The blind spot of the hare is related to the family of hamster subfamily voles. This rodent is distributed throughout most of Eastern Europe and Asia. You can meet him in Kazakhstan, Uzbekistan, Turkmenistan, Kyrgyzstan, Ukraine, in the southern regions of the European part of Russia, Western Siberia. In addition, this habitat covers Afghanistan, Mongolia, the northern regions of China. The native environment is the steppe, desert and semi-desert.
In length, the animal grows to 10-13 cm with a weight of 60-70 g. Females are somewhat larger than males. The tail is short, the body has a wedge-shaped shape with a flat head and short neck. The front limbs are muscular and strongly developed. The fur is short, soft and thick. Its color varies from light brown to almost black. The fur on the belly is dark and has a beige tint. The limbs are bare and pink. Representatives of this species are adapted to life under the ground. Dig burrows with their large incisors.
The reproduction period is in the March-October months. Pregnancy lasts 3 weeks. Each female brings 3-4 litters per year. In one brood there are from 2 to 4 cubs. They grow rapidly and become sexually mature at the age of 6 weeks.
Behavior and nutrition
Representatives of the species are diurnal animals and are active throughout the day. During the period of drought and winter activity decreases, but there is no period of hibernation. The little gobush is well adapted to the changes in the continental climate due to the thermoregulation of the body. These rodents live in groups of up to 10 individuals. Such groups consist of a pair of adult animals and one or two young litters.
Most of the time animals spend in burrows. This is a whole complex system of underground passages with breeding and feeding cameras with a depth of up to 4 meters from the surface of the earth. The length of the underground passages can reach 100 meters. Food stocks stored in feed chambers are calculated in kilograms. Dwarfs are extremely rare on the surface of the earth. This usually happens when moving to new territories. In such situations, the animals cover a distance of 800 meters.
The diet consists of roots, bulbs, tubers, succulent rhizomes of plants. Representatives of the species cause harm to people, as they eat melons and gourds, garden plants and alfalfa crops. At the same time, they loosen the soil and enrich it with organic matter. The size of this population is variable. It is limited by infectious diseases, parasites, cold winters and spring floods of melt waters.
The common blindfly lives in the southern regions of the European part of Russia, in Kazakhstan, in the southern regions of the Trans-Urals, Central Asia and Tuva. This animal is common in the steppes, forest-steppes, deserts and semi-deserts. In the steppe zones, an ordinary baby-louse lives in areas with soft land and abundant, diverse grass cover. It is rarely found in the feather grass and wormwood-grass steppes. In forest-steppe zones it is found on virgin lands, on the edges of aspen and birch meadows. In semi-deserts and deserts it lives among sands, on stony, gently sloping areas and along river valleys, sometimes in solonetz. Especially numerous ordinary baby goof in foothill zones.
Basically, the common baby blindfather eats the underground parts of plants - roots, bulbs and tubers, as well as vegetation, worms, insects. Most prefer to feed on iris, garlic, onions, tulips. Also, the animal has the ability to store food, which it places in special burrows near its home. Stocks are small - it may be a few roots or tubers.
The activity of the common duster manifests itself in the evening, in the afternoon and in the morning. Extremely rarely appears on the surface. It builds fairly long burrows with a complex structure. The core of the hole is one main course, the length of which reaches up to one hundred meters, and the depth is from ten to forty centimeters. From it lateral courses of impressive length from twenty to fifty meters branch off. Some of them end in dead ends, the other part comes to the surface and is designed to eject dug earth. Piled piles of unusual crescent-shaped land can be seen around the entire aisle. The main dwelling - the so-called "housing chamber" is located at a depth of 70-50 centimeters and is filled with bark of the bulbs and roots. Side passages also depart from it, in part of which the animal builds up its reserves. In general, for the whole year, females bring from three to four litters, and the brood is usually from two to four young. Breed from March to October.
The common blindfly harms the melons and gourds, garden plants and alfalfa crops. But at the same time, it also brings benefits by loosening the soil, enriching it with organic substances, and its holes contribute to the penetration of moisture and air into the soil.
IN UNDERGROUND DETAILS
(the story of the site's little gossip, Igor Evstafiev)
Who saw the blooming steppe in the early spring, when it, slightly green from the blooming young foliage, one fine day "is completely transformed, becoming covered with blooming scarlet tulips like blood drops? There are few such lucky ...
It is in such wonderful places that the hero of our story dwells - the ordinary blindfather. This amazing animal avoids daylight and voluntarily spends its short century in the dungeon.
At present, an ordinary baby windmill is still found in the steppes and semi-deserts of the European and Asian parts of our country. In some places, it penetrates into deserts and forest-steppe, and also rises in the mountains to an altitude of 4000 m above sea level.
The common baby blindfly is a small rodent, reaching a length of 10-12 cm and having a short tail, up to 1.5 cm. The color of the body is gray with pale-brownish impurity and only the top of the head is painted in darker tones. Like other animals leading the underground life, the ears of the little fur are strongly reduced outside ears, although the ear is well developed. The animals have to use their eyesight extremely rarely and, as a result, the hl behind the blindfathers are very small, giving them weak-faced expression to their attractive faces. From here, apparently, comes their Russian name. Of the sense organs, only smell and touch are well developed, helping to find the way and food in complete darkness of the dungeons.
Blind digs in the ground numerous holes. Unlike other rodents for this, they use the upper incisors directed forward and down, and the paws are used only to move the loosened soil.
Gradually, the little windmills make a main course with a length of up to 100 m, locating it at a depth of 10-40 cm. This is where the underground parts of the plants are located, which serve as food for these animals. From the main line, hardworking animals lay side troughs, going to the side for several tens of meters. Some of them end in dead ends, others come to the surface and serve to eject earth from the holes. On the surface, these lunate-shaped emissions at first glance resemble mole animals. Outlets on such emissions are not distinguishable, as they are always littered with earth.
Somewhat deeper, underground, to a depth of one and a half meters, usually 50-70 cm, they arrange a nesting chamber, lined with a husk of bulbs, roots and other plant debris. Here, or nearby, the baby shepherds dig several deaf otorkov used as storerooms for provisions. Blind folded here underground parts of some plants. Although the reserves are not large and consist of several dozen roots and bulbs, but in the hungry time they are a good help.
The basis of the nutrition of an ordinary baby-she-stalker is made up of succulent underground plant parts. Favorite food - bulbs of irises, tulips, onions, garlic, rhizomes of cereals. Having met earthworms, insects or their larvae in their passages, they immediately finish them off, enriching their vegetarian diet with proteins.
The common baby blindfly is active all year round and even in the winter months does not cease its vigorous activity. Despite the underground lifestyle, they are more active during daylight hours.
The baby shepherds breed from early spring to autumn, managing to grow up to 3-4 generations of babies during this time. Females in their nest give birth to 2 to 5 cubs. Kids, growing up, do not leave the maternal hole, but only move to one of its distant ends, where they substantiate well. They build their nest and constantly lay new holes, lengthen old ones. Over time, a rather complex system of passages and underground galleries, in which up to thirty animals from several generations inhabit, are formed in favorable habitats for settlement.
The common baby blindfly in some parts of its range can bring insignificant harm to garden and melon crops, crops of perennial grasses. Some scientists have noted their positive role in improving the properties of the soil by enriching it with organic substances, and their digging activity contributes to the penetration of air and moisture into the soil.
The common blindfly lives in the southern regions of the European part of Russia, in Kazakhstan, in the southern regions of the Trans-Urals, Central Asia and also in Tuva. This animal is common in the steppes, forest-steppe, deserts and semi-deserts. In the steppe zones, an ordinary baby-louse lives in areas with soft land and abundant, diverse grassy cover. In the forest-steppe zones, she prefers virgin lands, keeping on the edges of aspen and birch forests. In semi-deserts and deserts, the animal is found among the sands, on stony, gently sloping areas and along river valleys, sometimes in solonetz. Especially numerous ordinary baby goat is in the foothills.
How does it look
The common baby blindfly is a small short-tailed short-footed rodent, leading an underground lifestyle. The length of the body is about 10–12 cm. The coat color is from light beige to almost black, but most often is gray-brown, the head and belly are dark. The eyes of this animal are small, there are no auricles.
Benefit and harm
The common blindfly damages beets, potatoes, garden and melon crops, gnaws the roots and bark of fruit trees, damages the crops of alfalfa, and spoils the walls of irrigation canals.
But at the same time, it also brings benefits by loosening the soil, enriching it with organic substances, and its holes contribute to the penetration of moisture and air into the soil. During the year one animal throws up to 3 m 3 of soil to the surface.
Little Blind: photo and appearance
Little one is underground mammal from the family of hamsters.
It weighs up to 70 grams and length up to 13 cm. The tail is very short - up to 1.7 cm long, which sometimes makes it appear that it is completely absent.
The coat is soft and thick. Coloring on the back from light yellowish tones to dark black-brown. If the blind-haired girl has a light color, then a small “cap” of a dark shade is surely distinguished on the head.
Coloring tummy almost does not differ in color from the back. The molting process takes place every year, the greatest intensity occurs in August. Females are similar in size to males.
Ears absent, eyes slightly protruding, black color. On each paw are 5 fingers that are not covered with hair. Traces are round.
Bright photo gallery with a little blindfold:
Distribution and reproduction
The little one lives on a wide territory, from the Crimea and the pre-Caucasus to the Altai steppes, as well as in Kazakhstan and Central Asia.
The main habitat - steppe, semi-desert, forest-steppe. May settle in the mountains at altitudes up to 4000 meters, where the largest populations are noted.
When building a hole plays the degree of freezing of the earth and the height of the snow cover - severe frosts with a small amount of snow can cause the death of the animal.
In the continuous sands a baby shepherd does not live.
Usually its habitat is an animal. selects places with crumbly earth and rich vegetation cover.
Very rarely can be found in feather grass and wormwood-grassland. In the forests, it prefers the edges of aspen and birch meadows.
Males can construct 2-3 tunnels each that connect its burrow system with the dwellings of females. The baby shepherds breed from March to October.
Pregnancy of females continues approximately 3 weeks. 3-4 litters of 2-4 cubs in each can appear throughout the year.
The ability to breed multiply occurs at the age of 1.5 months.
Distinctive features from other rodents
The main differences from the similar species of rodents are rodent:
- The absence of a middle ridge in the space between the eyes,
- The third upper tooth on both sides has only two rounded corners,
- The shade of fur varies - even animals that live in the same zone may have different colors.
The little dog can be distinguished from a mole rash by a bit smaller size, and more like a big vole.
The little blind penguin differs from the Afghan one by a different structure of the skull, from the promethean vole by the presence of a short tail.
Harm to a man-farmer and ways to fight
During meals damages crops - potatoes, beets, sowing of alfalfa and cotton. Can spoil the young trees, gnawing the roots and bark, walls of irrigation canals, earth storages.
There are no mass protective measures in the fields, since usually the number of animals within one zone is small, in order to bring great damage to agricultural crops.
Seriously affect the reduction of the settlement regular plowing and irrigation.
Conducting the fight against the pest makes it difficult for him to be permanently underground. Usually apply bait with poison (vegetables, alfalfa, clover), which are placed in open burrows.
Works well gas method. Modified mole fishing equipment may be used. On solid ground, the most effective technique is regular abundant watering.
Little girl - mammal pestcommon in much of Russia, as well as in the countries of Central Asia.
He lives mostly underground, where he builds long maze moves. It feeds on the underground part of the plants, including agricultural crops - potatoes, beetroot and others.
The most effective measure against the blind one is plowing the fields and abundant watering.. Mass protective measures are not carried out because of the small number of animals in a single area.
On the video, you can visually see the blindfly ordinary:
Appearance: a compact body with a maximum length of 10.5 cm, a tail of small length - only the distance from the tip of the nose to the base of the tail of the animal.
The back is dark gray, the sides are lighter, the abdomen is of a smooth gray color. The tail color is brown-gray above and gray-white below.
Spread: european part of Russia. Prefers deciduous forests with abundant thickets of bushes.
Nutrition: bulbs, rhizomes, insects, acorns, nuts.
Breeding: up to four generations per year, in a litter of 4-6 cubs.
Features: Eyes and ears are smaller than most members of the genus, females have only 4 nipples, 5 soft pads on their hind legs, settling holes with numerous passages.
Possible harm to farmers: with a small crop of acorns, voles can leave wild boars and bears without a significant amount of habitual food, which can push the latter to ruin agricultural fields.
Appearance: length up to 12 cm, gray fur with white or brown undercoat, long tail.
Spread: South America.
Nutrition: plants (depending on the type of food they eat tops and / or roots).
Breeding: twice a year litters of 4-5 cubs.
Features: the most common species among small rodents in South America.
Possible harm to farmers: destruction of seedlings on agricultural crops, damage to winter stocks not subjected to heat treatment.
Appearance: the head is rounded, the body is compact, the tail is 1/3 of the body length, the color is rich gray, the ears are small, the pads on the hind legs are elongated.
Spread: European part of Russia, Siberia (western, middle regions), prefers meadows, river floodplains, edges, glades, on uncultivated areas of vegetable gardens, land plots.
Nutrition: young grass, bark, shoots, sometimes insects.
Breeding: sexual maturity occurs upon reaching the month / two, in the litter of 6 pups (sometimes 15), in a year up to three offspring.
Features: live, united by several broods from one pair.
Possible harm to farmers: gnawing on the bark, can cause the death of young trees, reaching the stocks, not only partially destroy them, but also reduce keeping quality damaged vegetables, which can lead to the appearance of a nidus of rot.
Appearance: the body is much larger than the small head, the ears are hidden in the gray-brown fur. Color light inclusions of fur from ocher to dark brown. The tail is long, body length - up to 125 mm.
Spread: open areas of mountainous areas, alpine meadows, Kazakhstan, central Mongolia, Bashkiria, southern regions of China, western Ural region, Amur region, Tien Shan region.
Nutrition: sedge, broadleaf grasses, legumes, young shoots, bark of young trees.
Breeding: up to five litters with 5-7 cubs.
Features: they are able to search for food on their own for 10 days of life, preparing for winter, make bulk reserves.
Possible harm to farmers: a vole can ruin fields with grain for its own reserves, damage gardens.
Appearance: Ears well noticeable, mustache long, hairy tail too. Overall size - up to 125 mm. The skull is flat, its width is twice the height.
The interorbital region is depressed. The fur is long, ash gray with a brownish tint. The belly is lighter. Tail monochrome, yellowish or white.
Spread: prefers to settle in the coastal zone of rivers, in the marshland. Found in the Altai, in the Kazakh Highlands, in Mongolia.
Nutrition: green parts of herbaceous, shrubby plants.
Breeding: up to three litters per year with 5-7 calves.
Features: movable (can jump overcome up to 50 cm at a time, rising at the same time by 40 cm above the ground level, makes up to 10 kg of reserves in the hole, being placed on a rocky site, can begin to fill up the gaps with stones, fixing them with droppings.
Possible harm to farmers: vole may encroach on green shoots if winter stocks are scarce.
Then you can see the Brazilian, dark, narrow-skull, flat-skull and underground vole in the photo:
Ways to fight and protect
AT industrial scale on the ground with rodents fighting:
- burning stubble after harvest,
- pesticide treatment of fields,
- harrowing the land and adjacent plots.
In storage places grain stocks, fruits use:
- traps, ultrasonic scarers,
- state of natural enemies (cats, weasels).
- the desire to attract birds of prey to nest near the agricultural land.
Voles, like house mice, are cute creatures that can not only significantly spoil food stocks, but also be carriers of dangerous, severe infections.
Therefore, for farmers, the task of restraining the growth of the number of rodents should be included in the category of mandatory.