Probably, any gardener sooner or later thinks about how to facilitate his work in the garden. Various trivia, tedious, one-type work takes a lot of time and effort. One of these types of work is precisely the planting of crops with very small seeds.
It is no secret that radishes, carrots, etc., should be planted at some distance from each other in order to harvest a decent harvest in the fall.
And because of the small seeds of these crops, it is necessary to thicken the sowing, and after germination, thin out it, that is, spend more seeds in the spring only to then simply snatch up to 80% of the future crop.
Ways of uniform sowing seeds
On what tricks do not go gardeners, to at least slightly reduce the consumption of seeds and provide a more or less uniform sowing of crops. Let's look at some of them.
- Mixing seeds with sand. This method assumes that "diluting" the seeds with clean river sand will ensure their lower consumption. The method does not always justify itself, since it is necessary to ensure that the seeds are mixed evenly, otherwise, on the garden there will be all the same thickened plantings with obvious “bald spots” where only pure sand fell into the ground.
- Gluing seeds on thin strips of toilet paper. This method involves carrying out fairly painstaking work, which also cannot always be justified. If you are 100% sure that the germination of your seeds is high enough, you can safely use it. And if not? All your labors go down the drain.
- Use hand seeders for seeds. Probably the most convenient way of planting, which does not require any preparation in advance and significantly saves both seeds and the time resources. The only problem is that commercially available seed drills are not very effective - usually these are primitive cones with snaps, through which seeds do not pour out unevenly.
It is much easier to spend some time in the winter and make a manual seeder with your own hands.
Types of seeders
All hand drills are divided into several types:
Garden (vegetable manual seeders) are intended for seeding of agricultural crops on personal plots.
Fertilizers - used in the spreading of mineral fertilizers, as well as lime.
Grain-cereal - are intended mainly for planting grain in the agricultural fields of a large area.
Also the seeder can be single-row and multi-row. From the name it is clear that such seed drills “sow” seeds when sown in one or several rows at a time.
The purpose of the manual drill
The main requirements that apply to any planter, whether it is a store or hand-made:
- uniform distribution of seeds throughout the row,
- reduction of seed consumption,
- sowing seeds to a predetermined depth,
- sparing landing without damage to seed.
Below we consider examples of such planters that can be made independently.
Universal hand seeder
It is a box with a movable insert, where the seeds are poured.
Depending on the area of the intended plantings and the number of required seeds, this could be a matchbox, a school pencil case, a box from under some kind of toy, etc.
At the bottom of this box, a hole of the required diameter is drilled or pierced (approximately in terms of the size of the seeds).
When planting, it is only necessary to tilt the manual planter in different directions so that the seeds fall into the hole. This is, so to speak, the most primitive example of a manual seeder.
It can be slightly improved by placing a spring or elastic band between the walls of the movable insert and the main container and drilling two holes in the upper and lower parts of the container.
The upper hole in this case should be slightly larger, and the lower one should coincide with the diameter of the seed. In this case, the holes in the normal position should not coincide with each other.
In this case, you can pour any number of seeds into the upper container: by clicking on it and aligning the holes, you will move a small amount to the lower compartment for planting.
The whole sowing procedure will consist of simple actions: tilting - pressing - moving - tilting - pressing.
Under such a manual precision planter, you can not only adapt any improvised means, but also make it from Plexiglas, polystyrene, even plywood (in this case plywood must be properly “cleaned” so that the seeds do not cling to uneven edges and fall out without problems). But it is better if the top is still transparent to keep track of the number of seeds.
Such a manual planter can be made and not one, but several with different sizes of holes for different crops.
Hand drill for carrots
Another example is a manual seed drill for small seeds, such as carrots. For its manufacture will require:
- A piece of electrical boxes.
- Micromotor with eccentric.
Install a motor, a battery and a button on the box in succession, closing them together. It works quite simply.
By pressing a button, we activate a motor that runs on a regular battery. The motor turns an eccentric that scatters small seeds over the surface of the ground.
After a small workout, you can achieve a good sowing uniformity from this hand drill.
Manual seeder for a large number of seeds
Perfect for planting lawn grass, although if you make it small, it will also serve as a manual seed drill for precise seeding of any crops. For its manufacture will require:
- seed box
- a shaft with grooves for seeds,
The principle of operation of such a seeder is that, when the shaft rotates with wheels, a seed gets into the recess on it a seed and when rotating, they, alternately passing under the box, fall into the ground. The distance between the landings will be determined by the distance between the grooves on the shaft.
It is possible to manufacture such a seeder from sheet iron, soldering together the necessary parts. The distance between the box and the sleeve should be minimal, which will prevent the loss of a large number of seeds. Extractions for small seeds is enough to make 0.4 mm, for larger ones - 0.6 mm.
It should be said that to make such a manual seeder with your own hands is not quite easy, you must have not only materials, but also certain knowledge. To achieve the greatest efficiency, it is possible to take a seeder of industrial production as a basis and make an independent version using its scheme.
Manual beet planter
Consider another method of making a manual planter for larger seeds, such as beets.
Making such an "assistant" will require a minimum of knowledge from you. So, we need:
- plastic transparent jar, for example, from under canned fish,
- a bolt that will serve as a shaft and rotate the seed container (plastic can),
- plastic tubing, the length corresponding to the depth of the can,
- the metal tube is slightly narrower than the diameter of the plastic tube,
- washers to fix the container
- a metal plate for making a door that will cover the hole through which seeds are poured (a tin can from a tin can will do),
- aluminum wire
- stalk required length.
- Exactly in the middle of a plastic jar, drill a hole through, make one more side to fill the rectangular or triangular seeds.
- From the tin make a lid that closes the second hole. Make sure that it is tight to the bank and the seeds did not spill out through it. It is best to secure it from the bottom, and leave the upper part moving. To fill the seeds, you will only need to move this cap.
- Insert a metal tube into a plastic tube and place it in the center of the can, making a kind of shaft on which the seed jar will rotate.
- Secure these tubes with a bolt, placing the washers on both sides so that the container rotates freely.
- We make a hot nail on the side of the can with a hole of the required diameter at the required distance. It is clear that these dimensions will depend on what kind of culture you will sow with it.
- The seeder is ready, it remains to fasten it to a wooden handle. For greater efficiency and automation, it can be placed on the chopper front. In this case, after sowing, you will immediately fall asleep the seeds with earth.
Advantages and disadvantages of homemade hand drills
It is clear that the main advantage can be considered as the fact that a simple seeder can be made very easily from scrap materials with minimal monetary costs, and sometimes even without them.
But simple hand drills are designed for sowing only one type of crops, more precisely for one size of seeds. To make a universal manual planter, which would be suitable for all sizes, is quite difficult and requires certain knowledge and skills to work with metal or plastic.
Shop planters are basically all of the same type, differ only in the method of feeding seeds, the sizes of the holes are almost the same. Independently, you can make devices with different diameters, suitable for all types of garden crops, and almost completely automate the sowing process.
DIY Hand Planter
The manual seeder can be a great helper when working on your site. This design can be purchased at the store, but it will be cheaper to make it yourself.
The scheme of such a design is very simple, besides, making it, you can make your own changes. The device has a reservoir intended for seeds, as well as a pen. Quite often, the construction is supplemented with a steel device that resembles a stick.
The seeder can be multi-row or single-row. In the example, a single-row version will be considered.
Preparation before starting work
If you need a manual seeder, then for its manufacture you need to prepare some tools and materials.
Among them, you can select the capacity for seeds, which preferably should be made of plastic. This may be the usual bank.
The use of a plastic product is convenient for the reason that it is transparent and allows you to control the number of seeds.
It will also require a bolt that will perform the function of the axis. On it, the seed can will rotate during the use of the device.
The hand seeder will be made using a plastic pipe, the length of which should correspond to the depth of the can.
It should also prepare a steel tube, the diameter of which should be smaller compared to plastic.
To attach the jars, it will be necessary to use washers. To fill the seed jars inside you need to make a window. Manufacturing doors can be made using cans from under canned food.
Stock up on a piece of aluminum wire. For a manual seeder to be convenient to use, you will need to prepare a wooden handle for it.
Features of manufacturing devices
To avoid difficulties in the process, it is necessary to study the technology of work. At the bank should be noted center. The markup will need to drill through holes.
From the accuracy of the assembly will depend on the stability of the entire device. Next you need to remove the cover and make in the side of another through hole, which should have a rectangular shape.
It is needed in order to be able to fall asleep seeds. It is possible to prevent their precipitation by preparing a valve from a steel can, the dimensions of which should be larger than the opening.
This element will serve as a cover.
A manual precision planter should be manufactured using a specific technology, which in the next step implies the need to fix the prepared valve with aluminum wire. This must be done in such a way that it is possible to open and close the window.
In the central part of the jar you need to put a plastic pipe, which will eliminate the rash of seeds. In a plastic tube should be installed steel. In this case, you get a kind of bearing, thanks to which the bank will rotate when moving forward.
When a manual precision planter is manufactured, a long bolt is inserted into the steel pipe in the next manufacturing step. It will need to be tightened with a nut, having placed in advance banks of the washer at both ends.
This will allow the structure to rotate freely.
Recommendations for the implementation of
When making a manual seeder with your own hands, you need to take notes using a pencil on the side of the container. Remove them from each other need to 3 centimeters.
In advance, a hot nail needs to be drilled; when choosing a nail, it is necessary to take into account seed sizes. Naturally, if you use small holes, the large seeds will get stuck.
On this we can assume that the bulk of the work is done.
Another option for making planter
The manual carrot drill can be made using another technology. This process is considered somewhat more complicated.
To work you need an aluminum tube, whose diameter is equal to 28 millimeters. On it you need to prepare the holes, arranging them in three rows.
Now you can proceed to the manufacture of tanks for seeds.
To do this, use galvanized sheet steel, whose thickness is 0.5 meters. This item will be a box of 80 × 70 millimeters.
The height of this tank is 40 millimeters. The bottom part, which will be designed for seeds, must be made in the form of a trapezoid with a hole.
All joints must be soldered.
In the next stage, the bunker is attached to the frame, equipped with wheels and a handle, bolts, and a screw.
One of the screws will act as a fixative for the brush, which is located at the bottom of the case. With its help, it will be possible to adjust the sowing density.
A hand seed drill may have a lid made of plexiglass. This will allow you to conveniently control the number of seeds.
The cover should be fixed on the front of the bunker, using furniture hinges for this, you can provide this element with a latch in order to be able to leave it in the closed state.
If you follow the above recommendations, you will be able to make a design that will allow you to sow the seeds in a fairly impressive area in a short time. This will speed up work and save time.
How to make a manual planter for carrots with your own hands
Planting carrots always takes time.
If the seedlings are sown in an arbitrary order, then they will have to be thinned out and removed, as they germinate. To reduce time for landing, and also to land evenly use seeders. They can be purchased or made independently. The seeders made for manual crops are divided into several types:
To reduce time for landing, and also to land evenly use seeders. They can be purchased or made independently.
The seeders made for manual crops are divided into several types:
Tukovaya Garden Grain-cereal
A simple planter can be made from the improvised material, especially without spending money.But all simple devices are made only under the hole, that is, it is often problematic or almost impossible to adjust the required volume of the hole.
If you make a simple planter with your own hands, then it is recommended to provide for the moment of planting various planting material. It is necessary so that the hole made of the sheet of iron, could be regulated.
The advantages of this device are:
- Uniform seeding planting material
- Placing on the same the depth,
- The same distance between landings
- Simplicity in use,
- Ease in building.
With this unit, you can quickly and in a short time to land a vast area. After working with a seeder for carrots do not have to pull out extra seedlings, injuring those that remain for further growth.
Manual seed planter
This type of planting technology is applied over vast areas.
It is able to create even grooves, in them impose a uniform number of seeds. It can be used not only for planting carrots, but also for beets, onions, parsley, lettuce or other small seeds. Hand drill for carrots The groove is made by moving the wheel on which special blades or spikes are located. With these growths, the wheel creates holes of a certain size with the same depth. The planter device is such that a spout from the bunker goes through which a certain amount of seeds is sown. The flow of seedlings is strictly regulated by a special valve. Behind additionally there is a wheel with a smooth surface, which during movement falls asleep and tamps holes with planting material. Some hand drills may have several rows of planting, as well as be adjusted to the depth of an indented groove. Piston planter for carrots looks like a plastic container, cylindrical character. In it the landing material is located. At the bottom there is an adjustable cone hole for sowing seedlings into soil. On top of this device is a piston equipped with a spring. Carrot piston planter This unit works on the principle of extruding a certain amount into a previously prepared recess in the ground. So that the seedlings do not fly apart in different directions, the piston seeder is placed 5 cm above the ground level. Some farmers consider a piston planter a problematic device, while replacing it with an ordinary medical syringe. But working with a syringe gives a lot of inconvenience:
It can be used not only for planting carrots, but also for beets, onions, parsley, lettuce or other small seeds.
Hand drill for carrots
The groove is made by moving the wheel on which special blades or spikes are located. With these growths, the wheel creates holes of a certain size with the same depth.
The planter device is such that a spout from the bunker goes through which a certain amount of seeds is sown. The flow of seedlings is strictly regulated by a special valve.
Behind additionally there is a wheel with a smooth surface, which during movement falls asleep and tamps holes with planting material.
Some hand drills may have several rows of planting, as well as be adjusted to the depth of an indented groove.
Piston planter for carrots looks like a plastic container, cylindrical character. In it the landing material is located.
At the bottom there is an adjustable cone hole for sowing seedlings into soil.
On top of this device is a piston equipped with a spring.
Carrot piston planter
This unit works on the principle of extruding a certain amount into a previously prepared recess in the ground. So that the seedlings do not fly apart in different directions, the piston seeder is placed 5 cm above the ground level.
Some farmers consider a piston planter a problematic device, while replacing it with an ordinary medical syringe. But working with a syringe gives a lot of inconvenience:
Piston landing system is designed for large areas, and with a syringe do not infuse a lot. Therefore it is better to use a piston with a springy pressing.
One of the simplest mechanisms is a large dispenser with a miniature “spout”. A cone extending into the ground has a hole, the volume of which can be adjusted by the diaphragm inside.
The funnel is installed above the ground at a height of 15 cm and gently shake the drug. Seeds, rolling out along the groove, evenly fit into the furrow.
Using such a funnel-bowl it is possible to achieve correct, even grooves, while not thickened with an excessive amount of seeds.
The disadvantage is the need to adapt or adapt to such work.. If you shake it often or strongly, you can plant the seeds not at all in the groove, but around the whole area.
Sazhalka for carrots from bar
This method of planting resembles the method of planting with a tray from under the eggs.
For the production of planters from the bar will require several plastic caps and a wooden bar.
Its dimensions can be arbitrary, but it is better to adhere to the verified volume of a wooden post - 5x5x50 cm.
Sazhalka for carrots from a bar and covers
Covers are nailed on one of the sides. It is required to loosen the ground well so that it is airy and soft. The topsoil is leveled evenly.
Side with covers lowered into the soil and pressed. After the bar is raised above the surface, even holes are left in the soil substrate for planting carrot seeds.
It remains only to put the prepared seedlings and sprinkle.
Mini rake for planting seeds
A rake for landing is easy to perform if you have previously had experience with a hacksaw or a jigsaw. For the prepared beds should pick a long board, such that it completely covers the area.
It is recommended to clear the area for working with such equipment not more than 40-50 cm wide.
Also for the production of rakes will need a tree bar, up to 20 cm - it will be a handle.
Homemade rake for planting carrot seeds
The lower side (end) to be cut. Peculiar teeth in the form of a trapezium are cut out on it, so that the lower base is not more than 1 cm, and the depth reaches 2 cm. On the flat side is placed in the center of the handle. This can be done with a nail. Work on the mini-rake is over. To perform the sowing, it is required to lower the improvised rake on the dug up, airy section and run along the perimeter. On the site in one instant, smooth grooves are formed, in which it is necessary to lay planting material. There are many methods for planting seeds. Seedlings of carrots represent the greatest difficulty for gardeners. They are quite small and difficult to plant evenly. After germination, a very large number of young shoots must be removed. Therefore, it is recommended to use different methods for planting:
Peculiar teeth in the form of a trapezium are cut out on it, so that the lower base is not more than 1 cm, and the depth reaches 2 cm.
On the flat side is placed in the center of the handle. This can be done with a nail. Work on the mini-rake is over.
To perform the sowing, it is required to lower the improvised rake on the dug up, airy section and run along the perimeter. On the site in one instant, smooth grooves are formed, in which it is necessary to lay planting material.
There are many methods for planting seeds. Seedlings of carrots represent the greatest difficulty for gardeners. They are quite small and difficult to plant evenly.
After germination, a very large number of young shoots must be removed.
Therefore, it is recommended to use different methods for planting:
Sowing carrots on toilet paper. As a seeder for carrots, it is convenient to use an egg tray. Planting the finished ribbon with seeds.
Thus, in order to plant carrots without a seeder at home, you can easily, but before that you need to spend either money or be patient, laying small seeds on toilet paper. But to get a rich, and most importantly, even harvest, you can make any sacrifices.
In the case when there is no excess financial resources for the purchase of a seed drill, it can be done personally. Before work, you should make a drawing and an individual design of the future unit. It is best to do everything with simple models.
For the production of the necessary axis, aluminum tubes, and wheels, as well as iron, sheet format. From these parts you can make an excellent home-made planter without resorting to heavy and costly technologies.
Scheme homemade planter for planting carrots
- Aluminum tubes are turned into handles. It requires to measure the angle of inclination and adjust the height of the planter for growth, it is best to design the handles “away from you”,
- Bunkers for seeds are formed from iron in the form of cones or funnels. They are located on the axis so that between them there is a small space of 1 cm,
- Each the funnel should go down with a sharp cone, inside of which there is a hole 0.1 cm wide,
- The central axis connects to the wheels.bunkers are placed on top of the axis to which the handles are attached,
- Additionally, you can optionally install row limiter.
Having tested the design, you can adjust it to yourself as needed, so that the seedlings fall out evenly and at the same speed.
Thus, using seed drills, you can not only plant seeds in your garden or cottage with pleasure, but also spend less time.
Besides, when working with such planting technologies, it is not necessary to remove excess sprouts as the crop grows.
If you follow the recommendations, you can make your own high-quality equipment and plant large areas, not only carrots, but also other crops.
How to build a manual beet planter
The problem of sowing vegetable crops, especially beets, affects all gardeners.
Seeds, planted by hand, do not always grow in a row, and endless pulling in their area not only harms the root system, but also increases the nervous state.
The solution was the usual manual planter, which will help in a short time to plant a flat bed.
Manual beet planter greatly facilitates the work of the gardener
The benefits of a manual planter
If we look in detail at a similar device, it will be found that a manual seeder has several advantages over other sowing methods, such as for example:
- uniform distribution of seeds along the length of the bed,
- beet seeds are sown in a certain amount per 1 square meter,
- uniform sowing depth,
- the seeds are not damaged.
The manual seeder gives the chance to make uniform landing
What is a manual seeder
Mechanical parameters manual seed drill is no different from the usual.
The design is a rotating sleeve with small grooves, in which beet seeds are poured. Moving, the planter throws seeds into the furrow.
The density of the sown area depends directly on how far the seeds are located in each of the recesses.
There are many types of seeders. Their difference lies in the methods of sowing seeds. But the principle of operation is the same for everyone, based on the fact that torque is transmitted between the wheel and the shaft. On the shaft are recesses, which are seed dispensers, and its top is adjacent to the container with the material that is distributed. The bushings located on the shaft are the size of the diameter of the largest seed. To create a furrow, small plows are used for each row with a pitch similar to the distance between the seed sleeves located on the shaft. There are many types of seeders, including wooden ones. In order to make a planter with his own hand, you need to find the necessary material. One of the simple designs includes such necessary components:
Independent construction of the drill
On the shaft are recesses, which are seed dispensers, and its top is adjacent to the container with the material that is distributed. The bushings located on the shaft are the size of the diameter of the largest seed.
To create a furrow, small plows are used for each row with a pitch similar to the distance between the seed sleeves located on the shaft.
There are many types of seeders, including wooden ones.
In order to make a planter with his own hand, you need to find the necessary material. One of the simple designs includes such necessary components:
In one of the variants of the home-made planter, steel wheels are used. Basic construction assembly steps:
- A two-millimeter sheet of metal is taken, and two flat disks, each with a diameter of 26 cm, are cut out.
- On the wheels, 24 cuts are made on each side of the perimeter, with a recess of 1 cm, after which the petals are bent at an angle of 90 degrees.
- A hole is drilled in the middle of each disk, which is intended for the axis.
- Instead of a drum playing the role of a dispenser, you can use the old pulley from any washing machine.
- The notches intended for the fallout of beet seeds are drilled into the pulley evenly along the entire length with a distance of 0.3 cm between them.
- The recess is made on the basis of the largest grain, its size is 0.2 cm.
- The axle is connected to tightly mounted wheels and a pulley.
- A wooden rod with a diameter of 1.2 cm is suitable for manufacturing the handle. A thread is made on one side of the rod and nut number 17 is screwed onto it. Pre-prepared two rectangular plates in a ratio of 10 to 1.2 cm are welded to the nut. Each plate should have a through hole, whose diameter is 1.2 cm and the shaft is threaded through both sides. At the end, the side of the plate that remains loose is welded to the nut on the handle.
- Storage for seeds, the easiest way to solder from a thin tin sheet, to which soldered attachments for a strong connection with the pusher. Screws are used as fasteners. It is also necessary to solder the triangular brackets and the handle for a strong coupling to the storage using bolts. The part located at the bottom of the repository should be narrowed tightly to the pulley. This is the end of the job and the simplest manual drill is ready for use.
Elements of the seeder: 1) seed hopper, 2) drive wheel, 3) row marker, 4) hold-down wheel, 5) chain, 6) handles, 7) opener, 8) seeding adjustment, 9) rider
Technological assembly of a seeder for small beds
What if there is no need for a large planter? After all, lots of gardeners do not differ in large size.
For such situations, there is the following option. The design of the drill is designed for small beds, the length of which is one meter. For the manufacture of devices will require the availability of such tools:
For the manufacture of devices will require the availability of such tools:
To construct a planter of this type, spare parts must be available:
- Hollow metal pipe, it is desirable to use steel, as it is more robust than other scrap metals. The length of the pipe should be half the length of the bed, and be 5 cm in diameter.
- A rod made of plastic or wood whose length exceeds the length of the pipe is more than 10 cm, but less than 15 cm. For a rod, the diameter must be 1 mm smaller than the internal diameter of the pipe. If plastic and wood were not at hand, then any easily processed material will serve as a rod.
- Bearings in the amount of 2 pieces.
- Wheels with a diameter of less than 25 cm. A good option would be wheels from a tricycle.
- Plastic storage. For convenience, you can attach to the pipe a few pieces.
- Wooden beam, the cross section of which is 7 to 3 cm, rake, galvanized tape, 0.8–1.5 cm wide in the interval.
Seeder for small beds
- Bearings are fixed on the rod. One of them is mounted in the central part, the rest at the ends of the tube into which the rod is inserted.
- The assembled design is placed on the wheels. After fixing, marking is made on the top of the tube for the through holes made by the drill. Places for drilling are selected based on the planned distance between the location of seeds.
- A 2.5 mm drill bit is attached to the drill and holes are made on top of the pipe. After all the holes have been made, a bar is selected in the inner part of the pipe not exceeding 2.5 mm in depth. The procedure of turning the rod is carried out at 45 degrees, after which the recess is selected again. A similar procedure is repeated seven times, given that the distribution of wells on the rod should be uniform. If desired, the landing step can be reduced by reducing the degree of twisting the rod.
- The rod-drum located inside the tube gets and a hole is drilled in its lower part using a 5 mm drill.When the hole is ready, the rod returns to its original place in the tube.
- A seed storage intended for moving them to the dispenser is mounted in the upper area of the tube. To simplify the situation, several half-liter plastic bottles are taken, in the lids of which 5 mm holes are drilled with a drill. After that, we connect the bottles with the tube so that the holes coincide. The handle for the planter is made of wooden slats, which is mounted in the middle of the assembled structure. The place for fastening is calculated based on the sum of the length of the bar with a half-diameter pipe. After substitution, 0.75 diameter is trimmed. Based on the size of the diameter of the pipe, semicircles are selected to it, which should be fixed on the handle on both sides with epoxy resin. The rail is galvanized and is crimped with pliers. Such simple actions can be used to design the planter for small beds.
Given the complexity of the sowing process of vegetable crops, a hand seeder will be a great help in this not easy job.
The simplicity of the designs and the need for a small amount of material, which is under the feet of each gardener, will allow you to create such a useful device on the farm, which is much more useful than sowing beets by hand. There will be no more hassle and worries for your crop.
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SeloMoyo / Vegetable-Growing / Beetroots / How to build a manual-type planter for beets
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The use of hand drills in home farming
Sowing work always demanded special precision and experience. Previously, manually scattering grain and seeds, sowed whole fields, not to mention small garden plots. Over time, came up with the first manual devices - sieves. Today, you can meet hand drills of various types and purchase such an assistant for yourself at the site.
Description and Purpose
Manual seeder is a mechanical, most often two-wheeled fixture, which has bunkers for seeds or other planting material, a vomer, furrows and sowing machines. The number of bins varies. It is also possible the presence of falling asleep ground parts.
At the dacha, you probably will need a mower, trimmer (gasoline, electric) or manual braid, shears, potato planters, hand cultivators, potato diggers, sprinklers for watering.
It is possible to use different types of machinery for sowing vegetables and seeds, as well as for spreading fertilizers, sand or gravel on the plot.
Did you know?The first planters with one seed tube were used by the Sumerians in the 1500s. BC.
The principle of the manual precision seed drill is simple: embedding planting material follows a clear pattern. For example, by hole.
With the help of precision planters, you can sow many plants: corn, rapeseed, wheat, barley, sorghum, millet, oats, rye, alfalfa, espartset, beans, onions, tomatoes, cucumbers, fodder and table beets, carrots, mint, celery, parsley , cabbage, dill.
These simplest mechanisms include drills with a drum-brush sowing unit. Its design is quite simple. An axle passes through the hull below the seed hopper and is fitted with a sleeve, which plays the role of a seed drum. Along the perimeter of the sleeve there are grooves corresponding to the size of the seeds and the expected distance of their seeding. When the wheels mounted on the drum axis are rotated, the seeds fall into these depressions and move to the lower, separated part of the body, where they are dropped into the seed coulter channel. The excess seed, so that they do not pinch when rotating between the lower part of the hopper body and the sleeve, is cut off with a brush.
Practically any crops can be sown with this method; you only need to have spare drums and, if necessary, make indentations with a drill a little more than the maximum seed size with the necessary pitch. The maximum pitch here is obtained with one recess on the hub, and it is equal to the perimeter of the drive wheel. This system is also suitable for planting by the cluster method, when several seeds are planted in one place.
An example of such seeders are products of the Ukrainian PE NPK ROSTA of the SMK-1 - SMK-5 brands, respectively, having 1, 2, 3, 4 and 5 landing nodes fixed on the same axis. Row spacing here can vary from 60 to 240 mm. You can make younger ones from the most senior model simply by removing extra sowing units, with the exception of SMK-1, which has a short axis calculated for 1 sowing unit. The productivity of such seeders reaches about 0.2 hectares per shift, which is quite enough for the backyard kitchen garden.
Obvious disadvantages of this type:
- uncomfortable pen
- there is no seed embedment device,
- on the depth of landing affects the angle of inclination of the mechanism,
- there is no marker for marking the next row, so the field needs to be marked before work.
There are no developed brands of seeders of such design, except for Ukrainian GROWTH in Russia. By regions of the country, there are only small enterprises that produce a limited number of products, often on request. In Russia, the price of Ukrainian products on average, in the summer of 2013, was from 1,000 to 3,000 rubles, depending on the model.
The scatter apparatus can be attributed to the mechanisms of inaccurate seeding: the seeds are scattered after a certain interval throughout the soil allocated for planting. This manual planter is great for planting garlic.
From the shortcomings of the first model, the planters of the precision seeding are partially free. It can be used as a drum-brush seeding unit, and disk-brush. In this mechanism, the seeds from the hopper are poured into the lower part of the working zone of the mechanism, where they are picked up with a brush, pushed into the calibrated hole of the disc, and then dumped into the seedbed of the opener. The landing gear is driven through a chain transmission from the front wheel, and the landing interval is determined by the number of rows per brush, as well as the gear ratio of the chain drive. The number or size of seeds is set by the hole of the desired diameter on the calibration disc. After the coulter, the seeds are embedded in the soil with a retaining strap and rolled on the rear wheel.
Thanks to the two wheels, this seeder can accurately set the depth of the seeds in the soil, besides such mechanisms usually have bars for the marker, and the next row is sown simply by guiding the front wheel along the marker.
Manual seeders according to this scheme are produced by the same NPK GROWTH under the trademarks CP-1 and 2-row CP-2 with a brush seeding unit, as well as CPT-1 and CPT-1M precision seeding planters with a drum and brush unit.
The parameters of all units are almost identical. The difference between CPT and CP is a more accurate dosing of the number of seeds, up to 1 pc. and in the ability to make your seeding drums most accurately selecting the required seeding step. The capacity of the bunkers in all of 2 liters each, the depth of embedding is adjustable within 1-5 cm, the weight of the CP-1 is 10, 5 kg, the CP-2 is 18 kg. For the CP-2, the width between the rows is 7 cm. The recommended travel speed when sowing is 3-4 km / h. The prices in Russia in the summer of 2013 were for CP-1 - from 3,500 rubles, CP-2 - from 6,600 rubles, CPT-1 - 5,900 rubles. The company Rosta has its dealers in Russia, so their products are most accessible. A similar type of product is also produced in Russia by the innovative enterprise Novator from Chuvashia, but it manufactures them only on request. Polish and Chinese products appear periodically.
Terradonis also supplies the same type of drum with a seeder mechanism to the Russian market. These are fairly high-quality products, fully customizable for both the drop-off interval and the distance between rows. These are products JP-1, JP-3 and JP-6, respectively, designed for 1, 3 and 6 rows of sowing, their enhanced variants with the index “R”. An example is JP-3R. Prices for JP-1 - 330 €, JP-3 - 820 €, 1 JP-6 - 1710 €. For JP-3 there are modifications for 2 and 4 sowing units, and for JP-6 - for 5 and 7 units. The cost of reinforced models is 10-15% higher.
There is also a high-quality product USA Earthway 1001-B.
This seeder has a rotating disk seeding mechanism. Includes 6 replacement discs for seeds of the same size as corn, peas, beans, zucchini, beets, turnips, radishes, carrots, spinach, onions.
Here, too, there is a depth adjustment. The weight of this miniature unit is only 4 kg. In addition to the standard equipment for the seeder, an additional bunker can be purchased for fertilizing simultaneously with the seeds.
In Russia, the cost of the product in the summer of 2013 was 7700 rubles.
Purpose and Culture
Conventionally, devices can be divided into three types:
- universal (suitable for planting legumes and cereals, and also such a manual seeder is useful for planting grass on the lawn),
- special (for planting vegetables, corn, cotton),
- combined (can be used for spreading mineral fertilizers).
According to the method of embedding planting material allocate such seeders:
- ordinary - planting is performed by planting seeds with a solid tape,
- dotted - seeds are planted at the same distance from each other,
- breeding - planting material is embedded in pre-labeled holes (nests),
- square nesting - Seeds are placed at the corners of the square.
Sowing schemes with:
- a - private
- b - tape,
- in - breeding,
- g - square-breeding,
- d - dotted.
The type of the opener is determined by the way it enters the ground. There are such coulters:
- acute angle of entry (nalnikovikov, paw) - loosen the soil,
- with blunt (disc, polosoid, keeled) - tamp the ground in the furrow,
- with direct entry (tubular tubers) - pushing the soil.
Number of rows
The number of sowing rows varies depending on the model: most often, the devices manufactured today have from one to seven rows. For example, a single-row manual planter is great for planting carrots.
Important!For a small area, a single-row universal device is sufficient.
For sowing of seeds, reel, disc, moth, spoon, brush, rope, inner-rib, cellular seeding apparatus are used. The most common is coil. Drum, chain, centrifugal, star-shaped, auger apparatus are used for planting fertilizers.
Reel Seeding Device:
- reel with grooves,
All now popular tools - from manufacturers in Ukraine, Russia and Belarus. Examples of such devices are the products of the trademarks like ROSTA and Tornado. Manufacturers of the USA, Germany also produce fixtures, the mechanisms of which are designed to be combined with motor-blocks and tractors.
Important!All hand drills produced are fairly light in weight and do not require a lot of storage space.
How to use the drill correctly
The mechanism of operation of hand drills is very simple: it is necessary to fill the bunkers with sowing material and walk with the device on the beds you have planned. If you have chosen a mechanism without a part of the furrow filling the ground, then it is necessary to prepare a predetermined amount of land to fill the beds.
By purchasing such an assistant, you can reduce the time for sowing up to 10 times. The beds will be geometrically smooth, which will add to your site even more well-groomed appearance.
Description and characteristics of a manual seeder (mini-seeder)
- Lubricate all rotating parts except the spreading roller.
- The brush, the guide plate, the porous rubber of the drive wheel and the porous rubber of the press wheel are consumables. Inspect them periodically and, if necessary, replace them.
- Ensure that seeding occurs evenly.
- Check whether the spreading roller is contaminated with dirt, pesticides or residues of seed shells. If so, clean it.
- Prepare the bed, loosening carefully and leveling the ground.
- Moving the seed drill at a higher speed may reduce the accuracy of sowing. Optimum speed: 2 km / h.
- If possible, the seeds should not be wet. Do not soak the grains in the shell.
- When you sow beans or grains, an obstruction may form in the seed funnel. In this case, tap the funnel lightly and it is better to fill the funnel halfway than completely.
- When you remove the drill unit, make sure that the freewheel is not contaminated with earth, etc.
Hand drill adjustment.
In the default position, the brush lightly touches the spreading roller. To increase the amount of extracted seeds, set the brush in the upper position (unscrew the wing nut and raise the brush).
When sowing seeds in the shell: the brush should touch the seeds and lightly press them. It is necessary to make a fine adjustment depending on the seeds, because if the brush is too low, it will quickly (too quickly) wear out. If it is too high, the seeds may be damaged.
The height at which the seeds are sown should be sufficiently low to avoid unnecessary spreading of seeds and, thus, to ensure accurate sowing.
The guide plate forms a cavity between the roller, the brush and the guide plate. Without this space, the seeds can be damaged. The end of the guide plate must fit snugly to the roller. In case of deformation of the guide plate, you can eliminate the deformation by referring to the diagram below.
The guide plate forms a small space at the level of the roller (near the brush), but it holds the seeds in the hole of the roller, which are then simultaneously sown, as shown in the figure above.
The sowing distance can be adjusted by means of gears, as well as the number of holes on the roller, refer to the sowing distance table.
Attention! The actual sowing distance may vary depending on the quality of the soil and the speed of the work. Before starting sowing, check the sowing intervals, based on the soil on the site.
Sowing depth: The sowing depth can be adjusted by lowering or raising the coulter.
Landfill: adjust the stroke angle to close the furrow in order to optimize backfilling with ground.
Handle height: the height of the handle can be adjusted by unscrewing the screws on the frame of the fork part of the handle, as well as round knobs located on each detachable part of the handle, adjusting them according to your desire.
Cleaning: if the ground sticks to the support roller, the contact surface must be cleaned until the ground is firmly stuck (possibility of oil or dirt).
Funnel cover: The funnel cover includes various recesses, which are the openings of the various rollers offered. They help you check seed size and select appropriate rollers. Each recess corresponds to the size of the hole. Thanks to the hole chart of the rollers below, you can find the proper roller.
The number of sown seeds is governed by a combination of the following three elements:
- The number of holes in the spreading roller.
- The size of the holes on the spreading roller.
- The number of teeth on the used gear.
To find the required number of holes: refer to the distance table below:
For an ordinary sowing, it is necessary to remove the guide plate (with 6 or 12 holes on the roller).However, when you work using rollers with 20-30 holes, you must use a guide plate to ensure even sowing.
Sowing distance: see table above.
Attention! The sowing distance depends on the combination of the number of teeth of the gear wheels (11 adjustment positions) and the number of holes on the spreading roller.
The drive wheel can move depending on the quality of the soil and the speed of movement.
That is why the number of seeds is given for information only. If the drive wheel slides, then the sowing distance will be larger, reducing the number of sown seeds. Thus, make sure that the wheel does not slip.
Scattering seeds: Seeds from the hole are scattered according to the direction of movement, and roll on the ground.
The length of spreading varies depending on the size of the hole, the quality of the soil and the size of the seeds and can be from 3 to 10 cm.
Number of seeds / hole:
The number of seeds differs depending on the size of the seeds, which, in turn, depends on the type of crop, time of year, and brush adjustment. That is why the number of seeds indicated in the table of distances is given for information only. Below are some examples of the conformity of roller-crops:
Hand crank adjustment:
Removing the funnel.
Spare parts for hand drills.
Principle of operation
For all farmers who are engaged in sowing diverse crops, a precision seed drill will be very useful. With this unit you can give life to various plants, such as wheat, corn, garlic, and many other types of crops.
Now the cultivator became the irreplaceable assistant at the dacha. About how to choose, you can find here.
The largest truck in the world produced in Belarus. This is BelAZ.
Manual snow blowers with their own hands will significantly save your money.
In this case, you absolutely do not have to work, because this excellent sowing tool literally doing everything for you.
The principle of operation of this unit is quite simple: it is enough just to pour the seeds of the desired culture into a container, from where they will flow into the lower part of the unit and pour into the ground exactly where you need it.
At the same time, on the drill there is a coulter, which makes furrows in the ground, into which the seeds of culture are poured. As you can see, the system is quite simple, and at the same time as efficient as possible.
In order to make the seeder convenient to transport, it is simply attached to the motoblock, which is a sheer force. Here you can use different types of tillers, for example Sadko, Don, Forza, Viking, Huter and others.
Sowing with earthway 1001 b precision seeding machine very comfortabletherefore, any farmer who already has certain problems with sowing will appreciate it.
For more information about precision seeding see the video:
There are several different types of planters that differ depending on how the sowing process is carried out in them. After all, there are several different options for how to deliver grain to the ground with high accuracy.
The first option, which is considered classic, is a mechanical precision seed drill. In this variety of seeder drive comes from the wheels, without using any pneumatic mechanisms.
This method of sowing has been tested by time and has been used for a really long time, so there is no doubt about its effectiveness.
The design of this unit is not complicated, and therefore, it is more durable than many analogues.
The price range for such agricultural machines is quite high: it starts from a few hundred dollars, and goes up to ten thousand.
Mini precision planters, as well as lawn planters are quite common in agriculture, because they are great for compact areasOn which large units are not required. This technique is small in size and high mobility.
As a rule, the sowing technology itself is quite simple, which makes it possible to effectively deliver grain to the ground and implement it using a reliable and trouble-free mechanism, tested by time. The cost of such equipment for sowing with high accuracy ranges from a few hundred to a thousand dollars.
The pneumatic seeder differs from the previous versions in a more perfect mechanism for feeding grain to the ground. To do this, use a special pneumatic mechanism, which directs the contents of the container and, of course, does it more quickly than it does mechanically.
As a rule, such a technique requires more thorough care than conventional mechanical. Although the pneumatic feeder is also quite reliable and durable. And in agriculture, the reliability of the unit comes out on top. Buying this type of equipment will cost you about 1000 cu
The precision planter vegetable seeder is equipped with special devices that can accurately send not only seeds, but also, for example, root crops and even sprouts to the ground. All this requires a special filing technology, therefore the mechanism here is more complicated than on past types of agricultural machinery.
You will be able to sow all kinds of vegetables: potatoes, garlic, cucumbers and much more. Prices for such a unit start from 1000 USD and reach ten thousand.
Advantages of tillers
Many of the various types of seeders are designed for the fact that the motoblock will transport them around the site, as this tool is the most convenient transport vehicle on the field. It has high maneuverability and sufficient power.
Compared with the same tractor, the walker has much smaller dimensions, so connecting the seeder to the walker has great advantages: easy handling, maneuverability, speed of work.
If you feel the ability in yourself, then you can easily make a home-made seeder with your own hands for precise seeding for your farm yourself. For this you will need the following details:
- a box of any material you need for storing seeds,
- sowing roller,
- a pair of bearings
- running wheels
- brackets for mounting the opener,
- handle with bracket.
To manufacture the planter itself, you should follow the instructions below:
- first you need to make a hole in the box for the collection of seeds,
- then we attach the coulter to the frame with brackets,
- after that we join special tubes through which the seed will flow. They should go to the vomer,
- after that we fix all these details,
- then install the wheels, if necessary, install and bearings,
- at the opposite end of the frame should be installed mount for the motor tractor or tractor.
This is how you will be able to make a fully operational precision seed drill yourself, which will be a guarantee of the quality of the unit, as well as a source of pride for you, as for the designer. The same principle of manufacturing and manual seed drill.
So, the seeder will be exactly the unit that really helps to conduct agriculture. effectively, with optimal time and effort to plant crops. This will greatly facilitate the work of farmers, so this investment will pay off as quickly as possible.
The first variety is divided into two categories - manual and mechanical models.
- Manual spreader is usually made of durable plastic and equipped with an integrated distributor. To seed in the soil, you need to twist the handle of the device.
- It is worth noting that in such models the adjustment of the diameter of the seed tube is provided. Accordingly, the product turned out to be universal; it can be used not only for planting seeds, but also for introducing granulated fertilizers into the soil.
- Mechanical models need to push in front of you. They are equipped with a chassis, but there is no engine. This feature classifies such drills as manual modifications. Mechanical seed drills are equipped with one or more seed hoppers. Bookmark seed fund occurs by pressing a key on the handle.
Both options are designed for maximum performance. However, given that the seeds fall unevenly, germination leaves much to be desired. If we are talking about a lawn, then such models are the best solution. And for planting vegetables, have to look for other options.
Precision seeding technology
When planting vegetables suitable manual seed drill. A feature of such models is the mechanism for making seeds. It uses a shaft covered with small grooves and connected to the chassis drive.
During movement, the shaft rotates inside the bunker, the seeds, falling into the recesses, pass under the wall of the bunker and fall into the ground. Depending on the frequency of landing, the shaft may have several rows of grooves.
Units for precision seeding have several advantages:
- Seeds are introduced into the ground evenly, which ensures a high percentage of plant germination.
- The thought-out mechanism of the batcher excludes loss of seeds.
- Reduced risk of seed damage.
- Seed fund falls to a predetermined depth. In addition, some models are equipped with a sleeping device, which reduces the workflow.
Manual seed drills can be used for various bulk materials. For example, to fill up tracks with sand in winter, to scatter fertilizers for agricultural crops. This makes it possible to use the product all season.
Do it yourself
The manual seeder is made rather simply by own hands. As you can see, in the design there are no complex elements, so many gardeners do not spend money on factory models, and quite successfully use home-made mechanisms.
We give an approximate assembly scheme.
- First you need to make a box for seeds. For this fit boards, 15-20 mm thick. From the boards they knock together the walls of the bunker. For the reliability of the connection, you can use spikes or a metal corner. The bottom is made of sheet iron, 1-1.5 mm thick.
- On the side walls set wooden lining, with a semicircular cut. They will be required for mounting the sowing roller. These plates are mounted racks for installing openers.
- For the manufacture of the sowing roller, use a steel roller with a diameter of about 40 mm. On the surface of the roller drill holes of different diameters. The holes are arranged in three in a row. The roller is fixed in the bearings and fixed with stoppers.
- For the manufacture of the chassis fit wheels from a baby stroller. Recommended wheel diameter about 200 mm. If you use wheels with a smaller radius, the device will get stuck in the beds. The coulters are attached to the racks. These elements can be made from sheet metal.
Such a homemade unit is not inferior to the factory counterparts. You can assemble the device from any available materials.
How to make a planter
Manual planters have approximately the same mechanism: it is a rotating sleeve with grooves in which the seeds are located. While moving, these seeds are dropped into the furrow, and the density of sowing directly depends on the distance between the grooves in the sleeve.
The difference of seeders lies in the different methods of feeding seeds. But they all work on the principle of transmitting torque from the wheels to the shaft. The shaft must have grooves that will serve as seed dispensers, and its upper part is adjacent to the container with the handout. The size of the sleeves on the shaft is the largest diameter of the seed; one seed falls into one hole on the shaft. The movement of the wheels of the planter provokes the dropping of seeds through the holes under the shaft. Furrows are made with small plows under each row with the same pitch as the distance between the seed sleeves on the shaft.
To make the planter at home, you need to choose the right materials for the design. The simplest mechanism consists of the following mandatory components:
- Two wheels firmly fixed on the same axle.
- Drum (shaft), which plays the role of the dispenser.
- Seed hopper.
- The long handle, with the help of which the movement of the planter will be performed - the pusher.
The first version of the home-made drill do with steel wheels of their own making. Perform the following actions:
- We cut out two disks from a two-millimeter sheet metal, the diameter of each is 26 cm.
- Along the perimeter of the wheels we make 24 notches with a depth of 1 cm and bend the petals 90 degrees.
- We drill a hole under the axis with a diameter of 1 cm along the center of each disk.
- Drum: an old pulley from a washing machine will serve as a dispenser.
- Over the entire length of the pulley, drill holes for the seeds in 0.3 cm increments.
- The depth and width of the grooves should be approximately equal to the size of the seeded seeds, in our drawing it is 0.2 cm.
- We fix wheels and a pulley on one axis.
- We make a handle from a bar with a diameter of 1.2 cm: on one side we cut the thread and tighten the turnkey nut 17, then weld two ready-made rectangular plates measuring 10 by 1.2 cm into it. In the plates we pre-drill through holes with a diameter of 1.2 cm and put on the shaft on both sides. The remaining non-fixed side of the plate is welded to the nut of the handle-pusher.
- The seed bunker is soldered from a thin tin and be sure to solder his ears for a strong connection with pusher screws. We also solder the brackets in the form of a triangle to the handle, in order to link it with the metering hopper with M4 bolts. The bottom of the hopper should be tapered and fit snugly to the pulley. The simplest homemade planter is ready.
The second version of the manufacture of the planter is designed for beds no more than a meter in length, but these are conditional values. Creating a do-it-yourself device will require the participation of such tools:
- Drill: 2.5mm and 5mm drills.
- Carpenter's hammer (mallet).
- Passatizhi fit pliers.
- Protractor, epoxy resin.
To construct the drill you will need the following parts:
- An empty steel pipe is up to 5 cm in diameter and has a total length of two times less than the length of the future bed. The pipe size should not be more than half a meter (50 cm).
- A plastic or wooden rod (rod) is 10–15 cm longer than a steel pipe. We take a diameter of a rod 1 mm smaller than the diameter of the tube from the inside. You can take the core for the basis of any material, well-treatable.
- Three bearings.
- Wheels with a diameter of 15 to 25 cm: suitable wheels from a children's bicycle or stroller.
- Plastic hopper, you can take a few pieces for the entire length of the pipe.
- Wooden beam with a section of 7 to 3 cm, wooden lath, galvanized tape from 0.8 to 1.5 cm wide.
Manufacturing technology planter:
- A rod is inserted into the pipe with bearings fixed in advance on it — one in the center, two along the ends of the tube.
- We fix this construction on the wheels, clamp, apply markings for drilling holes on the top of the tube, and mark the holes taking into account the planned distance between the seeds.
- Drill with a 2.5 mm drill make a hole in the pipe, select the bar inside to a depth of 2.5 mm, but not more. The bar is rotated 45 degrees, choose the grooves again. Repeat the action seven times, evenly distributing the wells on the rod. If necessary, reduce the step of landing, turning the rod to a smaller degree.
- We take out the rod-drum from the tube and drill the holes at the bottom with a 5 mm drill, then reconnect the tube to the rod.
At the top of the tube we attach a seed bin from which they will fall into the dispenser.You can take plastic bottles of 0.5 liters: we drill holes in the caps with a diameter of 5 mm and place them so that the holes in the bottle cap and in the tube match. We make a handle to the seeder: we fasten a rail in the middle of the construction of wood, at the rate of: bar length plus one and a half pipes diameter, after which 0.75 diameters are cut. Select the semicircles at these ends that are suitable for the diameter of the pipe. All this is clamped with bars on both sides and fixed with epoxy resin. The rail is wrapped in galvanized, well compressed with pliers. The galvanized ends are wrapped in accordance with the width of the landing groove.
Thus, you can do your own planter for planting radishes, carrots, cabbage, beets and other seeds.