Bitter pepper is a popular crop that can be found in any vegetable garden. Growing peppers requires some knowledge. This knowledge is necessary for the crop to satisfy all the needs of the gardener.
In addition, the cultivar which is important to choose the right one is very important.
General characteristics of culture
Bitter pepper is used in cooking for canning and fresh consumption. Seeding should be carried out according to the instructions on the package.
A necessary condition for obtaining a good result is regular watering and feeding of the plant. Cultivation of bitter pepper in the open field practically does not differ from the cultivation of sweet pepper.
In order for germination to be high, it is necessary to grow crops through seedlings. The growth of seedlings takes from 40 to 50 days.
How to sow seeds for seedlings
Soil preparation is an important condition for good seed germination.
- soil, peat, humus and yellow sand - this is the ideal soil for pepper,
- the soil, which is taken in two parts, as well as other components in one part must be sown and mixed,
- so that there are no bacteria in the ground, they need to be boiled over on the fire and mixed again,
- to the resulting mass is to add 250 grams of wood ash.
The container in which landing will be made has to be convenient. This is due to the transplant of plants in open ground. Planting seedlings of bitter pepper in open ground should not damage the root system.
Seed preparation for germination
Before planting, the quality of the seed is determined. In salted water you need to pour the seeds. Those that emerge will not be suitable for cultivation.
For the seeds to be decontaminated, they must be soaked in a weak manganese solution for half an hour. Next, the seeds are lowered into the nitrophosphate solution for one day.
To prepare the solution you need to mix one teaspoon of nitrophoska with one liter of water.
To seed before planting were hardened, they should be placed on the bottom shelf of the refrigerator for two days. Further, the seeds are removed in a dark place where the temperature reaches 18 degrees.
After that, the seeds again should be removed in two days in the fridge. Next, the seeds should be soaked in water for 5 hours.
After which they are wrapped in cloth and polyethylene and stored in a warm place for 7 days.
Care for seedlings of bitter pepper
Caring for seedlings involves compliance with the light, heat and watering regime. Pepper is a plant of short daylight. The best place to grow is the windowsill. Tara with seedlings should constantly deploy.
This should be done so that the plant does not stretch in one direction. If the weather is constantly overcast, then it is worth illuminating a hot pepper with special lamps or lighting devices.
Pepper lighting should last for 12 or 14 hours.
The soil for seedlings should be fertile, soft and loose. The optimum air temperature for seedlings is 22-24 degrees. The plant will transfer a higher temperature, but you should not bring it to a temperature higher than 32 degrees. Do not allow seedlings to allow the growth of the bush. The minimum on the bush should be three stalks.
Preparing beds for planting
During the entire growing season, sweet peppers require intense solar radiation.
With a lack of potassium - the leaves of the pepper begin to curl and a dried border appears. But you need to be careful with him, because the pepper does not like an excess of potassium chloride.
To prevent freezing of seedlings.
"Negotsiant" - a hybrid early maturing. Prism-shaped fruits. The color is red.
Growing sweet pepper seedlings
As you can see, to grow a good quality crop of pepper in the open field is quite simple. Only you need to follow the recommendations outlined in this article. We wish you a rich harvest.
In the autumn, you need to carefully dig up the area where you are going to grow peppers. In the spring, it is necessary to loosen the soil, add from 1 to 2 m2 from 30 to 40 grams of fertilizers (potash and phosphate) and from 20 to 30 grams of nitrogen fertilizer.
Feed should be alternated. The main thing - to monitor their manufacture, otherwise it will not work out the way you want it. Every gardener should decide the question of fertilizer on their own. But even the most careful care of a plant without any additional nutrients and the observed temperature may not provide the desired result.
Every time after picking the fruit,
Pepper came to us from faraway America. Growing peppers in Russia became popular in the 40s of the XIX century. Today it is one of the most popular ingredients of many dishes. The fruits of sweet pepper contain a large amount of vitamin C, so that it has healing and taste properties.
Cultivation of sweet pepper
With prolonged cloudy weather or shading, the plants are strongly drawn out, weakly bloom and do not form fruits. Particularly sensitive to the lack of coverage of young plants (seedlings). This factor also affects peppers in the periods of growth, flowering and fruiting.
If there is not enough nitrogen, the leaves of pepper become dull with a gray tint and shrink.
- The most suitable precursors for pepper are: carrots, zucchini, cabbage, pumpkin, cucumbers, onions.
- "Tenderness" is an early ripe variety. Fruits are truncated pyramidal, red. The flesh is very tender.
- Plants of indoor varieties of pepper do not require special shaping. At the beginning of flowering, only the removal of the crown bud (the first bud located in the branching of the stem) is mandatory. This will speed up the setting of the next buds. Bushes must be tied to a support (peg, trellis) to avoid breaking the stem under the weight of the growing crop and the wind. For better ventilation and illumination, it is necessary to remove the shoots from the seed-bearing and directed inside the plant.
- Secrets from an experienced gardener. She will tell you how to care for the pepper, what feedings to use and how to identify the missing trace elements by the appearance of the pepper.
To get a really great crop, you need to plant according to certain rules.
To get your own seeds, you should choose red or bright yellow fruit. The fruit should be cut in a circle of the cup, then very carefully remove the seed plant with the seeds of the stem. Approximately 3-4 days seedlings are recommended to be dried (temperature 25-30 ° C), then the seeds are separated. Seeds should be moved to a paper bag and stored in a dry, warm place for no more than five years.
The fruits of sweet pepper are very useful. They contain large amounts of vitamin C.
The site "In the garden and the garden" is not commercial, we present the personal experience of the authors for gardeners, gardeners, gardeners and flower growers. Go
After 2 - 3 weeks after planting, the relative soil moisture should not be less than 60 - 70%. Most water needs pepper phase of fruiting.
Pepper care and watering plants
With a lack of phosphorus, the color of the lower side of the leaves becomes purple and they are pressed against the trunk.
Bad predecessors: eggplant, tomatoes, peppers, potatoes.
"California miracle" - mid-season variety. The fruits are quite large, prismatic shape. The color is bright red.
The first time the seedlings after planting are fed in two weeks, then feeding is carried out regularly in 10-12 days depending on the condition of the plants.As fertilizers, both mineral (15-20 g of ammonium nitrate, 30-40 g of superphosphate, 25-30 g of potassium sulfate, or 50-70 g of complex fertilizer per 10 l of water), and organic fertilizers (half-liter can of granulated bird droppings on 10 liters of water). Mineral and organic dressing is best alternated.
You can grow peppers in the room all year round. For summer culture, sowing is carried out in late March - early April, for autumn - in July and early August, for early spring - in late November-early December. When sowing in winter, seedlings need to be illuminated with special lamps.
Growing peppers in the open ground is usually carried out in the last days of May. At this time, the danger of frost is minimized. The planting of pepper is made according to the scheme 60-70 x 20-30 cm. Before planting, you need to water the seedlings abundantly so that in the process of planting your pepper does not look faded, it can settle down better, grow faster.
Getting your own seeds
The collection of all types of pepper should occur at the first occurrence of redness.
Every 8-10 days until fruit picking,The area where you will plant the pepper must be clear of weeds, fenced off from the wind and have fertile soil. It is very important that green crops, legumes, root vegetables, and cucumbers should grow in this place earlier. It is strictly forbidden to plant peppers in those places of the soil where the same peppers, tomatoes, eggplants, potatoes, physalis and tobacco were grown before.
Growing peppers on the windowsill
Unfavorable is the land after growing on it physalis, potatoes or tomatoes. Pepper is suitable light soil. It must be prepared in advance. Manure, humus and other natural fertilizers are applied to the ground (one year before planting the pepper). When digging in the fall - potash and phosphate. In the spring, ammonium nitrate is introduced into the soil. 4-5 days before transplanting, soil is disinfected with copper sulfate solution (one tablespoon is dissolved in a bucket of water).
During the flowering period, the air should not be excessively saturated with water vapor, since this makes pollination difficult.
Successful cultivation and care of pepper
If magnesium is not enough, the leaves become marble. And with an excess of nitrogen, the plant sheds ovaries and flowers.
Growing pepper is best in light soil. Prepare the soil in advance - for the year. To do this, organic fertilizers are applied under the predecessor (5 kg per 1 square meter). In the fall, 50 grams of phosphate and potash fertilizers are introduced into the soil. In the spring make 40 grams of ammonium nitrate in the top layer of soil. 5 days before planting pepper to a permanent place,
“Swallow” is a medium early variety. Fruits are cone-shaped. The color is red.
In the period of budding, for a better laying and development of flowers, the dose of nitrogen fertilizers is increased, and in the period of fruit formation, in order to increase the activity of the root system, the dose of phosphate fertilizers. During the growing season, the soil must contain a sufficient amount of calcium, the lack of which leads to the top rot of the fruit. For this purpose, foliar dressings with a 0.2% solution of calcium nitrate are effective.
When planting peppers in the heat, it is better to choose the second half of the day to allow the plant to get stronger overnight. When it is cloudy, you can land in the morning.
The yield of plants from 1 square. m must reach approximately 7-14 kg. Hot pepper must be strung on a rope and dried.
4-5 days after landing.
For planting peppers, you should choose the places where legumes, green crops, cucumbers, and root vegetables used to grow.
Pepper - features care, planting and cultivation, video:
Sweet pepper is very picky in relation to the soil.
In hot, wet weather
"Buratino" - an early ripe pepper hybrid. Fruits are elongated cone-shaped, smooth, slightly ribbed. The color is red.
What should include care?
To protect against pests, room pepper is treated with the same preparations as when grown in the soil. Spraying skim milk is effective against viruses, especially in the first half of the growing season.
For early and friendly shoots, the seeds are pre-soaked in solutions of Epin or Humate potassium. House pepper is sown in small (0.2 l) pots filled with 2/3 nutritious soil (the ground should be added to the ground as it grows and pulls out the stem). Seeds are buried to a depth of 1 cm, covered with nutrient mixture from above, slightly compacted. Crops are covered with plastic wrap and put in a warm place (optimum temperature + 23 + 27ºС). After the emergence of shoots, the film is removed, on the 4th-5th day the temperature is reduced to + 16 + 18ºС, moving the pots to a cooler place. In the future, the air temperature during the daytime in sunny weather should be + 24 + 28 ºС, at night + 18 + 20 ºС, soil temperature + 20 + 22 ºС. Seedlings should be watered regularly with warm (not lower than + 20 ºС) water, but not overwetted! - stagnation of water in pots can lead to the death of small roots in plants.
Prepared wells must be poured abundantly with water: at the rate of 1-2 liters to each well. It is better to use water heated in the sun. Carefully pulling the seedlings out of the pots, they must be placed in the wells in an upright position and planted a little deeper than they grew in pots. This is necessary to provide your pepper with additional nutrition, which will help the adventitious roots that appeared on the stems covered with earth.
Over the past few years, the cultivation of decorative bitter pepper, which is a small plant with miniature sharp fruits, has become very popular. A small number of bushes with such a beautiful plant will not only colorfully decorate your apartment, but also make a wonderful gift in the form of a year-round supply of vitamin seasoning. To grow such a wonderful plant, you just need a small pot, whose depth should be up to 20 cm with fertile land. It would be great if you put your pot on the south window sill, and in the winter you will provide it with additional lighting from a desk lamp. If suddenly the plant will give a lot of greenery and it will greatly interfere with the fruits and even harm them, then care should be taken to include potash or phosphate fertilizers.
Peppers in the first stages grow quite slowly, but if you create a cover from the film, their growth will accelerate and the plants will develop much better. During the growing season, care should consist in systematically loosening the soil, allowing air to get to the roots. Watering occurs in the first stages until the plants are rooted.
The soil itself must necessarily have water-holding properties, be drained and fertile. If the soil is loamy, then it is best to add rotted peat and manure to it. If in the area there is a clayy dense soil, then, in addition to all of the above, we should also add semi-mature sawdust and coarse sand. Peat beds should be mixed with turf soil and humus, and it is recommended to dilute sandy soil with sawdust, peat, humus, and clay soil.
Measures for the care of Bulgarian pepper are reduced to timely watering, tying. It must be weeded and fed. When the first two true leaves appear, feeding is done. In a liter of water dissolve 0.5 g of ammonium nitrate, 1 g of potash and 3 g of superphosphate. After 14-15 days you should once again make feeding, doubling the concentration.
Bulgarian pepper: planting, growing and care
You should not try to grow peppers with planting seeds immediately in open ground. Because sowing seeds will have to be late,
"Orange miracle" - a hybrid of early maturing. The fruits are cuboid shape. The color is bright yellow.
Secrets of the cultivation of bell pepper
Of course, planting and grooming have their own characteristics, but after becoming acquainted with the recommendations below, you can easily grow this healthy and tasty vegetable by yourself.
Pepper does not tolerate pick picking, so it is better to give preference to transshipment - changing the container with the ground from the smaller to the larger one, at which the seedlings are transplanted with a lump of earth without disturbing the root system. For normal growth of adult plants enough pot volume of 3-5 liters.Water your peppers better with water that has settled, or rain water. The optimum water temperature for irrigation is from + 24 ° C to + 26 ° C. Before flowering, you need to water once a week, and in the heat - 2 times. The rate for watering is up to 12 liters per 1 m2. During flowering and fruiting watering is 2-3 times during the week. At the same time, the irrigation rate is up to 14 liters per 1 m2.Under the conditions of the middle band, growing and caring for pepper has its own difficulties, as the pepper is a light-loving and thermophilic plant - it needs 140 days to grow with a temperature of 20-30 degrees. Therefore, in our region, peppers are grown in greenhouses through seedlings. Pepper seedlings must be planted in February, so that the bushes are viable by May. During the subsequent landing in the greenhouse it is necessary to observe the distance between the bushes of 50-60 cm.
Due to persistent drought during the summer period, the stems can become very stubborn, and the leaves and buds fall off. Therefore, be sure to make watering at intervals of a week. On 1 square. m planting should be poured to 12 liters of water. Watering should occur during the flowering period, when the harvest is just beginning to form, water should be poured at the very root.
- Due to the fact that pepper does not tolerate transplantation, it will be better if it is immediately grown in pots or cups. For seedlings to emerge from the seeds, you will need about 60 days in the winter and 45 days in the summer (this is also influenced by the temperature).
- In regions with a mild warm climate, growing peppers in the open field brings high yields. The place for the plant is chosen sunny and windless. The most optimal is the south side of any structure or tall bushes of tomatoes that will protect the pepper from the wind.
- In greenhouses, pepper precursors can be radishes, onions for bundle picking, or root vegetables and cabbage vegetables grown for picking in the fall. Often greenhouses are transferred from the place where cauliflower or lettuce is grown.
- Cultivation of sweet pepper process is simple and entertaining. In order for the future harvest to be good and bring joy to the owners, it is necessary to respect
- When the soil warms up
- Seeds for seedlings sown closer to the end of February. Before sowing in the ground, they are subjected to special treatment. Disinfect about 30 minutes in 15 solution of potassium permanganate. Then
- It may seem to many unprepared summer residents that the process of growing this vegetable is rather complicated, but this is absolutely not the case. But still before the start of the cultivation is better acquainted with the features of different varieties.
- Indoor pepper must be fed up, as it grows in a small volume of soil. Already in the phase 1-2 pairs of true leaves of the plant are spilled with a fertilizer solution (10 g of ammonium nitrate, 25-30 g of superphosphate, 15 g of potassium sulfate and half a table of micronutrients per 10 liters of water). This feeding is repeated at intervals of 10-12 days, 2-3 times.
- The first dressing should be done when 1-2 leaflets appear on the seedlings of the pepper. You need in one liter of water to mix 3 grams of superphosphates, 1 gram of potash and 0.5 grams of ammonium nitrate. After 14 days, you need to re-feed your pepper. In this case, the dose of mineral fertilizers should be doubled.
- It is necessary to make sure that the soil under the pepper was light, and if necessary, lime. Pepper requires regular abundant watering, overdrying pepper leads to the fall of the ovary.It is also necessary to produce dressing with liquid organic fertilizers.
- A large number of summer residents come once a week to their site, so you should take into account the rate of watering at 15 liters per 1 m².
Care of seeds consists in processing them in a 1% solution of potassium permanganate for 20 minutes. This is followed by thorough washing in running water and seeding in a pre-prepared box. Seedlings that appeared after 20 days are carefully inspected, with the strongest sprouts to be transplanted into pots or cups.However, growing peppers in the ground involves additional troubles. Weather and nature are unpredictable phenomena. And in May there may be frosts. To protect the pepper from possible night low temperatures, you need to stock up on protective tents (cardboard, roofing felt, burlap). In the evening, the plants are closed with a tent, and in the morning they open. When forecasting a long cold spell, the pepper is covered with a film.For the cultivation of pepper, you should choose a protected place or peel the edges of the site from the side of the often blowing winds with sunflower or corn. The bands of these plants are also well placed in the rows between every few tens of meters.
Growing technology, The plant will develop much more slowly and the fruits will ripen later.Washed with water
How to choose a grade
You should seriously consider the process of selecting seeds for planting. The main criteria for selection are as follows.
- Maturation is the most important parameter. The vegetative period of most varieties is 4-5 months, and the length of the summer may not be enough for the development of culture. You must first obtain data on the duration of the summer period with a favorable average temperature for pepper in your region. Then correlate with the duration of ripening of a variety. Most likely, it will be necessary to acquire an early ripe variety and plant it in seedlings.
- Resistance to viruses, low light and temperature drops - an important characteristic of the variety. The fact is that the pepper does not tolerate a sharp change in temperature and may die. In addition, love chili pepper and pests, in particular, it loves aphid. Plants with weak resistance will be weakened by constant attacks of parasites and will not be able to produce a crop in the garden in a timely manner.
- The degree of bitterness of fruits and yield are consumer properties of the culture. You should use the Scoville scale to avoid poisoning with a sharp crop. According to this parameter, the fruits range from weak burning to burning in the presence of the substance capsaicin in them, which is responsible for the sharpness of taste. The yield allows you to plan the estimated volume of the product from the sown area.
If you correctly take into account the above parameters, you can choose the best variety for growing in the country.
Important! The duration of the growing season of most varieties of pepper is 4-5 months.
Despite the fact that bitter pepper has many varieties, the following varieties are most popular with gardeners.
- One of the most sought-after hybrids is Astrakhan 147. This variety is resistant to disease and the vagaries of the weather. Oriented to the southern regions, the growing season is 4 months. Bushes are medium in size, yield is above average. Peppers have an attractive elongated shape and moderate burning sensation.
- Yellow Hungarian is one of the most sought after species in the world. Variety ripens in 4 months, resistant to disease. A special feature is resistance to vertex rot. Shrubs are compact in size, look good on beds and on flowerbeds. The fruits have a characteristic yellow color and elongated shape. It tastes juicy with an average degree of sharpness.
- The bitter pepper Danube is grown in open ground, it is widely known for its high yield.Resistance allows it to fight both diseases and climate extremes, drought. The growing season is 3.5 months, which allows you to get a crop even in temperate climates. A special feature of bitter pepper when grown is the height of the bushes, which is more than 1 meter. Fruits are large, elongated, red or green color.
- Variety Impala is a hybrid, specially created for difficult climatic conditions. It is distinguished by an extremely short period of ripening, a little more than 2 months. Planting and caring for a variety is easier due to its high resistance to various diseases, including the tobacco mosaic virus. It also features a balanced spicy taste and elongated, elegant shape of the fruit.
- Ukrainian chili is extremely popular among summer residents. It is highly resistant to most known diseases and viruses. The growing season is 4 months. Productivity reaches 1.5 kg per 1 square meter of crops. He loves the sun, does not grow in the shade. Planted seedlings can withstand a sharp change in temperature.
The choice of purchase should not be limited to the varieties. Knowing the criteria, you can independently choose a good plant for the site.
How to properly land
Since chili loves warmth, in temperate climates it often does not have enough time to produce a crop. Therefore, it should be planted in open ground with the help of seedlings. The following steps are performed.
- First, the seeds must be germinated at a temperature of at least 25 degrees. To do this, they are twisted into wet gauze and cleaned in heat for 7 days. This should be done no later than the beginning of March.
- Next, you need to prepare boxes with soil filling, which will then be grown seedlings. At the bottom is a drainage mass consisting of fragments of brick, expanded clay rock or foam. The components are mixed. The next layer is a layer of sod with compost and the addition of sand. Before you form planting, it is better to disinfect the soil. The surface needs to be leveled and a little tamped, to apply fertilizer. Then make in it a recess for planting seeds about 1 cm. At what distance to plant, is determined individually, but the distance is more than 5 cm.
- Germinated seeds are placed in the soil and irrigated with water. Containers must be covered with a transparent film and placed in a warm place so that the culture can form the first shoots. When sprouts begin to appear on the surface, the containers should be transferred to a well-lit place and the film removed from the surface.
- When leaflets appear on the plants on the stems, the shoots dive. To do this, with a knife blade, carefully pull out the stems, trying to damage the root as little as possible. Then, planting in peat pots is carried out. Watering plants can be settled heated water.
- Transplantation of pepper into open ground is carried out after 2 months of cultivation in peat pots. First you need to check whether the pepper is ready for the street, for this you need to put a couple of bushes on the windowsill and see how they react to the temperature. Then we plant the contents of the pots in the ground.
In order for the formation of bitter pepper was successful, you need to constantly look after him. The culture requires frequent watering. It is also important to regularly loosen the soil at the roots and remove weeds. Before planting hot pepper, it is necessary to feed the soil with fertilizers.
When planting sweet and bitter varieties of pepper close to each other, transamination can occur, the taste of the fruit changes.
Care for pepper in open field
Proper care of hot peppers is the key to a good harvest. The following recommendations should be observed.
- Monitor soil moisture. Optimally, it was moderately wet. Care for bitter peppers includes careful watering. It is not recommended to overdry, but it is also impossible to fill. The lack of moisture leads to the degeneration of the size and shape of the fruit.Stems lose their flexibility, become brittle in the place where they were planted. Watering preferably carried out with warm water.
- Provide good illumination of crops. Planting vegetables is best done on the south side of the site. It is important to ensure that the plants are well lit throughout the day and do not fall into the shade. In case of insufficient light, the stems are pulled out. The plant weakens, begins to lose side shoots.
- Care in compliance with the temperature. It is important to understand that the development of pepper culture stops at 13 degrees, and when the temperature drops to 0 degrees, the plant dies. In climatic zones, where temperature drops are tens of degrees in a short time, often the ovaries and buds die. Heat is also dangerous for culture.. Care in open ground at temperatures above 25 degrees suggests shading of crops. To preserve the crop under unfavorable temperature conditions, crops should be covered with a film or special tunnels should be used.
- As they grow, chili is drawn out. To reduce the load on the trunk, used garters. To do this, stick into the soil stick on the height of the plant, to which the stem is tied with a rope.
- Cropping allows you to ensure the correct proportions of plants and increase yields when growing bitter pepper in open ground. Pinch the stem if it grows above 25 centimeters. Side shoots are also removed, leaving only 5 of the strongest. In addition, the first flower should be cut off so that the plant spends its strength on the formation of the bush, and not the fruit.
Proper cultivation and care of pepper is a fairly time-consuming exercise. But without this, you will not get beautiful and juicy fruits that you can not only enjoy yourself, but also treat your friends.
- You can grow bitter pepper, if you listen to the recommendations of experienced gardeners. It is advisable to perform the following steps to ensure good growth and yield.
- It is important to feed the culture with the correct fertilizers. Before flowering in the soil add drugs with a nitrogen content. After the appearance of flowers feed supplements with phosphorus and potassium.
- The peculiarity of the simultaneous planting of sweet and bitter peppers in one area is the inter-pollination. So, if you plant two crops side by side, the fruits of sweet pepper will be bitter in taste. In order to avoid this, cultures are planted further. Additionally between the beds they plant other plants. You can also plant sweet and bitter peppers from different sides of the house.
- The cultivation rules prescribe that hardened peppers should be harvested, not soft. Fruits with a soft texture are immature and are collected for the cultivation of hot peppers, and not for consumption.
- Tear the fruits of chili should be together with the stalk. Then they must be stored in a dry place at a temperature of about 20 degrees. Then the pepper will ripen and its taste will improve significantly.
If you follow the above tips, you can grow both hot pepper for yourself and for sale, because the rules will allow you to avoid annoying mistakes leading to loss of harvest.
When to plant seeds
February and March are the best months for planting seeds of a bitter crop. Seeds require preparation. First, they need to soak in a weak solution of potassium permanganate for several hours, and after they are wrapped in cloth and polyethylene and wait for the seeds to wallow. After this, the plant is planted in open ground.
For the chili bushes to bring a bountiful harvest, the beds for them need to be done in the right place. Hot pepper loves heat, sudden changes in temperature are destructive for it. It develops best on light and at the same time reliably protected from drafts areas. In extreme heat, plant leaves can suffer from sunburn.Therefore, on hot days, and especially at midday, planting in the open field should provide shading.
Bitter pepper needs moist and nutrient-rich, non-acidic soil. In the damp ground, the roots of chili quickly rot. To its cultivation did not end in failure, stagnation of water in the beds can not be allowed. After watering its drops should not remain on the leaves and stalks of bushes. Bitter pepper is contraindicated for wetting by sprinkling. If the groundwater lies close to the soil surface, high ridges are poured for planting.
Greenhouses are more suitable for growing chillies than outdoor conditions. For its development, it is important that the temperature and humidity levels remain unchanged. On the beds to provide his bushes such constancy is impossible. As a result of temperature fluctuations, albeit insignificant, the growth of bitter pepper slows down. But in the open field it will bear fruit. If you plant a plant on the correct site and competently care for it, its powerful bushes can reach a height of 1 m, and their stems will be densely covered with vegetables.
Sowing on seedlings
Hot pepper belongs to the most thermophilic cultures, therefore its cultivation is usually carried out by seedling method. Sowing time depends on the climate of the area. In the southern regions, where the temperature of the soil rises to 15 ° C as early as May, the seeds are planted in boxes in the middle of winter (from January to February). If plants are placed in open ground at the end of spring, pepper is sown in the second half of February or in March. On the beds of chili planted at the age of 40-50 days. By this time, 6 leaves will form on the plants, and the seedlings will be 15 cm tall.
Growing seedlings is conveniently carried out in wooden boxes. You can use plastic boxes, but they always make holes for drainage.
The ground for sowing hot pepper seeds is prepared by mixing two components in a 3: 1 ratio:
In the resulting nutrient substrate add a little wood ash.
To disinfect the humus, it is first steamed on a fire and only then mixed with other components.
Shoots of bitter pepper will appear faster if you plant already sprouted seeds. In order for them to slip, they are wrapped in wet gauze, which is pre-folded in 5-6 layers. During this period, warmth is especially important for chili. If the temperature does not fall below 25 ° C, seeds will germinate in a week. When this happens, the bottom of the landing boxes is covered with a drainage layer. It can be done by connecting three components in the same proportions:
- broken brick
- fine clay,
Then the box is filled with fertile substrate, which is desirable to warm to 40-45 ° C. The thickness of the soil mixture should be 8-10 cm. Planting chili seeds is carried out in shallow (1-1.5 cm) grooves. They are made with an interval of 5 cm. Spreading the seeds 2 cm apart, they are sprinkled with substrate. Rows of bitter pepper planted are shed with a solution of growth stimulant or liquid fertilizer. Complete the seeding, slightly compacting the soil. You can do it by hand or use a plank.
Sprinkles hot pepper in warm and humid conditions. After sowing, the boxes are covered with glass or tightened with a film. In the daytime, they should be in the most warm place. At night, germinating seeds need a cooler temperature (about 15 ° C), so the containers with them have to be rearranged twice a day. So the seedlings will be stronger and more viable.
When young chili seem out of the ground, the shelter is removed. Boxes with seedlings rearranged to a warm and bright place, where they keep up to the landing in the ground. After the shoots will release 2 true leaves, they dive. 2-3 hours before the procedure, the soil in the container should be watered well.Then the seedlings of bitter pepper gently removed from the ground, pulling with a knife, slightly shorten their root and placed in separate containers, better - peat pots. Their planting ends with abundant irrigation, for which warm water, at least a couple of hours separated, is used.
In the early stages of development, hot pepper needs a long (not less than 12 hours) light day. If it gets dark early, then it is artificially lengthened artificially with a lamp until it dives in the seedlings. Young chilies are watered regularly, preventing the soil from drying out. To keep the stems from lying on the ground surface, a little potassium permanganate is added to the water. Bitter pepper will benefit and feed. They are held twice a month. Chile responds well to supplementation:
- liquid fertilizer for seedlings,
- infused wood ash.
Prepare a nutritional composition as follows: 2 tbsp. l substances are stirred in 3 liters of water and left for a day. The present solution is carefully filtered. You can use gauze for this by adding it up in 4-5 layers. Then they water the seedlings.
The room on the beds
Chili planting on the beds is carried out when the air and the soil warms up well (average daily temperature will be 13-15 ° C), and the probability of frost will be minimal. For the procedure, you should choose cloudy weather or move it to the evening hours. Seedlings are placed in open ground with a soil clod. To remove the seedlings from the tank it was easier, at first they were poured abundantly.
Holes for hot pepper do at a distance of 40-45 cm from each other. The row spacing should be 50-60 cm. Landing can also be carried out in a cluster way:
- according to the scheme 60x60, when 2 seedlings are placed in one well,
- according to the scheme 70x70, when 3 bushes will grow in each well.
Growing chili next to sweet peppers is highly undesirable. If you arrange the beds with these cultures closely, they pereopilyatsya and taste of the fruit will suffer from this. The distance between the areas where the Bulgarian and hot peppers are growing should be at least 3 m.
Chile stalk is weak, so after planting it is better to tie it to a support immediately. Soil under the plants mulch. If night frosts are still possible, the beds should be protected from them with a film. Drop of temperature to 2-3 ° C hot pepper can not move. They take shelter when the frost is over.
Determine whether the time has come to place the seedlings in the ground, can be empirically. To do this, a few days before the procedure, 2-3 pots with seedlings are put on a cold window sill or an unglazed loggia. If they calmly survive the experiment, you can continue to grow them in outdoor conditions.
Agrotechnics bitter pepper is simple and does not require special skills from the gardener. It will be necessary to perform simple manipulations:
- water the plantings often,
- periodically feed the bushes,
- timely weed out weeds,
- regularly loosen the soil under the plants.
Freshly planted chili will grow slowly. Their development will accelerate when it takes 2 weeks from the moment they are placed on the beds. In order for seedlings to settle down faster, oxygen must flow freely to their roots, so frequent soil loosening during this period is especially important. It is also desirable to spray the leaves of plants with a solution of growth stimulant. Growing chili will be successful if the air is heated to 20-32 ° C. At lower temperatures, the growth of its bushes slows down. And if it gets cold to 10 ° C, it will stop altogether. In extreme heat (at temperatures above 32 ° C), plants can drop buds and flowers that are already flowing.
Bitter pepper prefers moist soil, so watering planting will have often. Use for this warm water. Its lack will adversely affect the harvest. The number of irrigations and the volume of applied liquid increase in the following cases:
- when the plants pick up the buds,
- when the ovaries appear on them,
- if it is hot and dry weather.
Fertilizers for hot peppers are chosen depending on the phase of its development. Before flowering, he needs nitrogen, phosphorus and magnesium. When the ovaries are formed, make phosphorus-potassium compounds containing a minimum of nitrogen.
In hot weather, in the absence of wind bushes will need to help pollinate. To do this, they are slightly shaken. Incomplete pollination spoils the presentation of vegetables: their shape is bent.
If the pepper bushes grow well and have already picked up the buds, they are stepsons. The flowers on the top of the chili are removed to make its shape more compact. When the peppers are 25 cm high, the central shoot is shortened, slightly trimming its top. This stimulates the intensive development of the side branches, from which you will need to leave 4-6, carefully removing the rest, and the rapid growth of the entire bush. One chili can produce up to 25 large fruits. If the ovaries are formed more, the excess ones are cut off so that they do not pull forces out of the plant.
Hot pepper - spicy vegetable, won the love of gourmets around the world. Chili comes from the tropics of the Americas, so it is quite capricious, requiring a lot of heat for its development and sensitively reacting to the lack of moisture. But its cultivation is possible in the gardens of the middle band, it is only necessary to observe the terms of placing the seedlings on the beds.
On the breeding of this culture are solved few gardeners. Meanwhile, in its agricultural technology is nothing complicated. Watering, loosening the soil, removing weeds, feeding, pasynkovanie - that's all the basics of care for bitter pepper. Plant spicy chili on the site, and the abundance of bright fruits with memorable taste will be a worthy reward for your efforts.
Features of planting and care of bitter pepper in your garden
Planting bitter pepper made through the ready seedlings. Despite all the disputes of vegetable growers, growing a bitter vegetable is not at all difficult.
Even a beginner amateur grower will be able to achieve good fruits from a bush.
Today, almost 2000 varieties of pepper are bred. Bitter pepper is a vegetable culture that has a distinctive spicy taste. The seeds and internal laminae containing alkaloid capsaicin give a hotness to the vegetable..
Some varieties of hot pepper are so burning that one touch to them is enough to irritate the skin.
Culture is characterized by a long vegetation phase: 90-180 days. The plant reaches a height of 60 cm. The shrub has spreading branches, oval leaves, large gray or whitish flowers.
The fruits are low-cut: their color varies from red and yellow to black-olive, the shape - from spherical to trunk-shaped. Sharp fruits are taken to dry, then separate the seeds and grind the flesh. In the process of drying, the pods acquire a dark red or orange-red shade.
Hot pepper is considered to be an annual plant. In fact, this is a fallacy.. If you dig up a bush in the fall, transplant it into a wide container — the plant will continue to bear fruit even until spring or even longer.
The necessary conditions
Consider the basic conditions that must be provided for the successful cultivation of chili peppers. This plant requires a good and regular care. Keep temperature, lighting, and air and soil humidity at the correct mode. Seeds require sunlight or artificial light for 12 hours a day. Garden soil and humus are steamed on fire before use. Direct sowing should be carried out on the soil substrate heated to 40 ° C.
Features of sowing and cultivation
It is necessary to choose a grade taking into account climatic features in a residence. When growing hot pepper in the open field, it is important to know the time of planting, and how to care for seedlings. So in the southern areas of the bookmark seed in the ground do in January and February, and in the cool - in February and March.
Proper cultivation of hot pepper involves preparing a place for growth. This plant grows more effectively on fertile soils with a high level of humidity. During watering on the leaves do not pour water, just under the root. Competent sowing of seeds, planting and care are key factors in the process of obtaining hot peppers.
Chili pepper soil
Good red pepper fruits can be obtained when planting seedlings, which are 70-80 days old, are planted on open ground. The place where the landing nests will be formed should be well lit, have sufficient moisture and air permeability, the level of acidity is up to 6 pH. In addition, the site should be protected from winds through.
In the designated area, it is desirable to prepare the ground in the fall, adding horse, cow dung or chicken droppings. If organic is introduced immediately before planting the seedlings in open ground, then there is a high probability of chemical burns on the delicate roots, which will lead to the death of the plant. In the spring the soil should be dug up and make a mixture of humus and superphosphate. This fertilizer composition can be used at the time of planting vegetables.
How to plant a plant in the open ground
Planting bitter pepper in the garden is recommended at an air temperature of 13-15 degrees. Planting work is best planned for the evening. Planting plants is carried out after the appearance of 8-12 leaves.
Technology for determining seedlings for a permanent place:
- Make holes at a distance of 40-45 cm from each other, keeping a distance between rows of 50-60 cm.
- In each hole add 1 tbsp. l fertilizers (superphosphate).
- Remove the seedling along with the earthy ball and place in the hole.
- Sprinkle with a layer of fertile soil, pour the pepper.
- On top of planting hot pepper put mulch.
If weather changes are expected, the plants are protected by covering material (agrofibre).
How and when to harvest the pepper
To grow large fruits of hot pepper, the gardener will need knowledge of agricultural technology, but also to save the pods also need to be able to. Harvesting begins on the first days of July and ends in October. They reach their consumer maturity after acquiring a pronounced red color.
Store pepper at a temperature of 18-20 degrees. If there is a need for long-term preservation of the crop, drying should be carried out as a whole, pre-strung vegetables on the thread through the stem. To dry them more effectively in sunny weather under glass for a week. Alternatively, peppers grown in open ground can be frozen.
Bitter pepper when grown in open ground requires special care. Culture needs to be fed, watered, to carry out preventive measures. Only an integrated approach allows to obtain large and burning fruits.
When planting bitter pepper in open ground
The best time to disembark is considered to be a non-sunny day or an evening after sundown. It is also worth planting seedlings after it has hardened. At the time of landing on the stem of the pepper should also be from 8 to 12 leaves. Culture should be green and compact. Do not forget that the plant should leave a lump of soil.
Growing chili peppers in a greenhouse
Gardeners assure that the best results are shown by chili pepper, which is grown in a greenhouse. This is due to the temperature regime. Planting in closed ground begins when the plant reaches 10-15 centimeters.
The night temperature should not fall below 10 degrees. Leaving and planting also includes hardening of seedlings, which is carried out before planting in open ground. The optimum temperature in the greenhouse should reach 18 degrees. Abundant watering pepper will not be required.
If the weather is cool, then watering is worth reducing.
After watering the land requires loosening and removal of weeds.It is important to know that self-pollinated pepper varieties are best planted in the greenhouse. If the pepper requires pollination, then you have to do this procedure yourself.
This procedure is carried out using a special soft brush and fan. After collecting the last harvest before the frost, the plant is transplanted into flowerpots, and transferred to room conditions.
In spring, the plant can again be planted in a greenhouse or in open ground.
How to form hot pepper bushes
The correct bush of the plant is formed in stages. The first step is to form a bud. Further, excess vegetation and fruitless shoots are cut off.
After completing these procedures, you need to pinch the kidneys. The formation of varietal bushes also requires compliance with the temperature regime. Varieties can be from ultra early to very late varieties.
What sort to choose, grow and where to plant it decides the gardener.
How to grow hot pepper
You can grow a culture through seedlings. Per square meter is best to plant no more than five plants of pepper. In the country to plant the plant is best on the sunny side, without drafts, but without heat.
Pepper seedlings need to plant in January and February, and in the open ground is best to plant in May. It is necessary to pinch a plant when it reaches a height of up to 35 cm.
In this case, side shoots appear that give additional fruit.
Watering chili peppers
Culture loves moisture and especially needs it during the flowering period. Land garden can not be overdry. Chile loves summer watering in the summer. If the heat is particularly strong, then watering should occur twice a day. It is best to produce watering with heated and separated water. After watering, be sure to loosen the soil and remove the grass.
How to harvest and save the crop
The collection of the finished product occurs in the stage of full maturity, and in the stage of incomplete maturation. Pepper is suitable for storage, which is fully ripe. When the pepper has ripened, it has a rich color, the leaves dry, and when in contact with the hands, a slight burning sensation appears. The optimal period for harvesting hot peppers is September.
Pepper - features care, planting and cultivation
In nature, there are more than 2,000 species of peppers, and their homeland is Central America. In this article I will tell about the sweet pepper, which is also called Bulgarian.
The "Mexican" came to Europe in the 15th century and in roundabout ways, through Spain, Turkey, Iran, eventually penetrated our lands.
Here he got accustomed, despite the thermophilic and capricious temper - after all, the advantages of pepper have more than enough! It is not only rich in bright colors, giving the dish a festive look, not only tasty and juicy, but also an invaluable storehouse of vitamins.
For this part, it compares with a rare vegetable or fruit.
Ripening sweet pepper
But to get a good harvest, will have to try. This "southerner" loves warm weather, so in middle latitudes it is grown for the most part by seedlings and in greenhouses.
Pepper is a short-day plant, that is, if the light day lasts less than 12 hours, the pepper begins to move to fruiting earlier and, importantly, gives more stable and high yields. If you do not have a greenhouse, then the seeds of pepper must be sown in February, so that before the transplantation in May, the plants are between 90-100 days old. Pepper does not tolerate picking badly, so try to immediately sow seeds in individual peat pots with a diameter of about 8-10 cm. It does not make sense to use large pots due to the slow development of its root system.
Peat pots for pepper - a good option
The substrate for growing peppers in a seedling way should be light and loose and consist of 2 parts of humus mixed with 1 part of sand and 1 part of earth. At 1 kg of this mixture, you must add a tablespoon of ash.
Pepper seeds need preplant treatment - they must be kept until they swell for five hours in water at a temperature of about + 50 ° C. After that, they must be placed for naklevyvaniya in a damp cloth for 2-3 days, the temperature in the room about + 20 ° C. After such a simple preplant seed preparation, you get the seedlings just the next day after sowing. Sown seeds of pepper must be watered thoroughly, and immediately thereafter covered with plastic wrap or glass. Before the emergence of shoots, they can be in any warm (about + 22 ° C) place, the lighting is not important at the same time, it is possible in the dark. After the emergence of seedlings, the optimum temperature for growing seedlings in the daytime is about + 26 ... + 28 ° С, at night about + 10 ... + 15 ° С.
It is not necessary to spoil the peppers with excessive watering, it can only damage them - cause disease of the black leg. But try to prevent the substrate from drying out.
Water for irrigation should be warm - about + 30 ° C, from excessively cold seedlings will be frail, sick and may even die. Do not forget to follow the air in the room in which the seedlings are grown, it should not be too dry.
Spray the plants, and ventilate the room itself, not forgetting to protect from drafts.
Pepper seedlings require additional lighting. During the month of February, it should be covered from 7 am to 9 pm. Before planting, seedlings need hardening, gradual training to the sun's rays, lower temperatures, wind and rain. To do this, take out the plant to fresh air, gradually increasing the time of his stay there. During hardening, watch the weather conditions, it is impossible to allow seedlings of pepper to fall under frost or lower temperature - for pepper it is below + 13 ° С. The best predecessors for pepper: onions, cucumbers, pumpkins, cabbage after sideratov, zucchini and carrots. Bad predecessors: potatoes, peppers, tomatoes, physalis and eggplant.
Light soils are best for growing. It is better to prepare the soil for pepper in advance - for the year, adding 5 kg of organic fertilizers per square meter under the predecessor, and in the autumn 50 g of potash and phosphate fertilizers for deep digging.
In the spring on the site - in the top layer of soil, we bring 40 g of ammonium nitrate.
Five days before transplanting the pepper seedlings to a permanent place, take a disinfecting of the soil, it is necessary to do this with the help of a solution - add a tablespoon of copper sulfate to the bucket of water.
Put the seedlings in the wells try to the same depth at which the plants grew in the seedling box, without exposing the roots and not dribbling its root neck. Pepper does not like cold soil, and if you want to get a serious harvest, arrange him high beds, which must be raised by 25-55 centimeters.
Remember, pepper is highly susceptible to over-pollination, so if you plant several of its varieties on your plot, try to position them as far as possible from each other and, if possible, separate them with each other by planting tall tomatoes, corn and sunflower.
Growing pepper planting seeds in open ground is impractical even in the southern regions. It will be necessary to sow anyway late, when the soil warms up, the plant will develop more slowly, the first fruits will ripen later, and the period of fruiting of pepper will be significantly shorter. Pepper care consists of timely watering, garters, weed and dressings. The first feeding of pepper seedlings should be carried out in the phase of 1-2 true leaves, for which in 1 liter of water 0.5 g of ammonium nitrate, 1 g of potash fertilizers and 3 g of superphosphate are mixed. The second feeding 2 weeks after the first one, the dose of mineral fertilizers must be doubled for it.
Effective feeding of pepper seedlings with a special infusion of nettle, for the preparation of which it is necessary to take 1 part of nettle and 10 parts of water - insist 2 days.
The last feeding should be done 2 days before you intend to plant the seedlings at a permanent place, while increasing the dose of potash fertilizers to 7 g per 1 liter of water.
For the season you need to make about 3-4 dressings of pepper chicken droppings - 1:10, alternating such dressings with foliar, for which you need to use mineral fertilizers, such as nitrophoska (tablespoon in a bucket of water).
A bed of peppers When there is a shortage of potassium, the leaves of the pepper curl and a drying border appears on them. But with potassium, you must be careful - the pepper does not tolerate an abundance of potassium chloride. If the plant lacks nitrogen, its leaves become dull and, acquiring a grayish tint, gradually shrink. When phosphorus is lacking, the underside of pepper leaves becomes saturated purple, and the leaves themselves are pressed closer to the stem of the plant and rise up. If there is a lack of magnesium, the leaves become marble in color, and the excess nitrogen in the soil leads to the shedding of ovaries and pepper flowers. In hot and humid weather it is imperative to conduct a pinching (removal of lateral shoots), especially for lower stepsons, and vice versa, if there is hot, but dry weather, plants do not stepon because the leaf mass perfectly protects soil moisture from evaporation. Experienced growers are advised to remove the central flower on the plant, growing from the first branching, this will contribute to increasing the yield. During the growing season, peppers must be trimmed several times, trying to shorten the longest shoots and achieve the absence of shaded branches. Be sure to remove all processes of pepper below the main fork of its stem, as well as the branches inside the crown. Pruning should be done every ten days and after picking the fruit. Simultaneously with pruning produce and tillage.
Try to attract pollinating insects to the garden. To do this, spray plants with a sugar solution: 100 g of sugar and 2 g of boric acid per liter of hot water. Excellent result is given by feeding the pepper with liquid organic fertilizers.
It is useful to mulch with peppered straw — a layer of about 10 cm, which makes it possible to reduce the frequency of irrigation by reducing them to 9–10 days. Timely care of pepper plants is the garter plants. It is necessary to make a garter after hilling and mulching. The most common diseases of pepper: late blight, white rot, macrosporioz, vertex rot, septoriosis, black leg. More than other peppers harm slugs, whitefly, scoop, aphid, Colorado potato beetle and bear. To protect the pepper from being damaged by a medvedka, it is necessary to fill it with water an hour before its landing. After dropping out the seedlings of pepper, again spray the plantings with a spray. For a season of 3 times, pepper plants must be pollinated with wood ash - better in dew. It will also help protect them from pests.
If you notice aphids on the seedlings, process the peppers with whey - one and a half liters per bucket of water. After this procedure, powder the plants with sifted wood ash.
Before planting pepper, it is necessary to decide on the choice of variety, and it all depends not only on your taste preferences, but also on the appointment of future fruits. So, if you intend to use peppers mostly fresh, it is better to give preference to more thick-walled and large-fruited varieties, for example 'California miracle', 'Gladiator', 'Winnie the Pooh' or 'Gift of Moldova'. If the main purpose is conservation, then choose small-fruited varieties belonging to the “Siberian” series: 'Merchant', 'Ermak', 'Victoria' other.
One of the most ripening varieties of pepper, the fruits ripen early and together. After the first harvest pepper varieties'Ermak ' blooms again and gives a good second harvest. Very large fruits, the mass of which reaches 250 g. The yield of the variety is 12-15 kg / m².Medium late Dutch variety with large bright yellow fruits, tasty, with thick flesh. The wall thickness of the fruit reaches 13 mm, the weight of individual specimens reaches 380-400 g, and the yield is 10-12 kg / m². The early ripe grade differing in the stretched fructification. It constantly blooms and forms new ovaries. Fruits of the Medal variety are rather large - up to 150 g, in biological ripeness they are bright red in color, with a wall thickness of about 8-13 mm. The yield of the variety reaches 16 kg / m². One of the most ripening Russian varieties, starting with the emergence of shoots and until the technical ripeness takes about 95-100 days. Very fruitful, juicy and thick-walled. The yield is up to 14 kg per square meter, and the weight of some of its fruits exceeds 250 g. It is unpretentious and gives excellent yields even on heavy soils.
The variety is medium early, the fruit weight is up to 400 g, and the wall thickness is up to 12 mm. It belongs to the late Italian varieties, has extraordinarily beautiful black-purple fruits (in technical ripeness) turning into red (in biological ripeness). From m² to 10 kg yield.
The variety is medium-early, fruits are relatively small in mass - up to 110 g, conical, slightly ribbed, about 7–13 cm long, wall thickness 7–8 mm. Productivity of 9-10 kg / m².
Planting, growing and caring for bitter pepper in open ground
Growing hot peppers in the open field is not an easy task. Thermophilous plant requires a delicate approach and painfully reacts to any changes in climatic conditions. In addition, juicy and sweet shoots of hot peppers are a favorite delicacy for various insects.
How to grow strong and beautiful shoots, and then collect a decent harvest from them. We will understand what you need to know and how to properly care for bitter pepper.
According to the lunar calendar, sowing pepper to seedlings is recommended in the days of the growing moon. For growing seedlings of pepper, seeds are sown as early as February, because by the time they are transplanted into a greenhouse — at the beginning of May, or in open ground, seedlings must reach three months of age.
Preparing pepper seeds before sowing
Phased presowing preparation technology
- Disinfect seed in 1% iodine solution for half an hour, then rinse.
- Immerse them for 5 hours in warm water (temperature - up to 50 ° C).
For final germination, leave the seeds in a warm room for a couple of days, covered with a damp cloth.
If sowing is done on seedlings, prepare the soil by mixing the ground with sand (one to one), add the same amount of humus to get a 1: 1: 2 ratio. For every kilogram of soil, add a tablespoon of ash.
Agrotechnika sowing seeds of Bulgarian pepper to seedlings
- Fill the crates with prepared soil, moisten it.
- In the ground, make a groove depth of 1.5-2 cm.
- Plant the seeds at a distance of 4-5 cm one from another, so that later the seedlings do not swoop down.
Sowing seeds of Bulgarian pepper to seedlings
The presence of light at the moment does not matter.
But after the germination of seeds requires additional coverage from 7 am to 9 pm.
Features care for seedlings pepper
Watering is necessary for seedlings once a day, it is advisable to carry out the procedure in the morning or in the evening. Use warm water, preferably melted, infused to room temperature (up to + 30 ° C). Before watering the soil loosen to a depth of 5-6 cm.
Watering pepper seedlings
Increased soil moisture can lead to blackleg disease, but the soil should not dry out completely. In order to avoid diseases and the appearance of pests, it is necessary to constantly humidify the air by daily spraying and airing the room.
- Maintain the daytime temperature at 22-27 ° C, nighttime - 14-16 ° C.
- Dive the first sheet that appears, this will prevent tangling of the roots.
Feeding seedlings pepper
During the cultivation of seedlings twice fertilized.
- The first time is after the formation of 3-4 leaves (13-15 days after the first shoots). Use urea: 1 tbsp. 10 liters of water. To improve the effect, pre-tuck the soil with ash.
- The second time - 4-5 days before transplanting into the ground. The composition used is the same as for the first time, but superphosphate is also added to it (1 tbsp).
Nettle infusion is also an effective top dressing.
Hardening seedlings before planting
To cultivate pepper in the open ground was successful, the seedlings need to be hardened 14 days before planting.
Hardening seedlings in boxes on the veranda
- For several days, open the window for 1-2 hours, if the weather is warm.
- Having built a sun shield out of plywood sheets, it is hardened on the balcony or veranda during the week.
- If the night air temperature is not below 14 degrees. Celsius, then in the room it is no longer entered.
Planting in open ground
Pepper fruits can be2-3 weeks before planting, the seedlings are hardened: they limit watering and reduce the daytime air temperature to + 20 + 22ºС, at night to + 16 + 18ºС. It is better to plant the plants in the afternoon, after abundantly shedding every bush. Qualitative seedlings should have 6-12 true leaves, a strong stalk, forming flowering buds.The soil under the pepper must be loosened. Loosening is done at a not very great depth (up to 5 cm), since the roots are located in the upper layer. In addition, it is necessary to pile up and weed the plants.
Do not forget about timely watering, weeding, tying and feeding pepper, and growing and caring for pepper will not add you much effort, and this vitamin summer vegetable will always be on your table!
The temperature of the water must be about 25 degrees, it should be heated in the sun in sufficiently large tanks or use water from reservoirs. The use of cold water from a water supply system or a well threatens to stop the growth of culture or the appearance of diseases.
Planting of sweet pepper occurs in this way: in each row, the distance between plants should reach 25 cm, and between rows - 50 cm.Tents in the form of a tunnel are made of flexible material: willow branches, hazel, plastic tubes or wires about 5 mm thick. Arcs of this material are buried on both sides into the soil or fixed on the poles. The optimal distance between the tunnel arcs is one meter. For the stability of the structure they are interconnected.Bitter pepper is grown for the very sharp taste of the fruits that are used in the preparation of seasonings, pickles, meat dishes.
Properly care and take care. If you follow all the above recommendations, the harvest will please you not only with quality, but also with quantity.
Tip: if there are several varieties of peppers growing on the plot, they should be placed as far as possible from each other. If hot peppers grow close to sweets, cross-pollination may occur and the fruit's taste may change a lot.. Treated with growth stimulants, which are sold in stores for gardeners. Treated with antifungal agent in the future to protect against fungus.The most different forms:
It is very important that plantings at this time are not affected by low (+ 10 + 13 ° C) temperatures, as this negatively affects the growth and development of plants (when air temperature is below + 13 + 15 ° C, growth slows down, and at temperatures below + 10 ° C - stops).
Bitter pepper - heat-loving culture, different ripening terms. Basically, it requires at least 100-120 days for good fruiting, therefore cultivation in all climatic zones of Russia is possible only by seedling.
When choosing hot pepper seeds, it is necessary to consider the growing region. When buying read the annotation on the bag and take those that are suitable for your climate.
It can be early grades - Eroshka, Funtik, hybrid Petrovich and others. You can try to grow them, in the southern areas, by direct sowing in a greenhouse, followed by picking up and transplanting in open ground.
Mid-season varieties suitable for more northern areas, they are grown only by seedling. These are hybrid varieties Mastodon, Cornet, Serpent Gorynych.
Cultivation and care
After the seeds are planted in the ground, they are covered with glass or transparent film and left to peck.
The temperature throughout the germination of seeds should be about 25 degrees. Ensure that the top layer of the earth does not dry out. If necessary, sprinkle the substrate with warm water from a spray bottle.
After the appearance of several seedlings, the shelter is removed and placed in the brightest place. With the appearance of cotyledon leaves on all seedlings, the temperature is lowered to 17-19 degrees so that the plants do not stretch.
With the appearance of 2-3 true leaves, pickled pepper seedlings in separate pots. The composition of the land is left the same as when planting seeds.
It is necessary to water the plants only with warm, well-settled water, under the root, trying not to wet the leaves. Watering is carried out not often, but plentifully, trying not to overdry the ground with seedlings.
During the growth of pepper must be 2-3 times to feed. You can use the purchase of complex fertilizer. If possible, insist 3-4 tablespoons of ash in 1 liter of water for 4-6 days. Then dilute and water the plants. You can just a pinch of ash poured into the pot with a plant and pour water.
Two weeks before transplanting to a permanent place, it is necessary to harden the plants. You can start with 2-3 hours exhibiting on the veranda or balcony.
Further hardening time increases. Before planting seedlings, pepper can be left on hardening for the whole day, provided that the weather is good and warm.
Planting and maintenance in the open field
Planting pepper seedlings in open ground is possible after the threat of lowering the temperature or return frost.
It is worth considering that the sweet and bitter peppers are planted at different ends of the garden plot. They can pereopylitsya, and delicious sweet Bulgarian pepper will grow with bitterness.
Further growth of bitter pepper consists in periodic watering, dressing and weeding. Watering is necessary regularly. Once a week before fructification and two times during fruiting.
Watering pepper must be abundant, warm settled water. Preferably at the root, not touching the leaves. Top dressing can be combined with watering. They are held every 10-15 days.
A full complex fertilizer is taken, diluted in water in the required proportions. First, the plant is watered a little with water, then with fertilizer and again with water.
This will save the roots of the plant from a burn if you have not calculated the amount of fertilizer. An excellent harvest of hot peppers can be obtained subject to the full range of agrotechnical measures.
On the features of growing hot pepper in the open field, see the following video:
Sweet Pepper Care
During the growing season, the sweet pepper needs a high temperature, which is different in different periods of development. During seed germination the temperature should be 24 - 28 ° C.
Plants grow and develop correctly at 20 - 28 ° С during the day and 16 - 20 ° С at night, the upper limit is the air temperature of 25 ° С, and the lower limit is 14 ° С.
Plants are severely damaged or die when the mercury column is lowered to 0 ° C.
Sweet pepper blooms profusely at 10 - 12-hour lighting.
Fruits are also well tied when the longitude of the day is 14 - 15 hours. New varieties are not particularly sensitive to the length of daylight.
During the entire growing season, sweet peppers require intense solar radiation.
With prolonged cloudy weather or shading, the plants are strongly drawn out, weakly bloom and do not form fruits. Particularly sensitive to the lack of coverage of young plants (seedlings).This factor also affects peppers in the periods of growth, flowering and fruiting.
After 2 - 3 weeks after planting, the relative soil moisture should not be less than 60 - 70%. Most water needs pepper phase of fruiting.
During the flowering period, the air should not be excessively saturated with water vapor, since this makes pollination difficult.
Choosing a place and soil for pepper
Sweet pepper is very picky in relation to the soil.
For its cultivation suitable medium cohesive fertile, with a high content of humus with a pH of 6 - 6.5 soil. On poor light soils, good yield can be obtained only by applying large doses of organic fertilizers and abundant irrigation. Composting will also help.
Sweet peppers are not very demanding on their predecessor plants, but avoid growing them in one place, as well as after tomatoes.
In greenhouses, pepper precursors can be radishes, onions for bundle picking, or root vegetables and cabbage vegetables grown for picking in the fall. Often greenhouses are transferred from the place where cauliflower or lettuce is grown.
For the cultivation of pepper, you should choose a protected place or peel the edges of the site from the side of the often blowing winds with sunflower or corn. The bands of these plants are also well placed in the rows between every few tens of meters.
Features care of bitter pepper
Bitter pepper is grown for the very sharp taste of the fruits that are used in the preparation of seasonings, pickles, meat dishes.
This small plant can form from 8 to 15 fruits of zesty taste, colored in colors from yellow to red. Can be grown in a pot on the windowsill, in the garden, on the balcony. Requires a heated sun and a protected place. The soil for growing peppers should be loose, rich in nutrients, it needs abundant irrigation.
It should be remembered that bitter pepper pereopilya sweet pepper, with the result that the fruits of the latter also become bitter. Therefore, bitter and sweet peppers can not be grown close to each other. One plant of bitter pepper is enough to destroy the whole greenhouse of sweet pepper. Seeds from pereopylnyh plants can not be collected.
Both sweet and bitter peppers are welcome guests in your kitchen, with the right pepper care the harvest will be rich!
One of the first vitamins in spring is radish, properly sow radish.
How to choose the soil and capacity
While the seeds germinate, choose a seed container and substrate. With a 5x4 or 6x3 sowing scheme, 500 seedlings are obtained from one square meter of usable area. If you need a little vegetables, you can sprout seedlings at home - in small cups.
The nutritional composition of the mixture includes the following components:
- leaf or turf ground (2 parts),
- high-moor peat (2 parts) or humus (1 part),
- sand (1 part).
The collection is stirred and disinfected by freezing, steaming or calcining.
We moisten the prepared soil mixture in the seedling container, impose a grid with the prepared sowing scheme on top. If you do not have a lattice, then with the help of ordinary sticks we loosen the ground on the squares (according to the scheme). Place 1-2 grains in the center of each square.
Cover with glass or film and transfer to a warm place. Seedlings grow in containers 30-32 days. With the advent of 1-2 leaves of seedlings transplanted into a new container. Immerse the seedlings in the wet soil mixture to the cotyledons. Next, transfer the container in light penumbra. Seedlings in individual containers are not sparking.
Seedling care rules
Care for seedlings of bitter pepper is to maintain optimal humidity, temperature and provide useful substances. Irrigation of seedlings is carried out after 2-3 days. The soil should always be kept wet. After the appearance of 3-4 leaves, we change the irrigation mode - now it is 1 time per day.Water for irrigation must be heated to 20-25 ° C.
A fortnight before planting, the seedlings must be hardened:
- watering is gradually limited,
- temperature decreases
- increases stay in natural conditions.
Planting hot pepper in open ground
2 months after growing the seedlings, the peppers can be transplanted into the open ground. When it comes to planting hot pepper seedlings, the soil will be warmed to 16 ° C: this temperature helps to avoid the threat of possible spring frosts. This period falls on the third decade of May - the first half of June. Before planting, seedlings are irrigated abundantly.
Features of growing plants
In addition to the above, the components of successful plant growth are systematic loosening of the soil near the rhizome and getting rid of weeds. Also remember that in the vicinity of bitter pepper it is undesirable to grow sweet peppers. This neighborhood often leads to cross-pollination and the transformation of tastes in both species.
The best culinary characteristics are the following types of spicy vegetables:
- early maturing: “Jubilee”, “Gorgon”, “Adjika”, “Fire Maiden”, “Double Abundance”, “Spark”,
- mid-season: "Bully", "Red Fat Man", "Elephant Trunk",
- late maturing: “Hercules”, “Little Prince”, “Habanero”, “Vizier”.
Site selection and soil preparation for growing peppers
Choose a plot where you plan to grow peppers. It should be protected from strong drafts and well lit. The bed must be pre-treated:
- In the autumn, the soil is carefully dug up and loosened, after which complex potassium and phosphate fertilizers are applied (50 gr. Per 1 sq. M)
- In the spring, 40 g of ammonium nitrate per square meter is applied to the site in the top layer of soil.
- Five days before planting, the soil is disinfected with a solution of copper sulfate (1 tbsp per bucket of water).
If you use different varieties, it is better to carry out the cultivation of peppers in the open field at a remote distance from each other, since the culture tends to pereopylny. You can distinguish between planting varieties of tall plants - corn, tomatoes or sunflower.
The procedure for planting pepper seedlings in open ground
Pepper does not tolerate cold soil, so the height of the beds is better to raise by 20-50 cm.
Planting pepper in open ground
- Pepper seedlings are watered in order to be taken out of the tanks with their roots, planted in the morning or in the evening, when the sun is not too active.
- Plant vertically according to the 40x40 cm scheme.
- Peppers are sprinkled with earth, the area around it is slightly compacted and well watered with warm water.
- The leaves of young plants break easily, so put a peg on each one and tie it up.
- To provide access to oxygen, loosen the ground around the plant.
- Cover the ridge with a film, pulling it onto pre-installed arcuate rods. After rooting, remove the film.
Construct for peppers protection from the cold with available materials at hand, erecting a tent of roofing material, boards or cardboard. From above it can be covered with burlap or agrofibre.
Pinching pepper in open field
For proper shaping of the bush and good development of the fruit every ten days spend pasynkovanie. When the plant reaches a height of 25 cm, cut off its top. As a result, the stem will give a lot of shoots, they must be partially removed, leaving 5-6 upper. They will serve to form the crop. Masking is carried out in hot, but not dry weather.
How to pinch pepper
To attract insects to your site that will pollinate pepper during flowering, spray it with a special sugar syrup. It is prepared like this: in a liter of hot water dissolve half a cup of sugar and 2 grams. boric acid.
Watering pepper in open ground
Growing bell peppers in the open field does not require abundant watering. The first time it is watered during planting, the second - after 5 days, then once a week.For watering one plant, 1-1.5 liters is enough. But as you grow, the rate can be doubled.
When the pepper begins to bloom, water it only with warm water (20-22 degrees Celsius). Watering is stopped 2 weeks before the full harvest of vegetables. After each watering or rain the soil must be loosened.
To reduce the number of waterings and it is better to retain moisture at the roots of plants, grind pepper 10 centimeters with a layer of re-burnt straw.
Top dressing of pepper in an open ground
Care for the pepper after planting in the ground necessarily includes three dressings per season.
Feeding pepper in high beds
- The first is carried out after two weeks. Nitrogen fertilizers are necessary for good growth. To do this, a tablespoon of superphosphate and urea dissolve in a bucket of water. You can mix the urea (1 teaspoon) in the same volume of water. Pour this mixture of 1 liter for each plant.
- The following feeding is done during flowering. Since potassium is needed for making fruit, use wood ash. Feed urea once again, as with the first feeding.
- The last time the pepper is fed with the appearance of the first fruits. To do this, dilute the potassium salt and superphosphate (2 teaspoons) in 10 liters of water.
Observe the growth of pepper, perhaps, he needs additional feeding. It can be foliar, because the plant can receive the necessary substances not only through the roots, but also through the leaves.
Problems in the cultivation of pepper and their solution
- If the leaves turn yellow, they lack nitrogen. To ensure this substance is sprayed with a solution of urea in water in the ratio: 1 tablespoon per bucket of water.
- If the pepper loses the ovary, then prepare a solution of boric acid: a teaspoon in a bucket of water.
Extra root dressing is made exclusively in the morning or evening, otherwise the leaves can burn in the scorching sun. In this case, the weather should be windless.
A good effect on the development of peppers has a top dressing with yeast.
Pepper Feeding Recipe
For the preparation will need 100 grams of fresh yeast. They are soaked in 0.5 liters of water per day. Before use, add 5 liters of water to the solution.
Fertilizer recipe for dry yeast peppers
One packet of dry yeast dissolve in a bucket of water, add 2 tablespoons of sugar, leave for 2 hours to activate the fermentation process. Infusion dilute with water at the rate of: 0.5 liters per 10 liters of water.
Such top dressing bring only in rather warmed up soil. It can be used no more than two times per season. After feeding with yeast, make sure to add wood ash.
Pepper protection from diseases and pests in the open field
- To protect the pepper from the main pests of the pepper, season it three times with wood ash. This should be done in the early morning when there is still dew on the plant.
To prevent damage by a bear, 1 hour before planting the pepper, fill the wells with onion water (0.5 kg of onion peel insist on 10 liters of water for three days).
Dates of harvesting pepper in open ground
- Fruits are harvested when they have acquired size and color corresponding to ripening. Since these vegetables are fragile, it is better to cut them with a stem.
- The first harvest appears by mid-August, then it is harvested every week until frost.
To harvest seeds for the next year, select a few large fruits. Do not remove them before the end of the summer, letting them fully mature. Cut and wrap in paper until completely dry. Cut and collect seeds. Their varietal characteristics may persist for three years, unless cross-pollination occurs.
Pepper sweet: growing and care in the greenhouse
Since pepper is a very thermophilic culture, its cultivation in open ground most often starts from seedlings. When sowing seeds in pepper ground, they are carefully treated and harden well. That is why, many gardeners prefer growing Bulgarian pepper in a greenhouse, where the plant can create ideal growth conditions.
Growing bell peppers in the greenhouse
For planting seedlings or sowing seeds using glass, film greenhouses or greenhouses. It is also widely practiced growing peppers in a polycarbonate greenhouse.
Planting technology of bell pepper in the greenhouse
Planted pepper in the greenhouse in early April. You can sow seeds, but for better yields using 2-month-old seedlings with a height of 20-25 cm, which already have from 6 to 10 leaves.
Planting bell peppers in the greenhouse
- In a greenhouse, ridges are prepared at a distance of half a meter from one another.
- They make pits corresponding to the size of the capacity in which the seedlings grew.
- In the pits poured a solution of manure or chicken droppings. For its preparation, a liter of manure or a glass of litter is dissolved in a bucket of warm water (about +50 C).
- 1 liter is poured into each well.
- Pepper seedlings watered to remove it from the root of the container.
- After pepper is planted in the prepared wells and tied to pegs.
Peppers in the greenhouse cultivation and care
The main care for pepper in the greenhouse is to maintain the optimum temperature, water, feed regularly, weed and loosen.
Drip automated watering of pepper in the greenhouse
- The greenhouse must be ventilated and shaded in the heat.
- Pepper is poured every 2-3 days, 1-2 liters of water are poured under the root of each plant.
- Growing peppers in a greenhouse involves maintaining the optimum temperature. During the day it should be at a level of 20-27 ° C, at night - 15 ° C. After the onset of fruiting, it can be reduced by a couple of degrees.
- Shrubs pile when the soil is still wet. After the earth dries up, it is necessary to gnaw between the rows.
Caring for peppers in a polycarbonate greenhouse does not differ from the rules of care in an ordinary greenhouse.
How to feed the peppers in the greenhouse
Growing peppers in a greenhouse is impossible without enough nutrients. For dressing use urea in a similar proportion. But it is better to use a solution of bird droppings in water in the ratio of 1 to 15. They pour 1 liter of each sprout on them. Before feeding, pepper care includes wood ash.
Fertilized beds of pepper in the greenhouse
- The first feeding is carried out two weeks after planting in the greenhouse.
- The second - with the ovary of the fruit.
- The third - before the harvest.
The composition of fertilizers may be the same for each of the procedures, if the plant does not show signs of a lack of any trace elements.
Bulgarian pepper, the cultivation and care of which we have considered, will delight you with an excellent harvest while adhering to agrotechnical rules. Follow the recommendations, make timely watering and fertilizer and you will not have any problems with this crop.
Bell pepper care
The shoots of the peppers are very fragile, easily broken, so they must be tied to the pegs. And in a circle of beds it is better to plant high crops that will create protection for your landing from the winds.
- Delicious, sweet, fragrant pepper, which is suitable for many salads, preservation, stuffing, etc., can be grown just at your summer cottage in the open field. Gardeners have long proven that rather heat-loving crops, such as peppers, can grow in more severe conditions if you follow certain rules and take appropriate care of them. In our article we will discuss how to carry out the cultivation of pepper in the open field.
- In addition to watering, care for the pepper is in the periodic loosening and weeding. During the vegetation period, 3-4 loosening can be performed, and with the second loosening, plants can be minded.These procedures are able to destroy weeds and allow air to the roots.
- Planting bitter pepper can occur more often. But it is worth remembering that planting bitter and sweet peppers is strictly forbidden next to them, because cross-pollination can occur, because of which they lose their qualities: bitter becomes sweet, and sweet begins to taste a little bitter. When using potted seedlings need to ensure that the stem was planted in the ground at the same level that he had in the pot. Seedlings should be planted 3 cm below ground level, when planting from a greenhouse, the plant should be up to the cotyledons. At the time of planting it is necessary to ensure that the leaves are not sprinkled with earth.
You can attach the arc to the pegs, previously driven into the ground to a depth of 30 cm. The most durable and stable - wire cages. Then the structure closes in bad weather conditions with a film pressed to the ground with stones, bricks or other heavy objects. This creates a greenhouse effect.
- This small plant can form from 8 to 15 fruits of zesty taste, colored in colors from yellow to red. Can be grown in a pot on the windowsill, in the garden, on the balcony. Requires a heated sun and a protected place. The soil for growing peppers should be loose, rich in nutrients, it needs abundant irrigation.
- During the growing season, the sweet pepper needs a high temperature, which is different in different periods of development. During seed germination the temperature should be 24 - 28 ° C.
- Care consists of dressing, watering, garters and weeding.
- The treated seeds are sown in separate containers, to a depth of 10 mm. The substrate for growing should be loose and light and consist of humus (2 parts), sand (1 part), earth (1 part). In 1 kg of this mixture add 1 tbsp. l ash.
Spherical, curved, prism-shaped, conical, cuboid, elongated. The length of the fruit can also vary (from 1 to 30 cm). The weight of the fruit is also different (from 0.5 to 200 grams.). The color varies depending on the degree of maturity of the fruit: brown, red, purple and light green shades.Plant care is watering, feeding and shaping bushes. After planting seedlings watering should be frequent, but not very abundant. As the fruit ripens, the need for water increases. Irregular irrigation during the fruiting period leads to the appearance of cracks in the fruit. Watering plants is better in the morning at the root, rather than sprinkling. After watering, the soil is loosened, but carefully, since the root system of the pepper is shallow.As soon as you plant the seedlings of pepper in open ground, you need to take care to protect plants from frost. As a great protection against cold, it is recommended to use tents, which are made of wooden blocks, cardboard, burlap and other materials. These tents need to cover the pepper in the evening and open in the morning. If the cooling drags on, it is better to use a portable temporary film cover.
Before you start growing peppers, you must prepare the open ground. In regions where the climate is mild, sweet pepper grows well in the open field in areas protected from the effects of wind, subject to exposure to a sufficient amount of sunlight. These requirements correspond to the site, which is located next to the southern wall of the house. If wind protection is not provided, you can build a rocker protection, consisting of plants or create a windproof fence in the form of a fence.
Pepper is well tolerated feeding, which can be both foliar and root. The first feeding should be carried out 2 weeks after the plants were planted. For this you need to dissolve 2 tbsp. spoon fertilizer "Agricola", which is a must for pepper. In addition, approximately 1 liter of water should be poured onto the plants.The second dressing should definitely be carried out at the flowering of peppers. To do this, the following ingredients should be diluted in a bucket of water: “Kornerost” and “Agricola Forward” - 2 tbsp. spoons, superphosphate - 1 tbsp. spoon, potassium sulfate - 1 tbsp. spoon. The third dressing should be carried out at the occurrence of fruit with the use of fertilizer "Effekton-O": 2 tbsp. spoons per 10 liters of water. In addition, for this purpose you can use nitrophoska at the rate of 1 tbsp. spoon for 10 liters of water.Planting of pepper should occur in the evening, while mulching and watering the wells should be done in the same way as for tomatoes. When planting seedlings from the greenhouse, additional watering should be carried out while the plant is rooting.Growing peppers in the greenhouse is most appropriate. Here it is protected from temperature changes. Pepper care is the same as when landing in the ground: loosening the soil, fertilizing, tying, pasynkovanie, timely watering.
Growing peppers in open field
It should be noted that from 1 to 30 grams of superphosphate is introduced per 1 m2, from 50 to 80 grams of wood ash and from 5 to 10 kg of humus or manure. At the same time, I would like to focus your attention on the fact that you should not plant peppers on the ground, where fresh manure has just been added. An excess of soluble nitrogen adversely affects the preservation of the ovaries, as well as the ripening of the fruit.
The plant can be fed and folk methods. In this case, approximately 5 kg of sprocket, nettle, dandelion, and plantain leaves should be placed in a 100-liter barrel. In this composition, you can add half a cup of ash and a bucket of mullein. In the barrel should pour water to the brim. Further, the components should be mixed and allowed to stand for a week. Before the process of watering the solution should be mixed and filtered. Consumption rate - l per pepper bush.
Watering should occur as follows:
To get rid of spider mites, they make this composition: one glass of onion or garlic, one glass of dandelion leaves is ground in any way, sent to a bucket of water, a tablespoon of household soap is added in liquid form. Strain and spray. This solution is good because it can be sprayed at any stage of cultivation.