Beekeeping is an interesting and useful occupation, which is necessary for obtaining honey, wax and a number of other products. The guarantee of success and high results - a clean, well-ventilated hive, suitable terrain and hard work of a beekeeper. What are home for bees - hives? How are they arranged? We find out all the nuances.
Referring to the history of beekeeping, you can learn about different types of hives. The first artificial house for bees can be called a deck. The deck belongs to the non-separable hives. Collapsible hives appeared later. This is a more practical option, as they are made of wood, plywood, textiles and various types of plastic. Earlier, honeycombs were attached to rulers, then frames were used instead of rulers.
The location of the framework hives are divided into several types.
- Vertical hives (risers). The frames are mounted vertically, their number is increased by adding upper tiers,
- Horizontal (sun beds). The frames overlap each other in the same housing, which makes the hive bulky and immobile,
- Combined. They have several sections separated by a partition. This allows you to change the volume in all directions.
The most common common types of hives
Roomy, compact, has a simple design, made mainly from spruce boards.
The shape of the tree resembles a hollow tree, consists of a set of buildings and tiers. Inside there are no partitions and vents. Air circulation occurs naturally through the taphole (hole) located at the bottom of the case.
Typical hive device
Under natural conditions, bees live in hollows or in crevices of walls. At apiaries, it is important to achieve a natural design. A simple hive consists of a shell, a lid, a bottom, store extensions and frames. Each of the internal parts has its own specifics and device.
- The case is a basic detail. It is a rectangular box with side walls to which the frame holders are attached. In the case of a bee build their homes (honeycombs),
- To bees fall into the hive, there is a special hole (notch). Its shape is round or slit,
- The top of the hull is protected by a flat roof,
- Under the roof there is a liner to insulate the hive. The roof protects insects from rain, wind, insect parasites and small animals,
- The bottom is attached to the body of the hive. It can be removable for convenient cleaning in the hive or non-removable, so as not to disturb the bee family once again,
- Shop extension is provided for mounting the half-frame. Used to collect honey, smaller than the body of the hive.
Video disassembly and internal structure of the hive:
Under natural conditions, bees live in tree hollows or build houses under the roofs of residential buildings. But to ensure comfortable conditions in the apiary, the beekeeper needs to take care of the proper arrangement of the hive.
There are several types of such houses. They can be collapsible and stationary, vertical and horizontal, and also resemble a hollow tree (alpine hive). It is best to make houses out of wood, since this material is as close as possible to the natural living conditions of insects in nature. However, construction is also allowed from other materials: plywood, plastic and foam.
Regardless of the type, all bee houses consist of several required parts. Each of them performs certain functions.
The main components of the house such (picture 1):
- The ceiling, rear, front and side walls of wood or other material,
- The bottom of the boards or grid,
- Cover and liner with insulation and ventilation holes,
- A letka or several letkov, an entrance board and a nest frame,
- Waste trays.
Despite the large number of elements, the device bee dwelling is extremely simple and functional. All components are involved in the life and work of the family.
There are certain rules for placing components inside and outside the house (Figure 2). A hull or several hulls are complete structures without a lid, which can be joined and separated as the bee colony grows or shrinks.
On the inside of the walls install fasteners (strips or folds), which later will be fixed frame. It is they who in the future will fill all the inner space.
Note: This design is extremely simple. These are four strips of the necessary size, brought down in a square. Inside them, insects build honeycombs and fill them with honey.
In the center they place special breeding models, which contain brood, and all the top and side ones are designed to store honey. In the lower part have a deaf wooden or mesh bottom, and the top structure is covered with a warmed roof with ventilation holes.
Figure 2. Drawings of the main components of the beehive
In the summer, when there is an active collection of nectar and honey production, shops are delivered to the hive - the hulls of similar design, but smaller in size. They also set the frames that the bees fill with honey. In order for insects to get inside, they will equip special taps - rectangular or round holes in the wall of the body. Under the entrance is set the arrival boards. Letkov should be several, as they perform not only the role of the inlet, but also provide normal ventilation.
The location of the framework in the hive
Since the inner part of the hive remains hollow, this space is filled with frames, where insects begin to build honeycombs (Figure 3). The size of each of them is determined by the type of hive. For example, the Dadan hive device involves the use of standard models that can be made by yourself or bought in a store. For the hive-boa make special small items.
The number and location of the frames depends on the size of the house itself and the bee family. The more insects contained in one hive, the larger the number of frames should be, so that individuals can accumulate more honey.
Hives for bees: the choice of material
Under natural conditions, bees usually choose wood hollow for their nests, although in ancient times other natural materials were used for beehives: clay, straw, twigs, and stone. However, in our latitudes, they do not provide adequate protection for the bee colony from the vicissitudes of the weather. And because the traditional source product for the construction of hives has always been considered a tree.
The humidity in the hive plays a huge role in maintaining the health of the bee colony. Compliance with this indicator becomes especially important in the winter period, when the tap-holes are reduced to preserve heat, and the ventilation holes can be completely closed when wintering in the open air. Thus, the removal of moisture can be ensured with high hygroscopicity of the hive material.
The moisture absorption of tree species depends entirely on their density. Density indicators for the softest tree species are (kg / m²):
- Pine ordinary - 510,
- Aspen, linden - 500,
- Poplar - 460,
- Spruce - 450,
- Willow - 430,
- Fir - 380-430.
Fir and spruce have the lowest density. However, the fir has a rather limited range of growth. And the presence of high resin content reduces the hygroscopicity of spruce wood. Pine has an even higher resin content, so softwoods today are the most optimal choice of natural materials.
Since the end of the last century, synthetic raw materials have been used for the production of hives, the most popular of which are:
- Polyurethane foam. Gas-filled plastic, which is based on polyurethane and almost 90% of the gas phase in an inert state. The most popular material providing a lot of advantages in work: ease of construction, a high degree of sound and heat insulation, interchangeability of parts, durability in use, inertness to chemical attack, resistance to damage by rodents, insects and bees themselves. Of course, there are also disadvantages: a relatively high price and low hygroscopicity. Also, the material does not tolerate high temperatures (begins to melt). However, in Western countries in recent decades, it is preferred polyurethane foam. Here beekeepers protect beehives from the sun with thin aluminum foil,
- Styrofoam. It has almost all qualities of polyurethane foam, with the exception of durability and resistance to damage. Such a construction, because of its granular structure, is easily eaten by mice, pecked by birds, and also quickly damaged by insects: moths, ants, and even bees themselves. Despite the cheapness and availability of this material, it is gradually being replaced by more advanced polyurethane foam.
Important! When choosing the most suitable material, you should take into account the climatic features of your region (in terms of what is more in demand: heat or ventilation), and also take into account the experience of neighboring apiaries. At the beekeepers' forums, the combined opinion is to use different materials when creating a hive, depending on the requirements imposed on them: for sliding - oak, for heat - linden or pine, for strength - aspen or birch, for ease - bamboo. Possible and combined designs. For example, plywood cases with foam polystyrene insulation.
When selecting adhesives and coloring agents, it is recommended to choose the least toxic and most waterproof. This will increase the durability of the structure and will not affect the quality of honey and the health of bees.
For more than two centuries, beekeepers use a framework for extracting honey from a bee dwelling. It was this invention that made a huge leap in the improvement of artificial bee houses and today remains the most convenient form when servicing hives. During the last 1.5 hundred years, the changes concerned only the size and number of buildings.
The classification of beehives for bees involves the separation of the following features:
- By design: non-collapsible and collapsible. The second type is gaining more and more popularity, because it is more convenient to use: you can replace parts rather than the entire hive, expand or shrink the nest, when transporting empty structures they take up minimal space,
- Towards: vertical and horizontal. Horizontal designs are more cumbersome, but easy to maintain. With a vertical build-up, buildings or shops are placed one on top of another, which allows for increasing the living space for the family, and occupies minimum space on the site,
- According to the functional purpose: In addition to the usual maintenance of the family, the bee house can be used for wintering of queen bees or scientific research on the behavior of bees.
Depending on the design, purpose and direction of expansion of the nest, there are several types of modern hives.
This design - the most common in the middle lane, because it has a simple design and spaciousness. Most often the body is made of spruce boards. The main components of the design:
- The case on 12 frames (435 by 300 mm in size),
- Several shops (half frame size),
- Roof and liner.
The bottom of such a beehive is non-removable, but the presence of several shops allows beekeeping with the least anxiety for bees.
A special feature when servicing hives of this type is that, with an increase in bribe, the bees may not have enough space for storing honey, so the beekeeper should closely monitor the combs and at the right time put the store.
If the uterus is young and active, too many young individuals may appear in such a hive when the store installation is delayed, as a result of which the family comes to a swarm. In this case, it is better to put the store in advance - an excess of space, especially in the summer, can not cause such harm to the family as too close a hive.
Important! Working with store extensions is very convenient in an amateur apiary and is completely ineffective for an industrial scale. Therefore, for all its popularity, such a hive is gradually being supplanted by more productive multibody designs.
The main feature of this type of hives is to increase the size due to the same-sized buildings in the vertical direction. The frame sizes are 226 by 232 mm, although they may increase or decrease with changes in the case.
The basic principle of working with the hive rue is the interchangeability of the shells, as a result of which the bees are constantly stimulated for honey collection. This is due to the physiological need of insects to fill empty cells from top to bottom. When the beekeeper places a frame with unfilled honeycombs between a full body and a nest, the bees immediately discover it and begin to work hard.
The effectiveness of this design is recognized worldwide, however, the most suitable for beekeepers with experience, because it requires constant monitoring and rearrangement of buildings.
Important! The hive rue has a number of advantages:
- Increasing the number of marketable honey, strengthening families (they always have room for development),
- Reducing the time for inspections (only work with shells is required)
- The same size of all frames (work with them is simplified).
Particular attention to beginner beekeepers when using hives of this type should be given to the temperature regime during the inspection. If the weather is cool, then they must pass quickly, so as not to chill the brood. That is why such designs are more suitable for regions with a warm climate.
The name of this structure corresponds to its main principle - the creation of conditions as close as possible to natural ones:
- Small square cases (inner side length 30 cm) with a height of 21.5 cm (in brood - 10.5 cm), each for 8 frames, line up one above the other,
- The taphole is only in the lower hull, so the hive does not need additional heating,
- There are no air vents and a separation grille, and the excess moisture condenses on the top-mounted feeder,
- It also performs the role of an air cushion, which, together with the insulator cover, provides a high degree of protection from temperature fluctuations,
- The height of the hive with a good bribe can reach 1.5 m,
- The frame for an alpine hive consists of an upper bar and a wire attached to it in the form of a quadrangle - there are no side and lower bars.
Being engaged in the development of designs, the Frenchman Roger Delon proceeded primarily from the principle of creating maximum comfort for the bee family. And he succeeded to the full. In the Alpine hives, bees show no less efficiency (and much worse in bad years) than in the same Dadanov hives. In addition, compact size and ease of maintenance allow one beekeeper to contain a large number of such structures on the minimum area of the site.
Sooner or later, many beekeepers have a question of increasing the efficiency of the apiary. And, as you know, a good bribe can only be in the presence of honey. And here with the development of technology there was a question of exporting the apiary to the places of the greatest honey collection.
From loading and unloading hives into a vehicle, beekeepers quickly moved to the construction of a stationary platform on wheels, on which many hives were placed. Thus, another type of bee houses appeared - cluster hives.
This design can be used not only for mobile, but also stationary apiaries, allowing you to save space and effectively deal with varroa. After all, the inspection of each bee colony does not present any difficulties - it is only necessary to put forward a certain cassette and conduct an audit.
In addition, the cassette content has a number of advantages:
- There is no need for a special organization of the zimovnik. And the compact arrangement creates optimally comfortable conditions in case of the need for additional warming,
- Special waxing and the absence of coloring are extremely favorable factors for family health and high-quality honey,
- With the mobile version of the design, one family has the ability to procure the most different varieties of honey, which is a positive factor in creating winter stocks, and also affects the quality of honey,
- Due to sanitary and ventilation holes in the bottom and walls, there is a constant gas and air exchange, which helps the family to maintain the necessary temperature and humidity conditions,
- The compact arrangement in the cassette pavilion allows you to perform all the necessary work in comfortable conditions and in all weather conditions.
Important! With all its advantages, cassette houses have their own drawbacks: the need for regular revisions of the condition of external walls, an increased threat of rodent penetration, and enhanced control of humidity levels. However, in the presence of at least some experience and compliance with the rules of beekeeping, cassette maintenance can justify itself many times. Therefore, many beekeepers are enthusiastically developing a new design.
The name itself already explains the device of the bee's dwelling - the expansion of the nest occurs not in height, but in width. Accordingly, the hive itself consists of one body, but wide. These houses make 16, 18, 20, as well as 24 or 27 frames. However, the most common designs with 20 or 24 frames.
The main advantages of the hive lounger are:
- Easy to maintain. To form a nest or lay, pick up honey or install additional frames, the beekeeper does not need to rearrange heavy shells,
- Space for development. Bees in such a house always have the opportunity to start building new combs for their purposes, the beekeeper should only set the framework
- Convenience when the need to split the nest. It is enough to put a transverse diaphragm - and if there is a threat of swarming, you will get two nests. You can also make layouts or place two weak families for the winter,
- The ease of cleaning. To carry out the cleaning, the empty part of the hive is removed first, then the frames with the bees are swapped there and the rubbish is removed from the frame area. In some hives, cleaning is done through a hole in the lower part of the front wall. However, this method is suitable if there is enough space under the frames.
Important! The main drawback of the design is its cumbersomeness and, consequently, the need for a large plot size even for a small apiary. In addition, not the best conditions for air exchange and horizontal expansion of the nests can create certain difficulties. Despite this, it is the hive-lounger - the best choice for beginner beekeepers.
How to choose a hive | Video| Video
When choosing the right construction for you, try to consider the following points:
- Lightweight beehives are suitable for wandering, and for honey harvest in one place - voluminous,
- In warm climates, single-wall constructions are used more, and in more northern latitudes, warmed variants are used,
- Choose prefabricated structures where you can easily replace damaged parts, but prefer natural materials.
The main condition - try to create the most comfortable conditions for the bee family. Then the little workers will thank you a hundredfold.
Materials used in the manufacture of beehives
The process of self-production of beehives for bees, though, is a difficult but fascinating task. At work, you can use the materials at hand, which allows you to save on the cost of the finished house. A beekeeper can slightly correct the design of the hive for your site:
- Tree. The device of beehives for bees made of wood brings them closer to the natural living conditions. The best species are linden, cedar, aspen. Hives have a pleasant smell, are dry and breathe well. The disadvantage is the high cost of these materials and the need for additional insulation of hives. Pine and spruce are considered to be the more common and familiar tree species for making bee houses. Beehives from this material are not convenient for insects. Moisture is collected inside, tar evaporates. But the bees are warm in them.
- Plywood. Sometimes it is necessary to transport the bees. The weight and practicality of the hives is crucial. In these conditions it is advisable to use plywood for their construction. Plywood is an environmentally friendly and natural material, not inferior in its characteristics to wood. Bees will feel great in comfortable, durable and practical plywood designs. The advantages of hives made of plywood include their low cost, ease of installation, the ability to manufacture products for individual needs.
- Polyfoam and polyurethane. Although rare, materials such as foam and polyurethane are used in the manufacture of hives. The design of the foam is the most economical option. For these purposes, great packaging household appliances. The advantage of such hives is their lightness and good thermal insulation. The disadvantage is the fragility of the material and the need to treat it with a protective coating against spilling, such as paint. Polyurethane has excellent thermal insulation properties. In the hives of this material does not develop bacteria and fungi. Polyurethane does not pass moisture and air. Therefore, inside the structure is dry, but additional ventilation is required. The disadvantages include the flammability of polyurethane.
The design and types of hives
Starting to study the question of how to make a hive for bees with your own hands should be familiar with their design. Bees for quality work on the extraction of honey need to provide practical and functional housing.
All types of hives are distinguished by:
- the material of which they are made
- their designs
- the volume of space inside the hive
By hive design are collapsible and non-collapsible.
Disposable hives almost ceased to use because of the difficulty in their maintenance. Collapsible designs in which the number of frames is easy to adjust are most popular in beekeepers. Frame types of hives has its own subspecies: vertical and horizontal structures. To horizontal - include hives, sun beds. They are 16.20 and 24 frameworks. They have one body, in which the number of frames is increased by adding them to the sides.
These hives are practical and easy to clean, but they have one serious disadvantage - cumbersome and heavy.
Vertical beehives are several interconnected hulls. They are easy. In these types of hives, there are several sections that can change their volume using partitions:
- Dadanovsky hive. It is found in all beekeepers. The main material for manufacturing are such tree species as pine, linden, and aspen. It is made multi-body or single-body. The advantage is ease of care and capacity. Designed for 12 frames, but can be supplemented with shells. In the winter season, bees live in the nesting compartment. In the spring, as the family grows, new items are gradually added: a half-frame store or another building.
- Alpine Hive. This is a multicase bee hive created by French beekeeper Roger Delon. Strongly resembles the natural living conditions of bees. Namely, in the organization of housing. Differs in compactness and is convenient for use in the narrow, limited places. The basis of this hive is a hollow model - a natural place of life for wild bees. It lacks sections, partitions and ventilation. The natural circulation of air occurs through a taphole located in the lower part of the body.
- Hive Ruta. The design includes up to 6 buildings consisting of 10 frames. They are added to the extent of the expansion of the bee family. Hives are suitable for industrial breeding of bees, as well as in private households. Thanks to the arrangement of this type of hive (the possibility of rearranging the hull in some places), insect swarming is prevented. The disadvantage is that these hives are not suitable for all climatic conditions. After all, the hull is constantly rearranged, and there is a threat of hypothermia bee housing. Making your own hive with a dry material is easy.
- Cassette beehive. A cassette hive is considered an improved design in which bees are less susceptible to disease. This is a more compact and lightweight version of the standard beehive, resembling a chest of drawers in appearance. Each sliding part is a separate independent housing for bees. The partitions between them are made of a thin, wax-impregnated material. In such pavilions bees contain year-round, which significantly reduces the cost of their winter maintenance, seasonal transportation and increases honey collection.
- Ukrainian lounger. This horizontal design is most suitable for beginner beekeepers. Beehives are easy to maintain and easy to build. Can hold from 16 to 24 frames. The sides are warmed, which allows the bees to winter in normal conditions.
We are building a classic hive: step by step instructions
From the variety of existing hive designs, we will dwell in more detail on how to make a multi-body hive with your own hands on 10 frames, the components of which are:
- stand under the hive
- one or more enclosures
- separation grid
- one or more stores
Also elements of the hives act trough and frame. Hives are mainly made from natural materials. The body and bottom are made of boards (40 mm) with special grooves for parts. The boards are well dried.
The hive is collected step by step. The first step is to build the case. For this:
- make boards of 18x4 cm
- connect them into shields using PVA glue to lubricate the grooves and squeezing tightly among themselves - these are the future walls of the case
- These walls make five pieces, one of them is the bottom of the structure
- using grooves connect the walls
- collect the lower case
- paint the walls and let them dry
- drilled from the bottom and top of the hole for letkov
The ceiling and the roof are made of boards, the thickness of which is 1.5 cm. They are also assembled as the walls of the case. The roof is hammered with tin to prevent the boards from rotting from rainwater and painting. Ventilation openings with a diameter of 1.4 cm are drilled.
- rear and front shields are 530 mm long and 320 mm wide
- side shield: length - 480 mm, width - 320 mm
- the frames inside the case are placed on specially made folds, their size is 1.1 x 2 cm. if the multi-case beehive folds are made in the size of 1x1.4 cm
Other dimensions of elements used in the construction of the hive:
- frame in the case of 43.5 x 30 cm
- frame in the store 43,5х14,5 cm
- frame made from slats 3.7 cm
- space under the frame - 2.5 cm
- 16, 20 and 24-frame plank beds
A classic hive-lounger is made in the form of an elongated box, in which the top cover is folded back and in a tight bottom, with two compartments. For the work should prepare the tools, necessary materials and detailed drawings of the product.
Dimensions of the lounger
Consider the construction stages of a classic 24-frame sunbed. In the work should use natural wood, preferably soft breeds, such as linden or pine. The hive will be light and warm inside. We also need:
- plywood for interior decorating
- hand saw and other woodworking tools
- roulette, square
- fasteners, screws
- roofing material: tin, slate
General dimensions of a 24-frame bed:
- length of the body (bottom) - 87.0 cm, width - 56.5 cm, height - 63.5 cm
- top cover length - 93.5 cm, its internal width - 81.0 cm
- tight bottom made of 35 mm boards
- frames 30 x 43.5 cm
It is necessary to provide tapways:
- bottom - 1.2 x 14 cm
- round top measuring 2.5 cm in diameter
- According to the drawings we cut out the details. In work we use a tape measure and a sharp hacksaw. We cut out the parts neatly and precisely, so that in the future they are firmly connected to each other,
first collect the bottom of the structure, in the form of flooring on two slats. Boards are assembled by grooves and knocked down with nails.
- Next, collect the side walls and attach them to the bottom with a protrusion of 2 cm.
- Go to work with the front and rear walls. Before they are fixed to a permanent place, in the upper part it is necessary to arrange a rebate for the installation of frames, 1.8 x 1.1 cm in size. And in the lower part we cut through the notches. Nails fix walls to the rest of the structure.
- From the outer side of the front wall we attach the arrival plate.
- We build the roof. Attach it to the hive hinges and sheathe tin or cover with slate.
- In the back of the cover we drill out air vents of 20 x 0.3 cm in size and round, with a diameter of 2.5 cm at the front. From the inside, these holes are covered with a fine mesh.
- The legs of small bars and handles for carrying the hive to the side walls are attached to the bottom,
the final stage is the painting of the product.
The design of the lounger on the 20 frames is characterized by the presence of the store extension. In the case only the bee family is increased, and honey is placed in the store.
Work on the construction of a 16-frame lounger is similar to that carried out with a lounger for 24 frames. It differs only in size. The front and rear parts are 40 cm wide. The design provides for the subframe space, which is made using the roof ceiling. The dimensions of the frames in the breeding compartment are 43.5 x 30 cm, in the store compartment 43.5 x 14.5 cm.
Making beehives using plywood - on video:
How is the hive
Having tamed useful insects, the man gave them a new dwelling. The device of a beehive is actually quite simple. There is nothing superfluous, only that the bee family is necessary for work and life.
A modern hive is a linear high-narrow or narrow-wide construction with a specific set of elements. Its structure includes a socket housing or several hulls. These are hollow boxes without bottom and lids, which can be interconnected if necessary.
On the inner walls of the enclosures, fasteners are provided in the form of slats or selected folds for the installation of frames, which occupy the entire space of the case. The frames themselves are four planks forming a square or a rectangle, inside which the bees build up honeycombs.
In the center of the device of the case there are nest frames with brood, the upper part of all frames and completely lateral ones are meant for honey.
At the bottom of the hive construction there is a deaf bottom, which serves as a floor for the first building, a roof is put on top to protect the building from rain and other precipitation.
In the summer, during the honey collection period, store extensions (or just stores) are added to the cases, the same external and internal dimensions with them are boxes, only smaller in height. In them there are frames in which the bees add honey supplies.
Bees enter and leave the hive through the entrance - a rectangular or round hole located in the hull.
There are several letkov, the lower stroke is located in the front part of the first building at the floor level, the rest are located in the center of each subsequent element of vertical construction, except for store extensions. They have no letkov.
Some designs have additional ventilation holes in the roof trim, to improve the microclimate inside the hive.
Most of the hives used in beekeeping today belong to collapsible structures. Their volume is not a constant value. If necessary, it can be changed in one direction or another. In the spring and summer to increase, for the development and expansion of the bee family, in the fall - to reduce during the preparation of the apiary for wintering.
The frames with honeycombs in the hive device are not stationary, but a movable element, which makes it possible to rearrange them inside the nest, at the discretion of the beekeeper, or to make a change between the hives provided they are of the same type.
From general to specific
The hive device for bees is not limited only to a set of certain constituent elements. Intentions to create the most suitable insect and human structure led to the emergence of various models proposed at the time by various inventors.
The frame is the most important detail in the hive, the size and type of the entire future structure are determined precisely by it. Today, there are several formats that are most used in beekeeping hive framework. It:
- square frames
- low wide
- and narrow-tall models.
The production dimensions of the frames are given to a single standard. The most popular ones are:
- 435 by 230 mm (model Langstroth - Ruta),
- 435 by 300 mm (Dadan-Blatt model),
- for store extensions, frames of 430 by 145 mm are used.
For a variety of modern developments such a feature is characteristic that in a single package a different number of frames can be used. Therefore, when referring to a specific hive, it is accepted to call not only the type of framework used. Their number in one sector is also mentioned. For example, 10, 12 or 20 frame beehive under such a frame.
Nest and honey frames can be placed horizontally in the buildings all in one row - then the hives are designated as horizontal single-level ones. They are called sunbeds. They can be placed in several tiers, one above the other, then such constructions will be considered vertical multi-tiered. They are called still risers.
Other distinctive features of hives
In addition to all of the above, the device of any hive is determined by the additional technical characteristics in the features of the device of its other parts and individual parts.
Today, for the maintenance of bees in different climatic conditions produced single wall, and double walls modifications of hive devices. In the latter version, the gaps between one and the second walls are filled with backfill of high-quality insulating material.
Store extensions, floors and roofs are usually single, but some beekeepers, when making beehives themselves, prefer the installation of double floors, which has certain advantages when hibernating in harsh conditions.
The long-term practice of beekeeping shows that roofs are the most suitable for vertical beehives, which are put on the hull with the approach to it (in the curb). Such an arrangement more reliably protects the walls of the building from getting wet and rotting.
Not superfluous will be the upholstery of the roof surface with sheet iron, tar or roofing felt. A simple wooden plane will still leak, regardless of the quality of putty and paint, thereby not only bringing inconvenience to insects, but also reducing the life of the entire product.
Beehives can have a deaf bottom, which is typical for lounges, and detachable, which is different from the hives of Langstroth - Ruth. The latter type of construction is much more convenient, as it facilitates the work of cleaning the hive and significantly reduces the time spent on it.
The hitch in different models can be located:
- on a cold drift, at the location of the frame in the body perpendicular to it,
- on a warm skid, when the frame is parallel to the entrance hole.
In the case of long-distance transport of bee colonies or beekeeping using the nomadic method, special hive devices are used, the distinctive feature of which is the low weight and portability of the entire structure.
Classic hives are made of wood. Good quality sawn timber from fir, cedar, spruce, linden, large-layer pine is suitable for this.
Boards for the manufacture of the structure must be without visible flaws, large knots and properly dried, in order to avoid subsequent warping and cracking. Such material most accurately creates for bees a resemblance of their natural home, a hollow tree with its unique microclimate.
The lack of wood for the beekeeper is too much weight of the hive design, which creates a known inconvenience in working with such models. Therefore, the most modern developments are made of foam plastic, while maintaining the same external and internal structure characteristic of this structure.
Hives are usually painted in bright colors, preferably blue, blue, yellow. It is believed that their bees are distinguished best of all and, returning from the honey collection with nectar, they wander less and find their home more quickly.
In addition, the paint protects the exterior of the case from premature wear, increasing the life of the inventory.
The variety of hive modifications is nothing more than the beekeepers' desire to create the most perfect artificial dwelling for their wards. There is no bad construction, and it is pointless to say that one hive is better than another. Simply, all of them were created under certain conditions, which should be taken into account when working at your apiary.
So, you decided to build a beehive. Where to begin?
Before building a hive, you need to find out all the possible issues that you may encounter during the construction process. It is very important to choose the right material, study the hive device for bees and familiarize yourself with all the popular hive designs. First, let's deal with what beehives are?
The most common types of hives
Vertical structures - the device of the beehive of this species is a multi-hull house, where the frames are enlarged by adding them from above. Mobile and easy option. This type is the hive Dadana. Horizontal beehives - the increase in area occurs due to the addition of frames horizontally, i.e. parallel to the ground. Pretty bulky and hard look. A variation of this hive is the Ukrainian lounger.
Gallery: types of beehives for bees (25 photos)
- Tree. The best option, as close as possible to natural conditions. The most suitable species are cedar, linden and aspen, because they have a pleasant smell and the wood is drier. If you want to save a little, you can choose a pine, fir or spruce. But keep in mind that evidence from these breeds is less comfortable for bees, as moisture is trapped in them. The advantage is that you do not have to strongly insulate such a house.
- Plywood. Pretty good option due to environmental friendliness and long-term service of the material. Will require additional costs for insulation using polystyrene foam and paint coating. Be prepared that plywood is afraid of moisture.
- Styrofoam. Most modern hives are built from it, because it attracts its low cost and savings on weatherization, which is not required. There are also significant drawbacks - fragility, fragility and deterioration of the quality and quantity of honey.
- Styrofoam. One of the cheapest options, because even the material left over from purchased home appliances will do. The pros and cons of its use are similar to polystyrene foam. Another drawback - the destruction under the influence of direct sunlight.
- Polyurethane. It retains heat very well, resists rotting, mildew and decomposition, as it does not allow moisture to accumulate inside. Mice, birds and the bees themselves are unlikely to risk gnawing a house out of this material. Bactericidal. The main disadvantage is high flammability and ventilation.
Types of beehives and their characteristics
Dadanovsky. The most common, simple, easy and roomy. It is made of wood, it can consist of twelve or more frames. If the family of bees is growing, then it can be supplemented with its frames and bodies. It is made of spruce, linden or aspen. Woodworking machine, eco-friendly glue, paint and tools - all that is useful to you in the construction.
- First, prepare the wooden planks, passing them through the machine. To connect the walls of the evidence you need to make grooves in the boards.
- Using the cutter in the middle of the cut channels, measuring five to ten millimeters. Prepared strips the size of eighteen by four millimeters.
- Connect the boards in the shield, by gluing the notched grooves and strips. There should be four shields for the walls and one for the bottom.
- Assemble the shields in the box using nails and glue. Cover the paint, designed to work with wood, and let dry.
- For the manufacture of roof suitable board thickness of one and a half centimeters. It is necessary to cover it with a water-repellent coating and drill several small holes for ventilation.
Alpine. France is considered to be the birthplace of this hive. Rozh Delon has practically recreated the natural bee conditions of life in a multicase house. The design of this hive is similar to the hollow, which is their habitat under normal conditions. Very compact, not having extra partitions, cracks, except for the tap hole below, design. The air circulation occurs naturally: fresh air enters along with the bees from the bottom through the entrance door, rises upwards, warms up in parallel, and comes out again from the bottom. The roof is non-removable.
Ruta. Suitable for those who live in the warm southern areas, because with the constant rearrangement of the buildings there is an excessive cooling of the beehive. The design itself consists of six buildings, each of which has ten frames. Each new building is added gradually, after the bee family has mastered the previous habitat.
Cassette. As the increase in the incidence of bees, unfortunately, is growing, many beekeepers began to prefer cluster hives. The main difference between a cassette beehive is thinner walls, not painted with any paint, but coated with wax, which protects bees from diseases. In such conditions, they themselves maintain the microclimate they need and, due to the most natural covering, feel more comfortable.
Ukrainian lounger. The best option - if you are a beginner beekeeper. The most simple design that does not require special care and unnecessary costs. The standard capacity of such a house is about twenty frames. It tolerates wintering due to thickened walls.
Beehive Farrar. Multi-hut house for bees, which was designed by an American beekeeper. It consists of four buildings, which are designed for a frame of fourteen and a half centimeters. Families develop better in such hives, because this construction is lighter, more comfortable, and the framework will not stretch in hot weather due to the high weight of honey. One of the advantages is also the ease of inspecting the frame and collecting honey.
Hive Boa. Consists of a combined bottom and several shells mounted on a compressed socket. Lightweight, compact design of eleven buildings, not requiring insulation using additional walls and liners. Due to the low weight of this type, both women and those who do not have so much strength for health reasons can be engaged in beekeeping.
Horned beehive. This type of dwelling for bees was created by beekeeper Mikhail Polevoda. One of the most inexpensive options that will not hit your budget if you decide to do beekeeping. Moreover, the design of this hive is quite simple and will suit those who do not have large territories in their area.
Tips and tricks that you may need
- The slots for installation and convenient roll-out of frames are cut out in the case walls.
- For the convenience of moving hulls on the walls, you need to make handles - this will greatly facilitate the process of transferring the hive.
- Do not forget to protect your bees from ticks. To do this, just enough to install a galvanized mesh.
- If the winters in your area are too cold, then take care of the heater. Its power should not be higher than ten watts.
- In the hive must be a feeder, made of a nomadic grid.
- It is very important to leave minimal gaps between the slats. Since the bees can store propolis in them or build cells, which is not very convenient.
- The roof of the house is constructed at the very end, making sure of its sufficient weight.
- Dry the boards thoroughly before working with them! Otherwise, the probability of deformation of the hive is great, over time the framework will no longer stand in its usual place. It is advisable to choose boards without knots, because after a certain time they just may fall out.
- Glue is selected as the most environmentally friendly, water-repellent and high-strength.
The hive is built, which means it's time to choose the honey workers themselves!
One of the first questions of a beginner beekeeper is undoubtedly the problem of acquiring bees. The answer is quite simple - in more experienced beekeepers. The main thing is that his apiary should be no less than twenty kilometers from yours, because with a shorter distance there is a chance that the purchased bees will simply return. You can also buy bees at a beekeeping station in your region, at a public apiary or at a government receiver, because here specialists will help you and you are less likely to buy old and sick families.
The best time to purchase them - spring or early summerwhen their active reproduction occurs. By purchasing bees in the spring, you get the advantage that already this year they will be able to bring you the first harvest and stock up their food for the winter.
Pay particular attention to the choice of breed, which should be adapted to the weather conditions of your region. For a longer and colder winter will do. Carpathian and Central Russian breeds. If you want to get lime honey, then make a choice in favor of the second option. Carpathian bees, let's say, specialize in meadow grasses.
Be sure to check out the sanitary and veterinary passport and a document certifying the well-being of this region in terms of the health of bees. When inspecting a family to buy, make sure that the uterus is present. If you do not find her, then uneven-age brood will be a sign of its existence. In order to avoid any doubts in her health, you can call on the process of choosing a more experienced beekeeper.
On a healthy and productive uterus says continuous sowing of eggs in the area of the whole honeycomb, the absence of large gaps and empty cells. There should be no blobs of different ages next to each other. The barren uterus will also show itself by the presence of a drone brood and trinity. Pay attention to the age of the uterus - the older it is, the less eggs it will lay. In general, one bee colony dries around eight frames in the spring, fourteen to fifteen in the first half of summer, and about ten in the autumn season.
If you do not have a large start-up capital, then the bee package can be an ideal option for you.It consists of four or six frames. In a package of four frames there must be at least one and a half kilograms of bees, a young and healthy fetal uterus, permissible marrow - no more than twenty bees. The two outer frames should contain food weighing at least three kilograms of honey, the two inner frames should be completely filled with brood.
The bees brought to their apiary are carefully placed in their new home, they are not disturbed for the first day, letting them get used and calm down.
How to set?
The beehive is placed with a small inclination in the direction of the entrance to the bee, so that the bees build equal cells. The degree of wire tension is also taken into account: there should be no deflection.
The attachment of the honeycomb to the frame determines how the cells will be located. Use a good quality flatness, full sheets, so that working bees are removed, otherwise drone cells appear.
How the cassette bee hive works:
We collect with our own hands: materials and features
Regardless of the type of hive chosen for its manufacture, only safe and high-quality materials are taken. The main rules and tips for the beekeeper.
- If the house is built of wood, the breed should not produce a sharp odorous resin. Boards and bars should be dry to avoid distortion in the future,
- The parts of the hive are glued together with the help of natural moisture-resistant compositions that are durable and capable of sealing joints,
- Paint the hive in different colors: white, yellow and blue. Before painting, the boards should be treated with linseed oil to ensure the resistance of the tree to aggressive effects (moisture, temperature changes, attacks of pests),
- It is better to cover the hive cover with metal, and on the edges of the sheets you need to tuck in so as to protect the cut points and ends.
No matter how far he has stepped on technical progress, inventing new effective drugs, a person does not forget about the healing properties of honey and continues to produce this useful product. A properly equipped, clean and dry hive is the key to high productivity and a quality product.
Tips for a beekeeper hive device:
Location of honeycombs in the hive
Bees build honeycombs within the limits set by the beekeeper. In the warm season, you need to constantly monitor, so that the insects have enough frames. As the family grows, new parts are delivered, and the beekeeper gets much more honey.
To keep the cells stable, a special wax plate is inserted into the frame, which is attached to the tensioned wire. Insects build honeycombs on both sides of this plate, and they can be of very different sizes.