way dust mites look like under a microscope is terrified and disgusted by many. These are pests with a repulsive appearance, and by their very appearance it becomes clear that nothing good can be expected from them.
Dust mite from a medical point of view
Now let's look at the problem from a medical point of view: what is a dust mite? And how to get rid of it? And in general, is it possible? Let's start with the first question. Doctors warn that dust mites are malicious pathogens of bronchial asthma. Often they can be carriers of other dangerous infections. In addition to asthma, they can also be causes:
- respiratory allergy,
- dermatitis allergenic nature
- Quincke's edema.
Any reaction of the human body to the effects of mites and the enzymes secreted by them is summarized under the common name “tick sensitization”.
Do dust bites bite?
We have already seen how dust mites look. From the photos provided it becomes clear that they don’t have such “biting” organs. In everyday life, we used to call a bite - sting injections (for example - a mosquito), skin tucks with front claws on the snout (some spiders, forest, meadow mites, beetles), etc. But this is not the case for dust mites. Even if they have a hole with some mandibles with which the insects absorb all the same flakes of the upper layer of the epidermis that once fell off a human, they simply cannot bite the skin tissue of the skin.
They will not be able to pinch it in any noticeable way. These creatures are so miserable that any mechanical effect on the epidermis will be invisible from an anatomical point of view. By their effects on the skin tissue, they will not be able to excite a single nerve receptor of the human body, regardless of its location.
Plus, dust mites are able to digest only particles of dead epidermis. Live skin for them is not food. In large-scale and biological proportions, a tick bite can be compared to how a person would want to bite a hip 100 times larger in size. Firstly, the material is too rough - not according to human teeth, and secondly, the surface tissue of boar's thigh will not be eaten.
But some may protest, they say, we all saw how the bites of dust mites look, where do they then come from if the mites do not bite?
What is a dust mite bite?
The bites of dust mites are popularly called reddening, which appeared in places where human skin was exposed to the enzymes secreted by them, with which the feces of microscopic insects are impregnated. Each tick per day can “go to the toilet in a big way” 20 times, so on the scale of a double bed it will be a real disaster for a person with whom this enzyme can cause an allergic reaction.
People usually have this immunity to this substance. But there are exceptions, though. In addition, there are many varieties of dust mites themselves, and it is possible that some kind of feces may not be suitable for any person.
Who should fear dust mites the most?
Tick-borne sensitization is most often affected by people with asthma and children. If the child suddenly begins to cough and develop a runny nose, and there are no outbreaks of diseases around, most likely the reason is the reaction of the baby’s body to the presence of too many dust mites in the dwelling.
Also, the symptoms of allergies in children to dust mites are pronounced redness on the skin of a child (dermatitis) that come from nowhere. You should not be afraid of such irritations, as the current medicine easily learned to cope with such allergic manifestations. A photo with dust mites bites on a human body looks rather unpleasant.
If you notice a similar irritation on the skin of your child, this means that the number of insects has exceeded all of the permissible limits and it’s time to take up cleaning the house seriously, arranging the real Armageddon to uninvited cohabitants.
In a specialized shop you can find a large variety of tools that can help with getting rid of ticks multiplied in the home. In most cases, these means are sprays, completely safe for humans, but at the same time, deadly for hateful insects.
They should handle mattresses, pillows and blankets. Removed the bedding, so that all the creatures nestled in it, perished, you can soak in hot water. The most comfortable temperature for these insects is 15-25 ° C. Frost or heat are lethal to them.
For the treatment of carpets and carpets special cleaning products are produced in the form of concentrated shampoos. If you wipe floors and other surfaces with a solution of such a tool, as well as clean the carpet, all the pests that inhabit them will certainly go to the next world.
Anyway, no tool will help to get rid of dust mites by 100%. But to reduce the population of insects to the safe minimum of human strength.
So that the pests do not breed again, elementary preventive measures should be observed. Here is a list of actions that will help keep the dust mite population under control:
- Weekly general cleaning should be done in every dwelling. If you do not want to spend money on special tools, you can splash a little vinegar essence into a basin or a bucket of water. The smell will be gone in an hour, but the creatures will die with even greater intensity.
- All upholstered furniture without fail should be carefully vacuumed. Minus ticks in their light weight and awkwardness. They do not run away from the vacuum cleaner like a rat. Moreover, by virtue of their underdeveloped little minds, they don’t understand at all what side they suffered from such a cruel relocation to a landfill. They nest mainly in the upper layers of the material of upholstered furniture, because there is no food inside for them. Therefore, a greater number of their “personnel” will necessarily be vacuumed up.
- In the summer, take out pillows, blankets and mattresses to dry in the sun. Moreover, insects will die from excessive overheating, so for them ultraviolet itself is also destructive.In just a few hours of such a “sunbath”, your bedding will get rid of the lion’s share of the total number of mites nestled in them.
- In winter, in sunny, frosty weather, the linen you brought to the fresh air will be completely free from all mites. If the sun could not penetrate inside the down or feather pillow in the summer, then the frost would definitely pierce it to the ground.
We should not forget that the smaller the apartment will be stale things, carpet and other products, small parts, hard-to-reach cracks and old household appliances, the smaller the number of nurseries that will produce all the new hordes of ticks. Get rid of everything superfluous, and you, without any doubt, will breathe easier, and this was said in the literal sense of the word.
From the foregoing it is clear that no matter how the dust mites look in the photo, they are not dangerous in themselves. By and large, these are miserable creatures that can only eat and highlight their waste products. Danger to people are only their enzymes produced by them along with stool. And even then only in cases when the concentration of insects passes all imaginable limits. But simple preventive measures in conjunction with special sprays are sure to help eliminate this problem.
Dust mite: characteristic and habitat
Dust mites (commonly called “anthers”, the scientific name is Dermatofogoides of the farine genus - hence the farina mite) are parasites invisible to the human eye, resembling arachnids. The size of their body in length is only 0.1-0.5 mm. Therefore, it is possible to detect and detect pests only under a microscope.
Dust mites look pretty unpleasant. They have an incomplete body and 4 pairs of limbs with suckers. In this case, the parasites are covered with a water-repellent layer. Because of what they easily pass through the water droplets, and wash them off when cleaning is often obtained only with soap solution.
Dust mites are widespread throughout the world. At the same time, they “coexist” with a man for more than one hundred and even a thousand years. The subject of scientific study of these parasites have long been. To date, there are more than 150 species of such pests.
Dust mites live for a relatively short time. On average 65-80 days. And during this time, the female parasite is able to lay about three hundred eggs. This means that with a favorable environment, their population grows exponentially. That is why they often multiply freely at home, because here it is usually warm (22-26 ° C) and humid. There is no better microenvironment for dust mites.
True, even for the growth of the population, these parasites, like many other living creatures, need food. And again, in the conditions of an apartment or a house, there is plenty of it for them. Dust mites readily eat dead skin particles, animal hair, and natural bristles.
If we talk about where dust mites are most often inflamed, then this is:
- bed and bedding (especially many pests occur in mattresses, blankets, old rugs and pillows),
- carpets made from natural materials
- soft toys (in them "anthers" are also infused very often),
- carpeting and walkways,
- curtains and curtains
- paper magazines and books
- furniture upholstery
- stale old clothes
- dust accumulations (behind cabinets, tables, in corners and other places, where we don’t get when cleaning the room).
At the same time, dust mites live in colonies. And on average, 1 g of household dust can account for up to 10 thousand individuals. It is also surprising that even in a one-room small apartment, the number of such parasites is higher than the number of all people living on planet Earth.
For reference! It is customary to divide dust mites into several groups. These are granary, predatory (those that eat granary) and random (brought in from the outside and do not multiply indoors).
What are dangerous and harmful dust mites?
Some believe that dust mites can bite. At the same time injecting toxic substances into the blood and infecting a person with dangerous diseases. Immediately say that it is not. The bite of a dust mite is nothing more than fiction. Apply mechanical damage to the skin, these parasites can not. They harm differently. Through the products of their life, which are powerful allergens. These include:
- cuticle (reset after molting),
- secrets and enzymes
So, such waste products of dust mites (easily rising into the air and forming clusters of dust) pose a threat to the human body. Largely because of its ability to cause contact, food and respiratory allergies, as well as provoke the appearance of:
- rhinitis and rhinitis,
- bronchial asthma,
- respiratory allergy,
- Quincke edema, and more. others
Under the conditions of a large number of dust mites, it is particularly hard for elderly people and children. Allergy sufferers suffer a lot. And if there are a lot of dust mites, then an allergic reaction may also occur to those who have never complained about the hypersensitivity of the immune system.
For reference! These tiny domestic parasites are not harmful in small quantities! Thus, the concentration of dust mites to 100 pieces per gram of dust is absolutely safe. If they are five times more, then a person may experience asthma attacks. When the number of "reptiles" reaches 1000-2000 per gram of dust, they easily provoke allergies and runny nose, which then turns into chronic.
How to understand that there are a lot of dust mites?
Soothes the fact that it is not difficult to detect in the house or apartment the presence of unwanted guests in large quantities. It is enough to pay attention to your condition and well-being of those who live with you.
What manifestations and symptoms should alert? There are a lot of them:
- nasal sinus congestion
- abundant and frequent nasal discharge
- regular sneezing
- itching of nose and palate,
- severe tearing, irritation of the mucous membranes,
- dry cough, wheezing in the throat,
- night awakening due to difficulty breathing,
- irritation of the skin (redness, itching, peeling, burning, various rashes, rash, eczema, urticaria, etc.).
A possible cause of all the ailments listed is an allergy to house dust mites. It is best to consult a doctor as soon as possible. He will prescribe the right treatment for you and prescribe the necessary medications and drugs that will help get rid of tick-borne allergies and eliminate its symptoms. Of course, it will be useful to begin an active struggle with these parasites.
For reference! For most asthmatics, the illness is caused by the activity of dust mites and their excrement.
How to get rid of dust mites?
It should immediately warn you - completely withdraw and remove parasites from the room can not. You can only reduce the number that will make their stay completely harmless to humans.
At the same time, the most effective method of destroying dust mites is to create conditions in which parasites will be as uncomfortable as possible. Therefore, if you want to get rid of dust mites, then start with a thorough cleaning of all the rooms in the house or apartment, without exception. These pests do not tolerate cleanliness and cannot normally exist and reproduce without an abundance of dust.
But if the "anthers" a lot, then one should not be limited to cleaning. There are a number of other effective methods to reduce the population of parasites:
- Air out. And not only the premises, but also toys, carpets, rugs, bed linen, etc. A great option is to freeze an apartment or house, if it is winter outside. The fact is that the dust mite dies at low (or high) temperatures and humidity less than 50%.Therefore it is recommended to open the windows for one hour every day. As for the conditions under which dust mites do not feel very good, this is a temperature between 18º С and 22º С (or lower), and a humidity of 40%.
- Take to the fresh air mattresses, blankets, carpets, soft toys, etc.. Outside they need to be well knocked out and left in the sun. Ultraviolet is harmful to adult dust mites and their eggs.
- Minimize the amount of things in the room that attract dust. For example, remove excess textiles, replace thick curtains with aluminum or plastic blinds. You can also reduce the number of decorative pillows on the sofas and beds. Hide things that collect dust. These may include unnecessary decorations, picture frames, stacks of books, newspapers, paper, etc.
- Use a good (preferably washing) vacuum cleaner. That is, not some old dust collector, but a modern model equipped with a special filter that will prevent mites from spraying during the cleaning process. Do this by vacuuming and washing the floor every day.
- Replace the bedding and clean the carpets. For example, there is a special linen for allergy sufferers, made from such fabrics, in which a dust mite cannot live. It is worth getting it. At a minimum, it is possible to switch to synthetic bedspreads, mattress covers and blankets, as well as to abandon the down pillows. It is also recommended to remove all natural carpets and bedspreads, as they can live millions of dust mites.
- Discard old unwanted items and other trash.Especially, worn pillows, blankets and clothes that are several decades old. This will remove more than one thousand dust mites from the premises.
- Thoroughly clean the upholstery. Or completely replace it with leatherette or leather, completely removing all fleecy fabrics.
- Wash all bed linen in the automatic machine at a temperature above 60–70 degrees, and then carefully iron it with a hot iron.If you have a lot of soft toys at home, then they should be subjected to these procedures.
For reference! In order to prevent and combat dust mites, remove dust not only from visible surfaces, but also in hard-to-reach places. Use a soapy or salty water solution (5 tablespoons per 10-12 liters).
Folk and chemical means of dealing with dust mites
If you think that the above methods are not enough to get rid of parasites, then you can use other methods. So, some people use folk remedies against dust mites.
The most common option is eucalyptus oil. It is believed that it is very effective and at the same time destructive for parasites. They are treated with absolutely any surface: fabrics, bed linen, carpets, etc. Another simple and cheap way of dealing with a pest is surface treatment in a room with a saline solution, which is prepared in just a couple of seconds. It is enough to dissolve about 250 grams of salt in a liter of water.
Quite popular today are special sprays, shampoos, foams, concentrates and solutions from dust mites. Among the most common:
At the same time, most preparations from dust mites are based on substances that do not kill the parasites, but only help break down the protein structures of allergens. What does this give? It's simple. As a result, the human immune system no longer perceives them as alien objects, and, therefore, an allergic reaction does not develop.
Dust mites are invisible and unpleasant "neighbors." They harm our health, easily cause allergies and other painful conditions. Moreover, these parasites can not be completely removed. All that a person can do is to minimize their number in a house and apartment, maximally excluding the negative impact of pests on their well-being. As for effective means of dealing with dust mites, there are a lot of them.But to be honest, the main weapon of a person against such pests is cleanliness.
How do house dust mites look and where do they live?
Due to the size of the dust mite, it can be viewed “in the face” only under a microscope or with a powerful magnifying glass. And as you can see in the photo, it looks unpleasant: there are claw-like legs attached to the large body of the pest, where the head should be - peculiar mini-mites.
There are a great many species of this arthropod - they call about 150, and carry the parasite to arachnids. The insect lives over two months, during which time the female has time to lay up to 60 eggs. Like ants, dust mites form peculiar colonies of from 10 to 10,000 mites per 1 g of dust.
Concentration is considered permissible when such a quantity of dust contains a hundred parasites. If they are 5 times more, it can already cause an asthma attack in a person, and an even greater amount will make life more difficult for allergy sufferers.
Dust mites are referred to as organisms called synanthropic, i.e. those that coexist with people. They are comfortable at a temperature of + 22–26 degrees and a humidity level of 55%. They feed on dead human epidermis flakes, wool pile of things. The most common places where dust mites live are places with large amounts of dust:
- upholstered furniture,
- bedding: mattresses, pillows, blankets,
- fluffy soft toys,
- clothes and slippers,
- “Rookeries” for pets,
- under plintus slits
- bags dust collectors of vacuum cleaners.
What are dangerous dust mites and their bites for humans?
A small pest does not bite, and if it did bite, then the bites would be painless: keratinized skin particles, which are its main food, are insensitive. The insect's excrement, which he produces 200 times more than he weighs, is a much bigger problem. The enzymes contained in them can cause a corresponding reaction in children and people with a congenital tendency to allergies.
Doctors distinguish between three types of allergies - food, respiratory, contact. And all of them can be united by such a concept as an allergy to dust mites, i.e. caused by this pathogen. The diseases (and quite dangerous!) Of this plan include:
- allergy-induced rhinitis - a runny nose that occurs, as it were, for no apparent reason,
- it can be combined with conjunctivitis - the so-called rhinoconjunctivitis (conjunctivitis may also occur separately),
- Quincke swelling,
- allergies of the respiratory tract - their manifestations vary depending on the location (from rhinitis to bronchial asthma),
- inflammatory skin diseases (dermatitis),
- Acarias, which can affect many internal organs.
How to get rid of dust mites settled in the apartment
Dust mite to detect it in the house is quite problematic. Is that signs can serve as the described painful symptoms or skin rashes caused by tick allergies.
Using a specially developed test "Akarex" you can determine the level of mite concentration in the room. But in order to reliably verify the presence of an undesirable "lodger", it makes sense to do an analysis of household dust.
How to start fighting dust mites
The sad statistics show that in the cities almost half of the buildings are already infected with dust mites. Such their prevalence, as well as their unpretentiousness, make it almost impossible to completely eliminate them. However, to prevent these insects from breeding and thereby reducing the total number is quite possible.
Interestingly, unlike other household pests in the fight against dust mites do not use any improvised home remedies, called folk. The main direction - the hygiene of the home.
Despite its unpretentiousness, dust mites rather quickly die at low or high temperatures. Reduce their reproduction can, as often as possible by taking out all the things in which they can live, in the cold, and in summer - in the hot sun. This procedure will help destroy the egg-laying mites. You can use a quartz lamp for this purpose.
Also, dust mites do not tolerate low humidity - the organisms of these insects are dehydrated in such conditions, which leads to death.
The fight against dust mites must include the following items:
- remove all causes of increased humidity: fix leaking taps and tanks, sinks and mixers, roof leaks,
- install hoods in rooms with initially high humidity such as a bathtub,
- get a dehumidifier.
Kill dust mite and help regular wet cleaning. Its efficiency will increase if it is produced not just with water, but with saline, by adding 10 table salt to the bucket of spoons. By the way, this method was used for a long time, so it is appropriate to attribute it to the so-called folk. You can also use bleach.
Do not forget about the constant airing of rooms. This will not get rid of insects, but will reduce the concentration of allergens in the air.
Quite often, a vacuum cleaner that is equipped with an aqua-filter is used to remove dust mites. An ordinary vacuum cleaner from dust mites will hardly save - pests can choose its dust collector as a new place of residence.
Bed linen is recommended to be changed every week, and wash it at a temperature not lower than 60o. More bulky bedding - blankets, bedspreads, pillows - also require washing at least once every two months. And it is better not to buy them with natural fillers, but with synthetic ones as more hygienic - to wash them is much easier.
Special dust mite spray and other chemicals
Really get rid of an unwelcome guest is capable of dry cleaning. At least once a year you should take carpets here, as well as large bedding.
Developed and some drugs that help to remove dust mites. These are anti-allergic sprays that can be used to treat not only the surfaces of upholstered furniture, but also the entire room. After processing, they are valid for a month or two, i.e. their effect is temporary. An indispensable condition: strict adherence to instructions for use and the observance of precautions.
Allergoff spray not only destroys dust mites, but also neutralizes the effect of their metabolic products - feces, chitinous scales.
All-Rug Shampoo used when cleaning floors and cleaning carpets. Due to the presence in the composition of the special active component kills ticks.
X-MITE is able to clean carpets, upholstered furniture, mattresses in a dry way.
Acaril Suspension When washing, you can add to the machine to enhance the effect on the destruction of the allergen.
As an additional measure of protection, you can use air purification systems that are equipped with filters that significantly reduce the number of mites. There are, however, two "but":
- for the most part, the mites are not in the air, but on soft fleecy surfaces,
- filters are quickly contaminated.
We will help indoor plants
A lot of research articles have been written about the ability of indoor plants to clean the air. They manage to defeat pathogenic microbes, house dust and its ticks.
Practically any plants living in an apartment can cope with this if they have large leaves or many, many small ones:
- the first among them is to call chlorophytum. He is able to prevent dust allergies,
- Hamedorea palm tree successfully absorbs various toxins,
- successfully clean the air in the premises of different types of ficuses,
- actively disinfects air geraniums. It is even recommended to be placed in the nursery,
- Spathiphyllum struggling with air pollution and large leaves and especially flowers.
Prevention of dust mites
The home layout should be extremely concise: a smooth, easy-to-clean floor, a minimum of carpets and similar coatings, and upholstered furniture with functional upholstery. All this suggests the prevention of dust mite infection. It represents a whole range of measures. Some of them may seem expensive, but without them it will not be possible to get rid of this insect. Recommended:
- to replace furniture with fabric upholstery with upholstered furniture covered with leather or artificial leather,
- feather-down blankets and pillows - on a synthetic filler. Experts generally advise changing mattresses and pillows every five to seven years (at least)
- to part with all woolen carpets or high-nap covers, as well as soft toys (you should regularly wash your child's pet dog in the car and dry it in fresh air),
- not to acquire objects that actively accumulate dust on themselves, such as heavy fabric curtains (better - blinds),
- do not keep books and trinkets on the open shelves and racks,
- you should not keep things on the closet or under the bed, where the dust is used to accumulate the most, it will also settle on hidden bags,
- in the bedroom, a computer and similar equipment are inappropriate: the dust accumulates actively in them, and it is problematic to remove it.
Want to give your baby a soft toy? Choose only those that can be washed at an acceptable temperature, and then promptly dried in the sun.
It is better to air wash the washed bed linen, invariably iron it with a hot iron and store in a dry place.
Things that are difficult to part with can be secured by wrapping them in bags and hiding them in closets and cupboards that can be closed. Do not let dust accumulate on surfaces: wipe them at least once every two days.
When cleaning with saline, you can only wipe the baseboards. Instead of the traditional carpet in the bedroom, it is better to put a light washable mat and do not forget to wash it regularly. Do not try to lay the carpet in the kitchen - here you have all the comfortable conditions for the reproduction of dust mites.
As we see, despite some difficulties, it is quite possible to get rid of the dust mite even without using the usual ready-made "chemistry".
What does a dust mite look like?
Insect (pyroglyphid or dermatophagoid mite) microscopic, 0.1-0.5 mm long, belonging to the arachnid family. Its life cycle is 80 days. One female lays up to 60 eggs for this period. As of 2015, scientists have discovered and conducted a study of 150 species of this parasite. The pest, by the way, lives in all corners of the planet.
Dust household mites are divided into 3 groups:
- Pyroglyphid / barn.
- Predators eating their fellows from the 1st group,
- Random, brought from the outside, not breeding in this room.
In what conditions lives
Comfortable atmosphere of the house, filled with interior elements - this is all that love house dust mites. Even in a one-room apartment, their number is many times proportional to the number of people on planet Earth.
Unclean Furniture - Dust Mite Shelter
Increasing the temperature in the house to 25 degrees and humidity above 70% accelerates the reproduction of ticks. In such conditions, the concentration of the enemy in a short time reaches 10 thousand individuals per 1 gram of dust, which is 100 times more than the permissible figure. In people who are predisposed to acute reactions, the symptoms of allergy are already apparent in the presence of 500 ticks.
Dust mite loves to create colonies in hard to reach places:
- upholstered furniture
- downy goods
- on the bookshelves,
- in rugs and carpets,
- nooks corners of apartments.
Attention! Dust and dirt - a great environment of dust mites, contributing to the rapid reproduction of parasites. They feed on dead skin particles of human and animal hair.
The consequences of the "neighborhood" of a man with a parasite
Although anthers do not belong to the blood-sucking parasites, they have to be fought with thoroughly. A key irritant to dust mite allergies is microscopic insect feces that spread over the surface, clinging to legs or hands during human activity.
Different reactions to dust mites - bites, especially dangerous for children
Dust mite occupies the leading line in the list of causes of diseases such as:
- respiratory allergy,
- Quincke swelling.
Important! If you or close people suffer from coughing, runny nose or "tearing" of the eyes, consult your nearest allergist. Perhaps the cause of the ailments is an allergy to house dust mites, which can be fatal.
Allergy to house dust mites
Dust mite hates cleanliness
- How to get rid of dust mites - first of all you need a complete change of bed linen. No matter how praised natural pillows and sheets, synthetic counterparts - the first step in a difficult struggle. The structure of synthetic material discourages uninvited guests. Rest on this bed will bring pleasure and freedom of breath.
- In winter, experts recommend airing the apartment dust collectors. These include fleecy furnishings, fur products and soft toys. Low temperatures quickly kill dust mites, paralyzing their livelihoods.
- Reduces the number of pathogens and regular wet cleaning. In addition, it saturates the air with moisture, preventing its complete drainage. It is recommended to add salt to the washing water. The proportions of the solution - 1 tablespoon to two liters of water.
- Replace the old vacuum cleaner with a practical model with an aqua filter. The mechanism catches the smallest particles of dust and feces of mites, unlike models without it. Old vacuum cleaners blow them back, so they lose the fight against parasites.
- Saves the situation and the regular airing of rooms. Air exchange regulates temperature and humidity in favor of humans and animals, rather than microscopic invaders.
- Regular cleaning / washing should be upholstered furniture, tablecloths, curtains, mattresses or carpets that are available in the house, as they accumulate a very large amount of dust
- For washing bed linen in the washing machine give preference to delicate modes. Water with a temperature of up to 65 degrees splits and carries away ticks and the results of their vital activity. If the products are unsuitable for washing, they are periodically frozen for the night.
- The now popular service of cleaning the internal filling of bed linen and mattresses is by no means a panacea. The procedure will delay, but will not solve the problem. The service life of a mattress or pillow is 2 years, after which new products are purchased.
- Wear a mask to tidy up to prevent the seizure of flying allergens. Leave the room after vacuuming for 20 minutes, until the remaining dust and allergens are dispelled.
Dust mite bites cause dermatitis
- Allergoff is a spray that kills ticks themselves, and also neutralizes all their metabolic products (allergens). Available in a spray bottle.
- All-Rug is a shampoo used for cleaning carpets and cleaning floors. The active component of ACARIL, killing ticks. In retail chains is present in the form of a liquid, poured into containers of 250 and 500 ml.
- X-MITE - means for dry cleaning of carpets, mattresses, upholstered furniture.
- Acaril is a suspension that can be added to a washing machine. Active ingredient methyl salicylate.
Filters help fight ticks, microorganisms, mold spores, any viruses and most allergens. Such special filters, as noted above, are used in modern vacuum cleaners. As a rule, high-functional models are equipped with a separator aqua-filter, as well as an additional HEPA-filter.At the outlet, the air is cleaned by 99%.
A vacuum cleaner with a special filter is effective against the tick.
Unfortunately, there is no universal way that will make you get rid of these microorganisms once and for all. If we turn to the recipes of our grandmothers, who also tried to solve the problem of getting rid of allergenic ticks, then saline is effective in this regard. It is prepared simply: 200 g of salt + 1 l of water. These compounds need to handle all the places that "loves" the dust, as well as the "dust-collecting" household things.
Allergy to dust mites is becoming more common. A person from the “risk group”, along with cleaning and wrestling with special preparations, should also pay attention to his health. Dust allergy is curable if the allergist diagnosed the disease on time and prescribed treatment.
Then the doctor prescribes a course of treatment with drugs. The approach to dealing with the consequences is complex. Antihistamine medications dominate:
They are used in combination with corticosteroids and nasal preparations. But the main weapon of man, in the fight against dust mite - cleanliness.
General view: who are dust mites?
Dust mites are small arthropods of a detachment of acariform mites that live in private houses and apartments and feed on mostly flaking dry skin and human hair.
These creatures do not bite a person, do not suck his blood and do not even bite the skin directly on the body. All their livelihoods are endless swarming in ordinary household dust, in which they find flakes of dry, detached epidermis and eat them.
For many people, the idea of having such ticks in the house may seem fantastic. Of the total supernumerary ticks, Ixodes are the most well-known — rather large and found only in the wild (the very ones that are carriers of tick-borne encephalitis and borreliosis). It can be difficult to imagine that among their relatives there are those who are not distinguishable without a microscope and can live in an apartment all the time (moreover, in pillows and mattresses). However, this is true.
Dust mites have 8 paws, developmental characteristic of all mites and the structure of the body typical for the whole supernumerary. And their tiny size is not at all something out of the ordinary. The overwhelming majority of ticks are microscopic forms, ranging from iron plants that inhabit the skin of almost all adults on Earth, and ending with scabies itching, causing scabies.
Due to their tiny size, mites were able to occupy almost all the ecological niches on the planet - they process rotting organic matter in the soil, harm plants, parasitize on a huge number of animals (including insects), survive even in conditions in which other creatures cannot live . For example, ticks are known that live permanently in the crevices of rocks on the arctic islands and feed on only a few weeks a year on birds that make nests here (these creatures are starving the rest of the time). Equally well known, for example, is a wine mite settling on film in barrels of wine and feeding on a floating suspension in such containers. Some mites can even live and breed within the human gastrointestinal tract, causing serious illness.
Dust mites have occupied a distinct niche - they live near the places of rest and permanent human habitat and feed primarily on parts of its dead skin. In this regard, they have developed specific features of morphology, physiology and biology, which allowed them to adapt to such a way of life as effectively as possible.
And they could be good nurses in human housing, recycling household dust, if they did not have a few harmful and dangerous features, which we will talk about below.
What they look like: the appearance of larvae, adults and eggs
Adult dust mites have a solid, translucent, oval-shaped body with eight limbs. The larvae look the same, only they lack one pair of legs - this pair develops after the first molt.
After molting, the larva turns into a nymph - it looks similar to adult mites, leads a similar lifestyle, but has a smaller size and, most importantly, is not capable of reproduction. After a few molts, the nymph becomes a mature individual (imago).
An adult dust mite is shown in a photograph taken with a scanning electron microscope:
The size of adult ticks ranges from 0.3 to 0.5 mm, and, taking into account the translucent body, they are practically indistinguishable with the naked eye.
The photo shows the accumulation of dust mites in the carpet (this is their favorite habitat, which is why they are often also called carpet mites):
The whole body of dust mites is covered with special hairs and bristles, which perceive the vibrations of the air and help orient themselves in space. Given that they have no eye, it is these organs of touch and very good sense of smell that enable them to find food and partners for reproduction.
For fixing on the substrate, the limbs of dust mites are equipped with suction cups - this allows them to move on virtually any surface. They also have special fatty glands, thanks to the secretions from which their body is not wetted by water.
The eggs of dust mites are rather large, reaching up to half the size of the female body. They have a whitish color and are located in groups - ovipositories.
Micrograph shows such an egg at high magnification:
The larva emerging from the egg is very small - up to 0.2 mm. You can see it only under a microscope.
Both larvae and adult dust mites have a well-developed gnawing mouth apparatus, for which they are often called chewing. In this case, they do not have such a stretchable cuticle, which is present in blood-sicking ixodic ticks, since they do not need a one-time saturation with huge amounts of food. They eat regularly and in small portions.
The basis of the ration of dust mites is exfoliated epidermis of humans and domestic animals, accumulating in house dust, on the bed, in pillows, on mattresses, behind baseboards. Each person loses about 1.5 g of dry skin during the day - this is enough to feed several thousand ticks.
Also, studies have shown that dust mites actively eat mold fungi, and more than 16 types of mold have been found in their diet. However, mold is a minor feed object to which these arthropods pass only when there is a shortage of the main feed.
It is a common misconception that allergies are caused by dust mite bites. In fact, they do not bite humans and animals and do not suck blood. Unlike ixodid ticks, they are not parasites, and feed mainly on dead human skin particles. Also, they are not carriers of diseases and do not infect either humans or domestic animals with any infections. In addition, they do not spoil the food.
As a result, the main accumulations of dust mites in residential areas are found where people and domestic animals spend the most time and where the peeling epidermis scales accumulate in the greatest amounts. Mostly these arthropods are concentrated in mattresses, pillows, in the dust under the beds and behind plinths, in pet resting places. At the same time, they are inactive, and practically do not move within the premises - having been born, for example, in a pillow, the tick is likely to live its whole life in it.
Danger to humans
Dust mites can cause all three types of allergic reactions in a person - respiratory, contact and food.Due to the nature of their diet, they are very close to a person throughout his life, and therefore the allergens secreted by them are likely to fall into the human body sooner or later.
For a person, tick excrements that are no larger than 10 microns are dangerous. They contain proteins called Der f1 and Der p1 - digestive enzymes that help break down dead skin cells so that they can be digested. When injected into the human body, excreta of dust mites very often cause a sensitization reaction, and because of their small size, they often penetrate into the airways with dust in the air.
The photo below shows the mites in the carpet, with small grains of excrement visible on each individual and on the fabric around them:
As a result, these pests bring the greatest harm to people suffering from respiratory diseases. Up to 80% of patients with bronchial asthma are susceptible to tick-borne allergies (in many of them, asthma itself is the cause of persistent rhinitis in the background of mite allergy). At the same time, the number of such patients may include people from different age groups: both children, starting from infancy, and old people. Many cases of chronic rhinitis and nasal congestion without a cold are just the consequences of such an allergy.
It is known that in more than 50% of cases tick-borne sensitization develops in a child in infancy.
In this case, the weight of the feces excreted by each individual during life is approximately 200 times the weight of its own body. Thus, the total number of allergens excreted by the entire population of ticks in an apartment can be huge.
When cleaning a person or simply moving a person around an apartment, dust often rises into the air and does not settle for tens of minutes. A person can easily inhale it, after which foreign proteins act on the respiratory organs and cause allergies.
In the course of the research, scientists found out that the development of tick-sensitization makes a person more sensitive to other allergens, such as feline and canine. Frequent skin contact with tick excrement can lead to impaired barrier function of the integument. So there is another channel for the entry of foreign biological substances into the body.
It is also worth noting that not only the owners of the premises, but also pets can suffer from tick-borne allergies.
Dead mites and skins of larvae after molting are also dangerous. Chitin shells irritate the airways when inhaled and also cause allergies.
People with allergies to dust mites may exhibit the characteristic symptoms of allergic rhinitis:
- Persistent itching on the skin, in the nose,
- Rash all over the body (but more often on the face),
- Cough, sneezing, stuffy nose, runny nose,
- Redness and tearing of the eyes,
- Shortness of breath and difficulty breathing.
In some cases, drowsiness, fatigue, frequent headaches, impaired concentration and reduced performance.
In more severe cases, tick-borne allergy leads to bronchial asthma, atopic dermatitis, acarodermatitis, chronic rhinitis, conjunctivitis, respiratory allergies, angioedema.
In patients with bronchial asthma, the condition worsens immediately after laying in bed, where the concentration of ticks is usually greatest.
To diagnose tick-borne allergy, an examination by an immunologist is necessary. You will need a blood test for the presence of immunoglobulins - antibodies to dust mite proteins, and skin tests will be carried out.
For carrying out skin tests, prick tests and patch tests are used. In the first case, a liquid antigen is applied to the scratched surface of the back or forearm, and after 15 minutes, the local reaction is examined. In the second embodiment, the integrity of the skin does not violate, but simply stick the patch and evaluate the changes over a long time (48, 72 and 96 hours after the start of the study).
The patch test is used to determine the cause of chronic diseases, such as contact dermatitis.
In intranasal tests, the allergen is introduced by inhalation, and the reaction of the nasal mucosa is observed. Conjunctivitis, bronchial test, spirometry and rhinomanometry tests are used.
With the help of special molecular diagnostics, it is possible to identify which protein is the reaction to. Currently, scientists have identified twenty-four allergens that may be present in dust mites. This is important for the effective treatment of the patient and the selection of the correct desensitization method.
Allergy symptoms are reduced with the help of medications prescribed by a doctor.
Also an effective treatment is ASIT - allergen-specific immunotherapy. When it is injected into the human body with certain intervals in time, an allergen extract is introduced (for example, the drug staloreal) with a constantly increasing concentration. It is believed that in this case tolerance of the immune system to the allergen develops, although the exact mechanism of action of such agents is not yet fully understood. It is only known that there is a change in the immune response of T-lymphocytes - special cells of the body, which play an important role in the development of acquired immunity.
In any case, the treatment of advanced allergy to dust mites is much more difficult than the prevention of mass reproduction of these pests in the room.
Habitat and lifestyle of dust mites
Favorite microbiotopes of dust mites in a person’s dwelling are bedding, wall and floor carpets, floor corners, bookshelves, and wardrobes.
Up to half of the apartments in the cities are more or less populated by dust mites, which are known for about 13 different species. They are spread all over the world, and live in almost any premises, regardless of their area and quality of repair. Only species diversity in different regions and population sizes differ. For example, the type of Dermatophagoides siboney is distributed only in Cuba - in other countries it has not yet been found.
The European dust mite Dermatophagoides pteronyssinus and the American dust mite Dermatophagoides farinae are the most common in the world.
In countries with a subtropical climate, the number of ticks in the rooms is greatest, and in the mountainous regions, the number of individuals in populations decreases with elevation. In hot and dry climates, these pests are less common.
Each locality has its own peculiarities in the rate of reproduction of ticks and increase in the number of populations. For example, in the middle zone it is most active in the fall and spring, and in the coastal areas - in the spring and summer. During this period, it is necessary to carry out measures to destroy ticks and their excretions.
Debating remains the question of where the dust mites appear in the house. Given their inactivity, it is difficult to argue that they penetrate the room themselves. They were supposed to enter housing with bird feathers in pillows from various industries where mites can feed on feather scales in the dust. However, there are controversial points here: pillows with synthetic filler are also infected with dust mites, although to a lesser extent.
Most likely, the resettlement occurs with any things already infected.
No dust mites population was found outside the dwelling of people. That is, they are typical synanthropic organisms.
The most favorable conditions for the life of dust mites are darkness and high humidity with a temperature of about 25 ° C. Thus, in rooms with an average relative humidity of less than 50%, mites are detected in 30% of cases, and with humidity above 70% - in 100% of cases.
During the study of the migration of dust mites to wetter environments, an interesting pattern was discovered.When setting the experiment, the scientists “offered” two paths to the arachnid to the moisture, no different from each other. And after some time, it was found that most individuals move only along one path for no apparent reason. From this it was concluded that there are some special substances that emit ticks, "showing" the road next. The nature of these substances has not yet been elucidated, but perhaps in the future this will help the development of new, more successful methods of dealing with ticks.
One of the most preferred microbiotopes of dust mites is upholstered furniture, especially a sleeping place. There, a person creates ideal conditions for them, heating the bed while sleeping to the optimum temperature with his body (about 8 degrees higher and 7% wetter than the average room). And then supplies the destroyers of their own health with food - with particles of their skin.
Ticks settle in household dust in groups of 10 to 10,000 individuals per gram of dust. A safe concentration for a healthy person is no more than 100 ticks per gram. It is at high concentrations (up to 500 individuals per 1 gram) that the development of bronchial asthma and other complications most often occurs.
Interestingly, in each of the bedding, its own, to some extent unique, ecological conditions are created, because of which the size of the colonies and the species diversity of the ticks living here may differ.
For example, a regular mattress can contain from 100 thousand to 10 million individuals - approximately up to 140 specimens per gram. The frequency of occurrence of pests here is greatest, and it decreases with distance from the source of infection. The lowest concentration is on the floor (on average, about 18 individuals per 1 gram of dust).
Ticks also live in pillows, rugs, carpets, soft toys, paper books, slippers, clothes, car seats. After all, this is where the largest amount of dust accumulates. And, of course, in a vacuum cleaner, where optimal conditions are created for the reproduction of ticks: a dark enclosed space with poor ventilation and excess feed.
Reproduction and life cycle
Due to the small size and small change in mass as they develop, dust mites do not need a lot of resources for growth - partly because of this they have a very high reproduction rate. As a result, in a short time their population in an apartment can reach an enormous number.
Ontogenesis - the cycle of individual development - runs from egg to egg in about 15-19 days. During this time, each individual goes through the following stages of development:
During its not very long life (up to 80 days), the female has time to lay about 60 eggs - one at a time (because of its relatively large size, an egg can fit only one in her body). Just a few days after laying, the larva hatches from the egg.
The release of the larvae from the egg occurs quite early, when the body has not yet formed the last pair of legs. The main function of the larva is feeding and settling, therefore from the first days of life it actively moves in search of food. After several feedings, she turns into a nymph. A nymph needs to be molted three times to grow to the size of an adult and form a reproductive apparatus, after which it turns into an imago and starts reproduction.
Dust mites have a complex external sexual apparatus. Interestingly, they have special organs - sexual suckers, which play an important role in egg laying. It is assumed that they perceive the humidity of the environment, which helps to find ideal conditions for future offspring.
Fertilization is spermatophoric: male spermatozoa are in a special capsule that protects them from external influences. The female captures these capsules with the help of the external genital organs - after that, until the end of her life, she will lay approximately one egg per day.
How to understand that dust mites live in the house?
Due to the small size of these tiny arthropods, it is impossible to detect with the naked eye. Therefore, their presence in an apartment is usually determined only at the stage of the onset of allergic symptoms in a person - these may be breathing problems, cough, runny nose, rash and itching, tearing and redness of the eyes, regular headache, fatigue.
More accurate methods are associated with the use of special equipment:
- Counting with a microscope in which adults, nymphs and eggs are visible. In this case, dust and substrates are studied from the places of the most frequent accumulation of ticks - mattresses, pillows, carpets,
- Determination of guanine content in dust (guanine is present in arachnid excrement) - this analysis allows us to conclude that these beings are present or absent in the apartment,
- Immunochemical analysis of allergens, clearly indicating that the dust contains digestive proteins of ticks.
Specially developed chemical test systems will help you to find out dust mites at home. Each of them consists of 10 tests, which allows for the analysis of dust from different parts of the apartment to find the epicenter of the infection. The kit includes a chemical reagent, a test strip, a dust collector and a color scale by which you can determine the concentration of mites.
A dust sample is poured with liquid from the kit, then a test strip is placed in the formed mixture. A qualitative reaction is carried out, and the color is compared with a reference scale. However, the test is not accurate enough - it only shows how many or few ticks live in the room.
When working with a test system is important safety. The study should be carried out in a mask and rubber gloves. If reagent gets on the skin, rinse immediately with plenty of water.
The price of such a test system is in the range of 3,500 rubles; therefore, it is more rational to use each of the 10 tests to periodically check during the period of fighting dust mites.
Ways of destruction
There are many methods to get rid of dust mites in the apartment - they can be divided into chemical and physical methods of exposure.
Chemical methods include the use of various acaricides and insecticides. Among them are both common drugs (Karbofos, Dichlorvos Neo, Reid against flying and crawling insects, etc.), and more narrowly targeted means (Teflobenzuron, Clofentezin, Parargite and others).
Most insecticidal sprays and commercially available aerosols will be more or less effective against dust mites. However, they can also be toxic for humans, and the treatment of the apartment is rather laborious for them. When using them, first of all, it is necessary to disinfect upholstered furniture and carpets, as well as to deacterize plastic slippers and shoes with a fleecy lining in plastic bags. In general, the treatment is carried out in much the same way as in the destruction of bugs or cockroaches (the only difference being that the focus is not on finding the nests of insects, but on areas of dust accumulation).
Attempts to use traditional anti-dust mites, such as caraway, wormwood, clove, lavender, or tea tree oil (added to detergents), are popular. It is assumed that ticks are afraid of the smell of essential oils, but in reality the effectiveness of this method is low. Even if one or another folk remedy is capable of scaring off ticks, they will not disappear from the apartment, since they are physically unable to move a long distance. Kill them with micro-quantities of essential oils that are added to the water when washing floors, will not work.
The physical methods for the destruction of dust mites include the action of high and low temperatures.
The experiments showed that direct sunlight for 3 hours, as well as temperatures above + 60 ° C or less than -20 ° C for at least 30 minutes, lead to the death of eggs, larvae, nymphs and imago dust mites. At a temperature of + 6 ° C, egg development does not occur, but their viability can last up to 6 weeks.
Due to this, it is possible to destroy dust mites by washing at high temperature bedding, curtains, bedspreads and soft toys, as well as ironing things with an iron or by steam cleaning. It should be borne in mind that at temperatures below 40 ° C up to 93% of individuals remain intact.
Things that can not be washed can be subjected to freezing - ticks do not tolerate cold (below -20 ° C). No less effective is the "burning" in the sun - ticks die under the action of heat and ultraviolet rays. Quartzization of the room is partly effective (both due to the action of UV radiation and due to the action of ozone).
Ticks are most sensitive to air humidity - with a long decrease below 40% (for several days), the entire population may die.
It also helps regular floor cleaning and dusting - it allows you to destroy most of the arthropods by simply mechanically removing them along with the dust.
The most effective is the use of all the above methods in the complex, and not separately. This dramatically increases the productivity of events and helps in a short time to get rid of dust mites in the house.
What is a dust mite
A microscopic parasite with a body length of up to 0.5 mm cannot be seen with the naked eye. Human dwelling is the ideal habitat of a tiny pest. For a couple of months, the parasites lay dozens of eggs, reproduce freely under favorable conditions.
The minimum size allows unpleasant "neighbors" for years to live in a house or apartment. Parasites feed on the dead particles of the epidermis, gradually falling off from the human body, wool pile of blankets, carpets, clothes.
- warm places
- moderate humidity
- areas where dust accumulates.
Main habitat areas:
- feather pillows,
- wool blankets,
- floor walkways
- carpets made from natural materials
- Stuffed Toys,
- cabinets where rags and trash have not been dismantled for a long time,
- corners, zones behind cabinets and bedside tables, where the hostess does not always get when cleaning the rooms.
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What is dangerous for humans?
The forest tick bites a person painfully, injects toxic substances into the blood, and endures dangerous diseases. His brat does not bring discomfort when biting his bite (the jaws are too small), but the harm from reproduction of the parasite is no less significant.
A gram of dust contains up to one hundred dust mites. The increase in the number of arachnids to five hundred individuals provokes an increased volume of waste, the risk of allergies. The growth of the parasite population to a thousand or more causes asthma, persistent allergic reactions.
The result of dust mite activity:
- irritation of the skin and mucous membranes,
- chronic rhinitis,
- allergic reactions
- sore throat,
The main factor attracting dust mites is the presence of suitable habitats and food. In a spacious, clean apartment with a minimum amount of furniture and textiles, the number of parasite populations will be minimal.
The risk of an unpleasant "neighborhood" increases in the following cases:
- a large amount of trash, old clothes, the accumulation of boxes on the entresol,
- rare cleaning uncomfortable areas
- old pillows, blankets, especially, woolen or stuffed with cotton, down,
- carpet runners, cloths, cloth covers on the chairs, thick, heavy curtains,
- lack of regular wet cleaning,
- living in settlements with a high degree of dustiness.
How to recognize the presence
Allergic reactions, cough in the absence of a cold, irritation of the eyes and skin speak of the appearance of dust mites. It is impossible to see parasites (they are so small), you have to focus on negative reactions of a person. Allergists conduct special tests to identify the stimulus.
Dust mite often provokes severe allergic reactions in children. The kid coughs, sneezes, transparent mucus runs out of the nose, but there is no fever, no other flu symptoms or ARVI? We'll have to check whether there is enough clean in the apartment or under the bed, a lot of dust has accumulated on the bedside table. When an affirmative answer is necessary to reconsider the attitude to the order, better clean up.
Methods and rules of parasite control
How to get rid of dust mite? The main task is to deprive the insects of the "place of residence" and food. Only if this condition is met, the result will be positive. In clean rooms with a minimum number of zones for dust accumulation, the risk of the appearance of parasites is minimal. It is unlikely that it will be possible to completely remove the unpleasant "neighbors", but it is possible to reduce the population to a minimum and reduce the harm from tiny arachnids.
10 rules to combat dust mite:
- remove trash from the apartment, conduct an audit of cabinets, dresser, pantry, sideboard,
- to remove old carpets from the floor and walls, to lay small synthetic coverings, dense textiles on the windows (especially velvet, plush) to replace with light ones,
- throw away or give to cleaning worn pillows and blankets that are more than a dozen years old. There are people who sleep on pillows, preserved from Soviet times. If you look at the feathers and the old bedtick under the microscope, you can be horrified by the number of dust mites spawned
- do general cleaning, thoroughly wash all areas, before washing which "do not reach the hands",
- mattresses, blankets put up in the air, well knock, leave in the sun or frost. Ultraviolet, low / high temperatures have a negative effect on adults and parasite eggs,
- load bed linen in the automatic machine, wash it at a temperature of 60–70 degrees, iron thoroughly with a hot iron,
- replace the fabric upholstery with leather or leatherette coating. If the cost of a new material is too high, a fabric upholstery with waterproof and dust-repellent impregnation will do.
- feather pillows are replaced with synthetic ones: they are easy to wash in a typewriter, they are softer, lighter, more comfortable for sleeping,
- Stuffed toys regularly shake off, wash in soapy water. It is advisable to buy high-quality animals from materials that absorb dust slightly,
- buy a washing vacuum cleaner, often do wet cleaning, wipe the surface with a microfiber cloth, excellent attracting dust particles.
Dust Mite Allergy: Symptoms and Treatment
- sneezing, often repeated,
- paroxysmal cough, practically, without sputum,
- sore throat,
- burning, itching in the nasal passages,
- discharge of clear, fluid nasal mucus,
- conjunctival irritation,
- wheezing, shortness of breath,
- irritation of the skin and mucous membranes,
- chronic runny nose.
What to do:
- visit an allergist, clarify the diagnosis,
- if you confirm allergies to house dust, conduct an audit in all rooms and utility rooms,
- get rid of unnecessary things, old clothes, trash in the storeroom and on the mezzanine,
- remove excess textiles, replace thick curtains with aluminum or plastic blinds,
- take out carpets, blankets, minimize the number of things that attract dust particles,
- change the apartment cleaning schedule: if possible, vacuum and clean the floors every day,
- wash bedding, towels and textile decorations regularly.
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- allergy pills and syrups. Erius, Cetrin, Fexofenadine, Suprastinex, Claritin, Tavegil, Diazolin, Fenistil-gel. The best option is the 3rd and 4th generation drugs. We need 1 antihistamine tablet per day, the drugs do not cause drowsiness, have less side effects,
- vitamins for strengthening immunity according to age for adults and children
- means of removing irritation on the skin and mucous membranes. Fenistil-gel, Allergodil eye drops, Rescue-man balm, Bepanten cream, Zyrtec ointment, Sovintol gel, Histimeth nasal spray,
- To combat allergic rhinitis, Aqua-Maris drops, Aqualor, Desitin, Losterin creams,
- specific immunotherapy is carried out in the absence of contraindications. The essence of the method: the minimum dose of dust mite extract is introduced into the body. For the course (about a year) several injections are required, the dosage gradually increases. With this approach, the body fights the allergen, the strength and frequency of attacks decreases.
What is a house dust mite?
Dust mites are tiny insect-like insects, ranging in size from 0.1 to 0.5 mm. Their average lifespan is about 4 months.
Currently explored more than 150 types of house dust mites.
They are divided into several groups:
- Granary mites,
- Home dusty predatory mites eating their own kind
- Pliers, brought into housing from the outside, but subsequently not breeding indoors.
Dust mites live in furniture, bed, blankets, pillows, rugs, carpets, shoes, bookshelves. They are synanthropic organisms and live near a person.
Every day a person has an update of the skin, while there is a loss of up to 1.5 - 2g. keratinized particles. it serves as an excellent nutritional base for hordes of domestic ticks.
In addition, at a constant temperature of 22–26 ° C and a relative air humidity in a residential area within 50–55%, the most comfortable environment for reproduction of ticks is created.
The number of household dust mites can reach from 100 to 10 000 insects per gram of house dust. This number may vary depending on the season and the degree of heating of the room.
The concentration of insects up to 100 individuals per 1 g of dust is considered absolutely safe, up to 500 g - can cause asthma attacks, from 1000 to 2000 - provokes allergies and runny nose, becoming chronic.
Statistics state that about 95% of the premises in which a person lives are infected with dust mites. Other sources are more optimistic and cite a figure of 40%.
How to detect the presence of unwanted guests in the house?
There are several ways to do this.
By manifesting reactions and symptoms:
- the occurrence of allergic reactions when touching possible sources,
- appearance of nasal congestion
- increased tearing.
It is worth noting that home anthers don't bite a man, as they think, and do not leave any traces similar to bites.
Harm to health in case of contact with human skin insects.
This may be the feces and bodies of dead individuals. Redness on the face or body is nothing but a manifestation of allergic reactions.
Detect presence ticks are possible with the help of specially designed color tests. The principle of working with such tests is as follows:
- vacuuming dust from possible sources
- dust samples are placed in a container with reagents in the kit,
- then a test strip is placed in the container for 1 minute,
- compare the resulting color with the reference scale and determine the concentration of insects.
Such tests contain several sets of reagents and test strips. This will help to detect and localize the most dangerous places of dust mites.
What are they dangerous?
Not referring to the category of bloodsucking, mites have no less harm to health. In their feces contain hazardous substancessplitting cells of the upper layer of the epidermis.
It is these substances that cause, depending on the concentration, weak or severe allergic reactions. Dust mites are able to become sources of all types of allergies known in medicine, and cause a variety of diseases:
- Dermatitis and atopic dermatitis (on the right photo of manifestations on the body),
- Bronchial asthma,
- Allergic rhinitis,
- Respiratory allergic reactions,
- Deep Acquisition,
- In rare cases, eczema.
It becomes clear that the presence of ticks is not only unpleasant and annoying, but also extremely dangerous diseases.
For example, atopic dermatitis caused by mite allergy acquires a chronic, incurable character and is inherited by future children.
Symptoms of allergies to these parasites
Allergy is immune defense response the human body on the effects of allergens and foreign substances. At the same time, a special hormone “histamine” is produced, the increase of which accompanies an allergic reaction.
Will consider major symptomsaccompanying allergic reactions:
- nasal congestion, frequent sneezing,
- irritation of the mucous membrane of the eyeball, accompanied by tearing,
- dry cough,
- difficulty of respiratory processes,
- redness of the skin, accompanied by severe irritations and rashes,
- bronchial asthma,
- occurrence of conjunctivitis.
When the above symptoms appear, an immunologist should be examined without delay.
This will confirm or refute the tick-borne cause of allergic reactions.
After receiving a positive response should take immediate action to counter allergies and dust mites.
Most often, antihistamines, nasal and corticosteroids are prescribed for treatment. The most common prescribed medications are:
- Telfast. Appointed from 6 years,
- Erius. There is in the form of tablets and syrup. Recommended for use, starting from the 1st year. Helps with complicated skin and respiratory tract irritations. Prescribed by a doctor
- Aquamaris. Available as a spray and drops containing seawater. It is used as a means of cleansing the nasal cavity.
- Recommended for use as a folk remedy. salt solution (half a teaspoon of salt dissolves in warm water).
In its actions similar to the appointed "Aquamaris." They are washed nasal cavity and sinuses. Effectively helps to eliminate allergens.
Particular attention should be paid to the destruction of dust mites in the house. in the presence of small children. If adults with a developed immune system still counteract the effects of allergens, then the baby’s immune system is too weak to fight effectively.
Ignoring the onset of allergic reactions in a child can lead to the emergence of complicated chronic diseases.
Children's skin is tender and sensitive, so its irritation is easy to detect. At the same time, the symptoms of dust mite allergy are stable regardless of the seasons. Due to this, it can be distinguished from other seasonal phenomena.
Read the link, more dangerous than house dust and how it affects the health of allergies.
How to get rid of dust mites in the apartment?
It should immediately be warned that no matter how effective the fight against insects, the 100% result should not be expected. therefore one-time control methods are unacceptable. Resistance to dust and dust mites should be permanent, and aimed at maintaining cleanliness.
Home dust mites do not like cleanliness. The more dust accumulates in the dust-collecting places of the apartment - the more comfortable they feel. Therefore, the first and main condition of the struggle is restoring order.
Exists a series of effective methodsto reduce insect populations:
- regular wet cleaning. In this case, it is recommended to add table salt or disinfectants to the water.
- regular airing carpets, blankets, blankets, pillows, soft toys. High and low temperatures are detrimental to dust mites.
- change of natural bed linen for synthetics,
- washing at high temperatures, in cold or economy mode, dust mites do not die,
- periodic pillow change, blankets and mattresses,
Important! The life of the mattress - no more than 2 years, after which it should be replaced.
Chemistry against ticks
It is possible to fight the number of ticks using special solutions containing chemicals - acaricides. They are available in the form of sprays, foams, detergents, powders. The most popular and widely used are:
- Allergoff. Acaricide in the form of a spray and additives for washing. It has a high degree of impact on ticks and leads to their death 10 minutes after surface treatment,
- Easy air. Another tool in the form of aerosols and additives in the wash, neutralizing allergens mites. Differs in safety from the ecological point of view. Used for processing furniture, carpets, bedding,
- X-mite - means used for dry cleaning of furniture, carpets, mattresses. Too well kills irritants,
- Acaril - acaricidal agent added during washing. Contains the active substance methyl salicylate.
For the extermination of dust mites improvised often saline solution is used. For this, 250g of salt is dissolved in 1 liter of water. The resulting composition is treated surface-habitats of tick colonies.
Another effective parasite removal method is installation on the vacuum cleaner special HEPA filter.
Brief description of insects
Science has more than 150 species of dust mite. The most common are pyroglyphid and barn species, which are classified as domestic ticks.
The diet of these individuals - dead cells of the epidermis, falling away from human skin, particles of dandruff, as well as a pile of woolen carpets, blankets, rugs. They prefer to conduct their livelihoods in the dusty corners of the dwelling, in the accumulation of old clothes, mattresses, in furniture upholstery, on bookshelves ..
The size of one specimen is from 0.1 mm, but some species can reach 0.5 mm. In one gram of dust can live up to one hundred dust mites.
What do they look like?
Dust mite cannot be detected and viewed with a normal human eye. But under a microscope or under a magnifying glass, an adult individual looks frightening. Her appearance resembles a plump yellow-brown spider with eight sharp paws, each of which contains a sucker to hold the calf on the surface. Pincers cling so firmly with their paws to objects that it is impossible to throw them off their clothes or bed even with a strong shaking. Vacuum in the fight with these animals as powerless.
Do they bite? Dust mites are so small that a person can not feel their presence on the body and feel the bites. The only danger from these creatures is that with large concentrations, they are quite capable of causing allergies in humans.
If you are allergic to bites, do not brush the damaged areas, in order to avoid spreading the skin to other areas.
The affected area should immediately be treated with soap or soda solution, also antiseptic.
In order to reduce itching and inflammation use:
- essential oil of conifers, wormwood, lavender, mint, cypress,
- freshly brewed black or green tea bags
- You can drink a few tablets of activated charcoal.
For treatment, you need to visit a doctor and drink a course of prescribed medications. Among them are the most effective drugs:
Next you can see the photo of bites on the human body, as well as how the insect looks under the microscope.
In the apartment
In the apartment to find dust mites is problematic. Because of their microscopic size, it is impossible to see them, but these creatures dwell in various quantities wherever people live. If a person does not have any allergic reactions, most likely the concentration of ticks in his apartment is small. The owner may not even be aware of the existence of these parasites in his home. If any unusual reactions of the body to inhaled dust appear, it can be assumed that uninvited guests live in the apartment.
If you suspect the existence of parasites in the apartment, you can purchase special test at the pharmacy - strips that can easily detect dust mite allergens and determine their number. In addition, you can invite a special team engaged in the fight against parasites. Specialists will take samples of dust and, in case of detection of parasites, they will conduct a complete disinfection of the dwelling.
A person on the ground bites can detect edema and redness in the form of hilly acne, there is intolerable itching in the affected area. Allergy-sensitive people have red eyes and a headache, and a feeling of fatigue.
Dust mite bites in addition to allergic reactions can contribute to the manifestation of:
- inflammations of the mucous and larynx,
If you find dust mites in your apartment, you must apply the following measures to destroy them:
- Regular wet cleaning of the room with saline or bleach.
- Airing rooms, including by setting the hood.
- Drying of bedding and carpets.
Cultivation of indoor plants is considered a good remedy against the reproduction of parasites. which effectively remove dust from the air: chlorophytum, rubber plants, geranium, spathiphyllum.
In addition, you must purchase one of the following chemicals at the pharmacy:
- Any anti-allergy spray. Processing is carried out on all hard-to-reach places, with strict adherence to instructions and precautionary measures.
- Special shampoos. They are added to water when washing floors and cleaning carpets.
- Suspensions. Used as an additive when washing things.
Watch a video about dust mites:
Dust mites quite easily adapt to favorable living conditions in apartments. You can live with them for years and never suspect their existence. But if you are allergic to insects, it is necessary to make a complete disinfection of the home and drink the necessary medicines to prevent the symptoms of allergy.