The Cumberland raspberry variety is still very popular. There are several reasons for this: high yield (up to 10 kg from a bush) and unusual black color berries
In addition, the fruits are known for their beneficial properties.
It is proved that compared with other raspberry varieties, they contain the greatest amount of vitamin C, which not only improves the general well-being of a person, but also greatly enhances the immune system.
If you want to have a similar raspberry variety on your plot, it is important to know how to plant and care for the plant. This will be discussed below.
Description of Cumberland Raspberry
Variety bred in 1888. Berries are often used for preservation. Jam turns burgundy color. The bush grows to 3.5 meters. Raspberry requires a trellis. Has a wax coating on the stems.
This raspberry variety was bred by an American breeder back in 1888.
On the territory of the USSR, the berry appeared much later, after almost 100 years. At the same time immediately attracted the attention of gardeners, who initially took it for strawberries, but later figured out what's what.
Before ripening, the berries are reddish, after that they turn black.
The features of this variety are as follows:
- The berries have a pronounced aroma and taste.. Experts note that there is a slight sourness in it, which adds notes of piquancy. Because of this, the Cumberland variety is often taken for preservation and freezing. Jam and compote is obtained with a characteristic burgundy color. Many housewives share recipes in which mixed varieties of black and red raspberries. From this their jams acquire an unusual taste.
- The bushes of the plant reach a height of 3–3.5 meters.. Pretty sprawling, branches hang, forming funny arches. Without special trellis can not do. If there are none, in the beginning of summer it will be necessary to cut and shorten the shoots, as a result, raspberries will give many side shoots, the bush will be compact.
- The difference of raspberry in this variety - wax on the stems. In the first few years it has a slightly bluish tinge. But over the years, the raid will become darker.
- With regards to the berries, before maturity, they are pinkish-reddish colorbut. After become dark black.
- Raspberry tastes a bit like mulberry.. Many choose other varieties because of the extremely large number of seeds.
- The berries are not large, the average weight of raspberries - 2 g. Have a round shape, well removed from the bush.
- There are rather large thorns on the raspberry stalks., it makes harvesting difficult.
- What is remarkable about this variety for summer residents? Raspberries fruits for 15 yearsafter this, the yield is greatly reduced.
- Raspberries ripens in the middle of summer. Well transported.
- Cumberland tolerates frostsThis variety practically does not affect insect pests.
- Raspberry does not give root processes. Propagated by dropping shoots.
It is important! This raspberry variety is ideal for beginner gardeners. It is very easy to care for her, and the yield is quite high.
Choosing the right seedlings
In order to get a good harvest, it is important to choose the right seedlings. Do it better in the fall. At this time, raspberry leaves fall. Therefore, the stems are clearly visible, you can see whether there are signs of disease.
Plants will be ideal at the age of 1-2 years. In this case, make sure that the height of the shoots themselves was no more than 1 meter, otherwise it will be difficult for the bush to take root.
It is better to choose one-year-old seedlings.
Shoots should be no more than 4 pieces. At the same time, pay attention to their color: ideally, it should be light brown.Black or burgundy shoots indicate that the plant is sick or frozen.
A developed root system should consist of 3-4 light (white) roots. If an open system is used before planting, do not forget to moisten the roots. To do this, wrap them with a damp cloth. Thus, it can be easily delivered to the site.
It is important! If it is not immediately possible to plant a raspberry, prikopayte it shallowly on the site, do it slightly tilted.
Basic landing rules
According to experts, it is better to do this in early spring, when the first snow will come down. But also keep an eye on the temperature; the optimum is + 10–12 degrees. Make sure that the soil is no longer frost.
Engage in planting raspberries preferably in the spring.
And you can also plant raspberries in autumn for example in septembere. Bushes take root well, but there is a risk that young shoots may die in winter.
It is very important to pay attention to the condition of the soil. It must be loose. In this case, it will be easier for you to work, and all the useful components will easily penetrate to the root system.
It is important! Is it possible to plant raspberries in summer? Such successful cases are, but it is worth protecting the bushes from direct sunlight, it is quite difficult!
Preparing a place for raspberries
Under the raspberry cake is suitable ground, where the bindweed grows.
It is equally important to choose the place where the raspberries will be located. So, what characteristics should be:
- The soil is moderately sour. Pay attention, where bindweed and clover grows, the ground is suitable,
- The soil should be loose,
- No groundwater
- The place must be sunny, but without direct sunlight, otherwise the raspberry will dry up, the berries will be crushed,
- Try to choose a windless area, for example, a place near the fence. But the airing must still be present, otherwise the raspberries will rot,
- Choose a place away from tomatoes, cucumbers, zucchini. Many plant similar varieties of raspberries next to strawberries, do it in vain. They have the same diseases that can move from bush to bush,
- Be sure to remove the area from the weeds, otherwise the appearance of fungus on the leaves can not be avoided.
It is important! If the wrong place for planting is chosen, the desired yield is not worth the wait, while no fertilizer or soil loosening will help.
Do not make mistakes when landing
The process of planting raspberries itself looks pretty simple and should include the following steps:
- Dig a trench (depth not more than 0.5 meters),
- Be sure to fertilize. Best of all, humus (7–8 kg) and fine ash (500 g) are suitable for this. Mix this mixture with soil,
- The distance between the bushes should be 1.5 meters. In this case, they will not block each other’s light,
- But if the raspberry jam is large, somewhat close by, the distance between them will be from 3 meters,
- Plant the seedlings, sprinkle the hole with earth, sand and do not forget to add black soil. In this case, the plant will take root perfectly, and will give a rich harvest,
- Perform watering. The calculation should be dependent on soil moisture. On average, one bucket per bush,
- As mulch is better to choose sawdust. If planting is done in the fall, foliage will do.
- Be sure to cut the shoots. Do not be afraid to do this, the plant will thus get acclimatized better. On average, the height of the bush should be 40-50 cm from the ground.
The depth of the trench should not exceed half a meter.
All the basic steps for planting raspberries are completed, it remains only to wait for the first harvest.
Basic care for raspberries
Raspberries of this variety do not require special care, but there are still some nuances:
- Do not forget about watering. Raspberries do not like abundant moisture, but the soil cracked from drought is also not the best option. Water the plant preferably 1 time per week. It is better to do this in the morning or in the evening,
- Top dressing should be done during flowering and fruit formation. Ideal option - mullein,
- Try at least once a week to carefully inspect the bushes, if you notice dry branches, cut immediately,
- Be sure to tie up the bushes. In this case, you not only save the beauty on your site, but also collect good, large berries. Many gardeners make Cumberland raspberries whole living fences and arches, it looks pretty nice
- For the winter, you can refuse to cover the raspberries with a special cloth.. But still for reinsurance, it is better to remove the tapestry and bend the branches to the ground, thus you protect the bushes from severe frosts,
- The standard height of the bushes of this raspberry variety can reach up to 3–3.5 m in height.. But experts advise not to allow this. After the bush has reached 200 cm, it is shortened to 180 cm. Thus, you give a chance to start growing new side shoots. What do you win by doing so? First, harvest will be much easier. Secondly, the berries will become larger. Thirdly, this raspberry is very aesthetic.
Raspberries should be watered once a week.
It is important! At first glance, it may seem that raspberry Cumberland requires special care, it is not. All the above processes will take you no more than 1 hour, taking into account the fact that the raspberry is not very large. In this case, with one bush you can get up to 10 kg of delicious, fragrant berries.
Cumberland raspberry variety is quite popular. Its plus is an unusual variety of berries. At the same time to taste they are different from strawberries. According to reviews, this is a mix of raspberries and mulberries. Try to grow raspberry on your site and see for yourself.
Cumberland raspberries are popular for their unusual color and bright taste.
Cumberland Black Raspberry Planting and Care Rules
Modern raspberry varieties are striking in their diversity, flavor and color of the berries.
Cumberland black raspberry has recently appeared in our country, but every year more and more attracts gardeners with its beneficial properties, delicate taste and beautiful black berries, which are represented in the photo.
The article talks about how to properly plant and care for the plant. This type of raspberry perfectly complements the diet fresh, and can be used to prepare desserts or sweet preservation: compotes, jams, sauces.
Cumberland variety properties - raspberry varieties
Cumberland raspberry variety was bred by American breeders by crossing raspberries with blackberries. This causes a significant external similarity of the berries of these plants, but in Cumberland they are a little smaller and easier to move away from the stem when harvested.
The fruits of the hybrid are sweet and fragrant, have a brilliant black with a purple tint color, contain many vitamins and other useful substances, have antioxidant properties. Cumberland berries hold onto shoots well without falling off.
With proper pruning and the formation of the bush can be obtained with each shoot 8-10 brushes, each of which includes from 10 to 15 berries. Good plant care brings abundant crops - 10 kg per bush.
Black Raspberry is a rather new, but already popular variety.
This plant can reach 4 m in height, as is seen in the photo, therefore, the trellis cultivation method is the most suitable for it.
Due to the flexibility of the branches and the high decorative properties, it can also be used for the decoration of arches, gazebos and other structures.
Additional advantages of this variety include frost resistance, lack of root shoots, typical for common raspberries and low susceptibility to diseases and pest damage. Disadvantages: a large number of seeds in the berries, the bushes are very thick and have spiky thorns.
Cumberland grows well on gray forest soil or chernozem with low loam content. Protected from gusts of wind, areas well-lit by the sun are suitable for growing raspberries.
Since the bushes can grow significantly, the distance between them should be at least 0.5 m, and rows should be placed 2 m apart.
It is recommended to plant the plants in early spring, but with a good condition of the seedling and regular watering, you can choose summer and autumn seasons for planting.
Landing perform in the following sequence:
- Prepared pit with sides and a depth of 0.5 m.
- At the bottom of the pit poured a layer of humus, mixed with wood ash.
- After installing the plant, the remaining space is filled with a mixture of soil and complex type fertilizer.
- The surface of the soil around the seedling is carefully watered and mulched to a height of 7 cm with peat, sawdust, or ripened compost.
Council Simplify the subsequent care of Cumberland raspberries and harvesting allows the installation of double-sided trellis up to 2 m high, between which the wire is stretched in three rows. The shoots of the plant are tied up to them in a fan-shaped manner with ensuring sufficient access of light and air to the flowering and fruiting brushes.
Cumberland Raspberry Care
The main points of care for this raspberry variety are:
- regular pruning of shoots
- moderate watering of bushes during flowering and fruiting,
- introduction of organic and mineral fertilizers to increase the yield of the plant,
- preparation of bushes for winter,
- spring garter and pruning.
Be sure to tie up raspberry bushes
Cumberland is a tall and densely growing variety that requires quite frequent pruning of shoots to produce large berries. In each bush you need to leave no more than 10 shoots.
In the period of intensive growth, in the last days of June or in the first days of July, they are cut at a distance of 150-180 cm from the ground for the appearance of side branches, which are also recommended to be shortened at the beginning of November, leaving about 30 cm in length (they will give harvest).
At the same time, in close proximity to the base of the bush, shoots are harvested, from which fruits were collected this year. Of them leave about 10 strong shoots. In preparation for the winter cold shoots untied and laid on the ground.
They winter well under a layer of snow. To prolong its existence, gardeners sprinkle its surface with water to form an ice crust.
With spring warming, the bushes thin out, leaving powerful healthy twigs, and tie them to the trellis wire.
Council The life span of a raspberry of this species averages 20 years, but due to a gradual decrease in the yield of the plant with age, it is dug out after 13-15 years and the new young bush is planted.
Cumberland fertilizer and fertilizer
In order to get a good harvest of raspberries with large fruits with good taste, the plants are fed three times during the year:
- After dropping petals on inflorescences.
- During the growth of berries.
- After collecting the first berries.
Do not forget about dressings - they are important for a good harvest.
For dressings, water infusion of mullein is prepared (at a concentration of 1:10), to which wood ash and superphosphate are added. Korovyak can be replaced by bird droppings, which is prepared in a weaker concentration - 1:20. The amount of superphosphate taken at the rate of 50 g of ash per 10 liters of mullein or bird droppings. After fertilization, raspberries need to be watered well.
Reproduction of black raspberry
Kumbelend usually propagated by the formation of horizontal layers or rooting of the upper part of the shoot. To obtain a layer in the spring, the shoots of the bush are shortened to 15 cm in length. By August, they will grow powerful stems that need to be placed and secured in specially dug trenches.
After the development of adventitious roots, the stems are covered with primer in such a way that only the upper buds peek out from under it. A year later, young bushes can be separated from the uterine bush and planted in another place. This method is very depleting plant, so it is undesirable to use it often.
Adult raspberry bushes easily propagate by layering and cuttings
Rooting of the upper part of the annual escape is also produced in the last month of summer.
Next to the plant, an elevation is made of mulch about 15 cm in height, an escape is lowered onto it, and the soil is deepened around it. Rooting with formation of adventitious roots takes a month.
With the onset of autumn cooling, future seedlings are spuding with earth or a layer of compost. In spring, the plants are ready for transplanting to a new place.
Growing black raspberries from seeds or rooting cuttings is more complex and time consuming and is used much less frequently.
The cut cuttings are kept for 10 hours in preparation to improve rooting and growth, then they are planted in a greenhouse with a sufficient level of humidity using a fogging installation for 3 weeks.
Cuttings are buried in the soil, the surface of which is covered with 5 cm sand. In the early spring of next year, seedlings can be transplanted to another place for growing.
Cumberland raspberry diseases, pest resistance
Verticillous wilting, anthracnose, ulcer spot, stem gallus, rosette, viral curly are found in black raspberry. It is not damaged by a raspberry mosquito, but suffers from aphids, raspberries flies, beetles, mites, shoots and stem gall midges, spider mites.
For the prevention of the disease with verticillary wilting, Cumberland is planted away from the red raspberry.
When the first signs of the disease appear, the plant is dug out and burned, it is advisable to transplant healthy bushes to another place where the solanaceous crops, which are also affected by this disease, did not grow.
Be sure to remove from the raspberry plant plants infected
Plants infected with harmful insects and microorganisms are sprayed with infusions of yarrow, marigold, marigolds, garlic, treated with chemical preparations, for example, carbaphos or bitoxybacillin.
To fight a raspberry beetle and a fly, it is recommended to loosen the soil in the autumn-spring period, mulching its surface with a thick layer of straw or other material. It is necessary to cut off and burn diseased shoots, collect, and then destroy the beetles and their larvae.
With the defeat of bushes rodents need to use chemicals.
Paying a little attention and effort when growing the Cumberland variety, you will get a wonderful harvest of berries, from which you can cook a lot of delicious delicacies. When fresh, it will provide the body with vitamins, trace elements, beneficial fructose and other substances. This raspberry is at the same time the decoration of the garden, which saturates the site with beautiful shades of juicy greenery and bright fruits.
Benefits of Cumberland Raspberry
- Sweet taste and special aroma.
- Good yield.
- The variety is universal (great for canning and freezing).
- Berries are rich in vitamins.
- Resistance to frost - does not require shelter in the winter.
- Resistance to pests (crimson mite).
- The fruits are not interesting birds.
- Fruits, even ripe, do not warm up when harvesting.
- Berries do not crumple during transportation.
- Does not give root offspring, does not turn into a weed.
Cumberland Raspberry Planting
The maximum yield of chokeberry raspberries gives the third year after planting. Place for planting Cumberland raspberry is important to choose a sunny, sheltered from the wind. When grown in the shade, the harvest will be much smaller, the taste of the berries is not so sweet, in addition, the plant in such conditions may undergo various diseases in the form of rot. Chokeberry raspberries grow best on fertile, medium loamy and chernozem soils. In spite of the fact that the Cumberland variety is rather cold-resistant, planting in the wet area is unacceptable - in winter the raspberry roots will freeze to death.
When planning a landing should pay attention to unwanted neighborhood.It is not recommended to grow near the black and red raspberries, or on the place after the red-fruited, poorly Cumberland raspberries grows next to blackberries. Do not plant black raspberries after tomatoes and potatoes. It is preferable to plant Cumberland after onions, carrots, sideratov.
The most favorable time for planting Cumberland raspberries is spring, after the cessation of possible frosts, however, this variety germinates well when planted in summer and autumn.
Seedlings are planted at a distance of one and a half - two meters from each other in pits of a depth of 40-50 centimeters. In planting pits add humus (compost), mixed with wood ash. Then pour out about ½ a bucket of water and place the seedling. They cover it with earth, gently and not strongly compact the soil and once again pour water on it. Then the soil is mulched: compost, peat, rotted sawdust, chopped straw. The thickness of the mulch make 7 - 8 centimeters.
Cumberland Raspberry Care
Due to the fact that the black raspberry bush grows high with flexible shoots up to three meters long, it is necessary to install a trellis next year after planting and tie stalks to it like a fan. Because the bush is very prickly, such a garter will help to pick berries more comfortable in the future.
In the first year after planting, seedlings should not be given to raspberries to bloom and bear fruit - you need to cut the buds so as not to deplete the plants. During the summer do not add fertilizing organics. If the raspberry has grown, in the fall cut out the extra shoots, leaving 4-5 branches.
- During the growing season, the plant needs watering, while it is important not to allow water to stagnate. This means that if the weather is hot it is necessary to water the raspberries abundantly, but if there is prolonged rains (especially with cold snap), then the soil under the bushes needs to be loosened, after removing the mulch.
- Due to abundant fruiting, raspberry cumberland needs feeding. Top dressing bring three times: after the flowers fall down, during the ripening of berries and after harvest. As a feed, mullein is used together with superphosphate or wood ash. Approximate proportions: 1 part of mullein per 6 parts of water, wood ash - 1 l per 10 l of infusion of mullein, superphosphate - 50 g per 10 l of infusion.
- You do not need to fertilize abundantly with humus, because the raspberries will grow strongly and will go to the bushes (greens), and not berries.
- In the fall, it is necessary to cut out heavily overgrown bushes, leaving 3-5 shoots on the bush, the rest to cut out at the root. First, two-year shoots are removed.
- Before the onset of winter, the branches are untied from the tapestry and pressed to the ground.
- In the spring, raspberries are examined, patients and weak shoots are harvested, the rest are tied back to the trellis.
This raspberry variety can be formed by trimming, starting in late June - early July, depending on the region. Shorten shoots that have reached 2 meters to a height of no more than 120-130 centimeters. The bush begins to branch due to the growth of axillary buds. Side shoots that grow over the summer, then pruned in the second half of autumn, leaving their petioles about 30-40 cm.
Raspberry Cumberland variety: description, photo, reviews, secrets of planting and care
Raspberries with black berries are not yet common in gardeners and market stalls. However, it is black varieties that combine fast adaptation to different climatic features, ease of care and the unusual taste of the berries with extremely beneficial properties for humans. One of the most popular varieties of black raspberries is Cumberland raspberry.
Cumberland Raspberry Reproduction
Cumberland raspberries are usually propagated by cuttings and layering, as raspberries do not give root offsprings. Cuttings rooted in water.
You can also propagate this variety by seed, but the seeds germinate too long.
Thus, the easiest and fastest way of reproduction of this raspberry variety is rooting the tops of annual shoots.
In the second half of August, such shoots are tilted to the ground and instilled.As a result, the apical bud on the shoot is rooted. For better rooting of shoots, you can use the soil consisting of peat, compost and ash. After sprinkling with earth, the sprout must be watered well. Mulch with straw or peat.
In the future, they water the sprout 1 to 2 times a week, depending on the presence or absence of precipitation, the soil should not dry out, but the raspberry does not like dampness.
Lack of variety
- the presence of thorns on the shoots
- branching, dense bushes,
- large bones in the berries,
Cumberland raspberries are recommended for growing on forest soils or black earth loams. It is better to plant cuttings in early spring, as soon as the earth warms up a little. Sunny, protected from the winter winds area is ideal for raspberries.
It is important that at this place did not grow solanaceous crops, raspberries or strawberries. Considering that the bushes are sprawling, the distance between them should be at least 1.5 meters, the width between the rows - 2 meters.
This condition must be observed so that the bushes do not shade each other, do not create difficulties when pruning, garter shoots and gathering berries.
The soil at the site is pre-fertilized with manure, humus or forest land.
Dug trenches for cuttings also contain a portion of fertilizers (compost or humus, chicken droppings, ash or potassium salt and superphosphate), which will provide the plant with nutrition in the first years of the plant's life.
If the spring is warm and dry, then after planting the rows need to be watered the first month every week at the rate of 10-20 liters. water on the bush. It is important that the landing site was mulched to preserve moisture under the bushes.
While the bushes are small and do not interfere with work, it is necessary to build a trellis 180-200 cm high with a wire stretched in three rows for garter shoots next season.
Cultivation and care
The frequency of watering the Cumberland raspberries depends on the weather, the nature of the ground and the terrain. Sandy soil in open areas requires more frequent watering than loam in the shade.
After 2-3 years, when the bushes grow, they will contribute to the preservation of moisture with their own shadow, moreover, the roots of the Cumberland raspberry are deeper than that of the usual raspberry, they are able to extract moisture from the lower layers of soil.
In the first years you need to water regularly, then - as needed.
In the summer, when the shoots grow to 180-200 cm, they are first pruned to allow lateral branches from the axillary buds to actively grow. It is important that these twigs have time to grow and get stronger before winter, because they will produce the main part of the harvest next season.
The second time pruning is carried out in late autumn - the side branches are shortened to 40-50 cm, and also weak, damaged, sprouting shoots are removed. For the next season 5-7 strong, thick stems are left.
Cumberland is a high-yielding variety, so the soil for this raspberry must be enriched with organic matter and mineral fertilizers. 3-4 years after planting, feeding is carried out regularly 2-3 times per season.
The first top dressing is spring - even in the snow you can scatter bird droppings or mullein. Then fertilizers are applied when the raspberry blossom has faded, and berries begin to be tied. Compost, humus, an infusion of herbs, wood ash or a mineral complex of potassium salt and superphosphate.
The third time the same composition can be made after collecting the last berries to maintain the plant.
Preparing for the winter
Raspberry Cumberland withstands temperatures up to - 40 degrees. However, the bush must be removed from the supports in the fall, bend down to the ground, and in areas with little snow in winters. It is important to prevent the growth of shoots above 180 cm. Constantly pruned shoots, strengthened, become durable. Removed, connected in thick bunches, they easily overwinter.
Black Raspberry Cumberland
Cumberland is not often found in black raspberries in our gardens. Nevertheless, it is worthwhile to take a closer look at this berry bush, the fruits of which look like blackberries.
The main distinctive feature of the Cumberland raspberry is the color of the berries - black, shiny with a purple or burgundy shade, each berry weighing about 2 g, the yield from the bush is 6-8 kg. The rate of ripening is average.
But the differences do not end there. Consider the advantages and disadvantages of this black-fruited raspberry variety.
Characteristics and description of the variety "Cumberland"
The variety produces powerful shoots that grow quickly and can reach a length of 3 meters. The bush is formed with a length of up to 1.5-2 meters, this is quite enough for the normal formation of berries. On one bush should be located up to 10 shoots.
On each brush 10-15 berries of black-purple color are formed. The taste of berries is between raspberries and blackberries, it is characterized by sweetness and juiciness. Berries grow medium size, up to 2 centimeters long and weighing 2-3 grams.
Cumberland is a hardy variety. It grows steadily, even at low temperatures, late and cold summer and is not afraid of frost. During hot weather raspberries can stay for some time without watering. Cumberland rarely suffers from illnesses, the immune system is developed quite well.
The harvest begins in mid-July and continues through August. From one plant it can grow from 4 kilograms of berries.
Growing features and tips for care
Raspberry is picky in care and you can even grow it to an inexperienced gardener. It is necessary to purchase shrub saplings at the spring or autumn fair. The Cumberland variety is rarely found on the market, more often at gardening exhibitions, where a large number of different varieties are represented. Raspberries decided to plant in the fall or spring. Autumn planting became more common than spring. It is believed that the plant during autumn cultivation is less stressed and quickly takes root in a new place. Seedlings can be planted in the treated soil immediately after purchase, pre-soaking the roots for 20 minutes in a weak solution of potassium permanganate.
Raspberry ground is prepared a couple of days before transplanting. Shrub loves the sun and well-drained land, so when choosing a place they stop on a flat surface with good soil. Raspberries can grow with other similar shrubs and trees. Humus and peat are evenly distributed over the garden plot, and then the earth should be dug up. Bred st.l. superphosphate in 10 liters of water and sprinkled a solution of dug earth.
Then in the ground make a trench length, depending on the number of seedlings. The distance between seedlings is at least 70 centimeters. A bit of kiln ash or crushed chalk fall asleep in the trench. Sapling is lowered into the trench and buried in the ground. This is done with every young plant. Then spread mulch on the ground. It can be straw, sawdust. Mulch is used to fix moisture in the soil.
Raspberries can be tied to a trellis or self-build support. It is enough to drive in 2 columns at each end of the trench and pull the wire along them. Such a construction will provide a normal and neat formation of a shrub, as well as help protect the branches from the wind.
Immediately after planting, the bush is pruned to the amount of 3-6 swollen buds. Dry and dead branches are removed from the bush. Watering raspberries often, the bush likes moisture in the soil, but also does not accept overwetting. Water for irrigation should be non-rigid, if possible defended, various additives can be added to the water that stimulate the growth of the shrub. In the process of growing raspberries can be irrigated from the shower, the leaves and the stem also need to maintain water balance, especially in the hot summer season.
To raspberry not sick and was healthy, you need to handle it. So for the prevention of crimson beetle and other insects will help the infusion of bitter wormwood or marigold. 200 grams of plants poured a bucket of boiling water and insist day before cooling. The resulting mixture is watered and applied to the leaves and stem.Infusion of wormwood or marigold does not cause any harm to the raspberry and will not affect the future harvest.
Raspberry blossoms begin at the beginning or end of June, depending on the region being grown. After the shrub ottsvetet, brushes appear on the branches, on which the embryos of future berries are visible. Berries every day increase in size and gain color. To start collecting fruits no earlier than the beginning or mid-July, when the raspberries will be purple-black. The berries are plucked from the bush carefully so as not to damage the skin.
The merits of the Cumberland raspberry variety
- high yield
- good immune ability
- excellent transportability and keeping quality,
- unusual color and sweet taste
- fast fruiting
The disadvantage of raspberries is its low distribution in Russia. Although the variety and more than a dozen years, to meet him in the free market can be infrequent.
Reviews of those who planted
Lyudmila from Kemerovo says: “A very unusual variety Cumberland has been pleasing us with its good harvest for many years now. I got it by chance, but I was pleased. The black berries are sweet in taste, do not crumple and have an average size. Raspberry breeds well, I managed to multiply it already twice. ”
Asya writes: “I bought raspberries last year on the market. The shrub itself is very beautiful when the berries begin to ripen, their color changes from red to black. Mature fruits keep well and do not fall. Unlike many other varieties of raspberries, the bush does not crawl. ”
History of breeding varieties
Cumberland is home to America. Black raspberries brought in the 88th century before last. The grade existed more than 100 years, remained, did not lose the popularity today. The parents of the black fruit crop are the common spring and the common red-fruited raspberry. The variety turned out winter-hardy, productive. Cumberland is most common in European countries. On the territory of the former Soviet Union there is black raspberry only in private farms.
Description of Cumberland Raspberry
In the photo, the Cumberland black raspberry variety can be confused with blackberries. However, the culture issue leaves. Their shape is exactly the same as that of ordinary raspberries. If we consider the structure of the bush, then you can also find similarities. Black raspberry stalks grow tall - up to 1.5 m. The bark is rarely covered with sharp thorns. Stems are quite powerful, but due to the large length of the arc slightly curved. Leaves are five-fingered, wrinkled. The root system of the black raspberry grows at a depth of 20 cm. There are few accessory roots in the plant, which has a bad effect on transplantation. The bush does not allow root growth, which complicates the reproduction of black raspberries.
Culture takes root better on fertile light soil, well permeable to water and oxygen. The plant constantly needs the sun. When forming a bush, Cumberland raspberry pruning is done in the spring or autumn similarly to the fruit growing in the red. The plant is removed from the breech and damaged stems.
The beginning of flowering Cumberland coincides with many varieties of common red raspberries, but the berries themselves ripen later - from the end of July. Formation of berries is possible only on the shoots of the second year of life, left from autumn. The first wave of the Cumberland variety is distinguished by large fruits. In the future, the berries are slightly shallow. In taste, the fruit resembles a blackberry.
A detailed description of the Cumberland Yellow raspberry variety does not make sense, since the culture was bred in the same year and place. The characteristics are almost the same. The difference is the later flowering and ripening of yellow berries.
Drought resistance, frost resistance
If you compare the Cumberland variety with the red raspberries, then the winter-hardy crop is inferior. The plant is able to survive a drop in temperature to –24 o C. However, there are reviews where gardeners say that with good shelter, Cumberland bushes can withstand up to –30 o C.But the black raspberry boasts drought tolerance, but it is impossible to speculate with this feature. With a lack of moisture the quality of the berries deteriorates.
Yield and fruiting
Black raspberries bloom in early June. The flowers do not tend to fall, well pollinated by bees. The ripening of berries begins in mid-July, but first they turn red. Blackens fruit closer to the beginning of August. The berries are not large, weighing about 2 g. The yield of Cumberland is low. For the season, the bush will bring up to 2.5 kg of black raspberry. However, the yield increases from the third year of plant life. With good care from 1 bush can collect up to 7 kg of raspberry.
The advantages and disadvantages of the variety
Black Raspberry took some of the good qualities from the blackberry. The plant turned out unpretentious, easy to clean. From the positive qualities of the variety can be identified:
- winter hardiness of the variety allows gardeners to grow black raspberries without shelter, if the winter temperature in the region does not fall below –24 o C,
- Cumberland boasts good drought tolerance,
- black raspberries are rarely affected by diseases and pests
- the lack of root processes does not allow the plant to spread throughout the site.
Along with the advantages, the Cumberland variety has many disadvantages:
- the same lack of root growth complicates the breeding process,
- sharp thorns complicate harvesting,
- low yield,
- long stems must be tied to a support, otherwise the branches will lay down on the ground and take root from the top,
- black berries are less tender compared to red raspberries due to coarse grains.
Despite all the shortcomings, according to reviews raspberry black Cumberland has the right to exist and finds its admirers.
On the positive and negative qualities of black raspberry is told on the video:
The process of growing black raspberries begins early. For the harvest in the first summer, planting seedlings is better to organize in the fall, subject to a suitable climate. Autumn planting is best done in September for residents of warm areas. In cold regions and with a temperate climate, optimal timing is early spring. Black raspberry seedlings are desirable to be planted until mid-April.
Choosing the right place
When choosing a landing site, it is important to know that the Cumberland variety of black raspberry loves a sunny, draft-free area. The gentle slope of the hill, located from north to south, is well suited. The raspberry variety prefers light ground. If there is forest soil on the site, then it is not even necessary to prepare it.
Cumberland can not be planted near red raspberries, apples, strawberries and solanaceous crops. The best predecessors in the garden are siderats, carrots, onions.
Selection and preparation of planting material
When buying a seedling without a pot, the root system is thoroughly examined. For the Cumberland variety, the shape of the root is important. A seedling with a fibrous root system takes root more quickly in moist soil and gives a rapid increase. If the plant has a core root form, then even dry soil is not terrible for it.
The Cumberland black raspberry planting procedure consists of the following:
- Plot under the sort of black raspberry dug to the depth of a spade bayonet. To improve the nutritional value of the soil for 1 m 2 make 2 buckets of compost.
- The holes are dug out in the size of 40x40 cm. The distance between the landing pits is at least 1.5 m. The spacing is left at least 2 m wide.
- An upper layer of earth 15 cm thick removed from the well is used to prepare the substrate that will be required for backfilling. The soil is mixed with an equal amount of humus and add 1 liter of ash. From the substrate obtained, a mound is formed at the bottom of the wells, and the remainder is left for backfilling.
- Even before planting seedlings on each row of the beds drive stakes for trellis. The optimal height of the pillars above the ground is 2.8 m. After the raspberry is seated between the pillars, a wire or rope is tied up.Between the lines of the trellis maintain a distance of about 50 cm.
- Before planting a Cumberland black raspberry seedling, gently pour a bucket of water into the hole in order to at least wash out the mound. After the liquid is absorbed, the plant is lowered into the pit. Roots spread on a mound, the hole is covered with the remnants of the substrate.
- The soil around the bush lightly compacted by hand, so as not to injure fragile roots. From the ground form a ring for watering. Raspberries again watered with 3 liters of water. After about half an hour, the liquid is absorbed. Pristal circle is covered with a layer of mulch 5 cm thick.
Before rooting black raspberries, it is necessary to monitor the soil moisture. In the case of drying of the soil, watering of seedlings is carried out.
According to gardeners, raspberry Cumberland does not cause much trouble, as the bushes do not let the lateral growth. As for irrigation, the plant needs moisture during the fruiting period. Under each bush poured up to 5 liters of water every day. Before and after fruiting, the rate of irrigation is 3 liters per plant twice a week.
Feed the Cumberland variety 3 times per season:
- during flowering,
- with the appearance of berries,
- after harvesting.
For black raspberries, an excellent dressing is a solution of 1 part manure and 6 parts water. You can use bird droppings. The amount of water is then increased to 15 parts. Under the bush pour 10 liters of the finished solution. Immediately after feeding, the raspberries are watered with 5 liters of water.
The next year after planting, the black Cumberland raspberry will grow. Scourge tie up to the trellis first to the lowest wire at a height of 50 cm from the ground. To the next high lines, the stems are fixed as they grow.
Since the Cumberland variety is rather winter-hardy, in warm regions the bushes hibernate on the trellis. For cold areas requires shelter arrangement. Scourge unfastened from the trellis, tied bundles, bend to the ground. Snow can serve as shelter. If the region has little snow, the raspberry pan is covered with non-woven material.
Cumberland Raspberry Trim
For good fruiting at the end of the season it is necessary to cut the Cumberland raspberries, and in the spring to carry out a sanitary procedure. To increase the yield, summer pruning can be done at the end of June. The process involves pinching escape at the point of growth. The following year, a fruit tree branch will grow from the nip. Stalks for summer pruning choose a length of 2 m. Pinching the top involves shortening the branch by 30 cm.
In the fall, the Cumberland raspberry pruning begins in the second decade of September and ends in mid-October. The bushes completely remove all breeze-bearing branches. Annual stalks are shortened to 50 cm. In the spring, damaged stalks are cut out. The bush is left to grow from 8 strong shoots.
Diseases and pests, methods of control and prevention
Cumberland is characterized by similar diseases characteristic of red raspberries, but they rarely occur. The problem is anthracnose. Prevent the spread of the disease by maintaining clean beds. Before blooming the raspberries are sprayed with a solution consisting of 10 liters of water and 700 g of urea. The second treatment is carried out during the foliage, and the third - before opening the buds. The concentration of the solution is reduced. 50 g of urea is added to 10 liters of water. Against aphids, raspberry flies and spider mites, raspberries are sprayed with insecticides.
What are the advantages of Cumberland black raspberry?
Cumberland black raspberry variety will soon celebrate its 130th anniversary. American breeder D. Miller crossed the classic red raspberry and blackberry back in 1888. From the first bush inherited the shape and geometry of growth, from the second - the color and flavor of the fruit. The taste turned out to be something in between, but very successful and memorable.
Russia (then the USSR) met with a unique achievement almost a century later. Unusual culture immediately became the subject of desire of domestic gardeners.And after those who were lucky enough to get the seedlings, appreciated the unpretentiousness of the culture and the amazing taste qualities of the berries, interest aroused with a new force.
Video: Cumberland Raspberry Description
Cumberland berries, ripening, change color from crimson-pink to maroon, and then to blue-black. There is a slight gray-gray raid. Some gardeners believe that 1.7–2 g is not large enough, but even if they agree with them, the “disadvantage” is more than leveled out by the taste of berries. Children Cumberland all competition, as is well known, the mouth of the baby speaks the truth. Although, more picky tasters and gourmets complain about excessive “bony” berries.
Cumberland Renovated Raspberry still looks unusual in domestic gardens
In addition to excellent taste, Cumberland is a real storehouse of vitamins, micro and macronutrients, as well as antioxidants. Studies by scientists from the United States suggest that the berries significantly strengthen the immune system and are good prevention of the appearance of malignant tumors. Anthocyanins and vitamin P in high concentrations “clean” the vessels and restore their elasticity to the walls, preventing the development of atherosclerosis. Ellagic acid is a unique natural antioxidant.
The advantage of any black raspberry over red is that it is not noticed by the birds, which are always ready to deprive you of a substantial part (and sometimes of everything) of the harvest. Probably, the fact is that domestic magpies, blackbirds, and so on are suspicious of foreign exoticism, not perceiving it as edible. Natural protection in the form of spikes also plays its role.
The variety has no industrial value. However, the berries are rather dense, they tolerate transportation quite well and can be stored in the cold for quite a long time, without turning into porridge. At the height and yield. On average, each bush brings 8.5–10 kg of berries, if you give it time and energy. True, harvesting requires sacrifice. Morally get ready to get some scratches and abrasions. Shoots have sharp, often located spikes.
Another undoubted advantage is frost resistance. Cumberland winters without special shelter where cold weather below -30ºС is a common phenomenon. The culture also tolerates a long drought.
Landing look very neat. Unlike the classic red raspberry, the described variety does not give shoots at the roots. By tying bushes to the trellis, you can form a compact bed and not suffer with pruning.
Cumberland is a great honey plant attracting bees to the garden. In any weather, the bushes are literally covered with insects. This is useful for other fruit and berry crops on your site.
The bush is quite tall (about 3 m), but not spreading. Shoots hang down, forming something resembling arches. As they mature, they change color from olive-gray to brown-lilac. In the fall, they acquire an interesting bluish-blue shade. Such bushes not only abundantly bear fruit, but also decorate the garden. Looks nice, for example, a hedge. The life of the plant is 12-15 years. Then the yield significantly decreases, the berries lose their sweetness.
How to plant raspberries?
When choosing a seedling, pay attention to the root system. Experienced gardeners note that Cumberland, with its fibrous roots, roots faster and grows better in moist soil, and the plant with tap-root feels rather well even in arid soil. Think about which option is best for your site.
Black Raspberry Cumberland loves warmth and sunshine. For planting culture suitable open area. The ideal is not too steep slope of the hill, stretching from north to south or from north-west to south-east. Such an arrangement will help protect the landing from sharp cold drafts.
Culture is quite demanding on the quality of the soil. Cumberland grows best in forest sierozem, loam or sandy soil.Extremely undesirable heavy oozy, clay, peat substrate.
Choose a place as far as possible from the landings of the classic raspberry. Cultures suffer from the same diseases and are quite capable of infecting each other, depriving you of the harvest. Moreover, the fungus, bacteria, virus spreads like an avalanche, depriving you of even the minimum time to take action.
Also undesirable near any solanaceous (potatoes, tomatoes, eggplants), apple and garden strawberries. Solanaceous do not themselves suffer from verticillosis, but tolerate it. Apple trees, strawberries themselves are sick, and spread the disease.
These cultures are undesirable as predecessors. But the beds on which grew carrots, onions, spicy aromatic herbs, any green manure, on the contrary, are very suitable. Another unwanted neighbor is the classic blackberry. "Parent" and "descendant" do not like each other. Both types of bushes grow worse and bear fruit.
The only possible time for planting in regions with a temperate climate is early spring. It is very desirable to have time to mid-April. If the bush was purchased in a pot or tub, planting is possible throughout the summer. Transfer of the earth coma completely reduces the stress for the plant; before winter it will have time to adapt to the new habitat. In the warm southern regions of the procedure can be transferred to the beginning of September.
The selected area is dug up to a depth of one bayonet of a shovel, removing weeds, stones, rhizomes, other debris and introducing into the ground 20 liters of rotted manure or humus per m².
Then dig holes, observing between them an interval of about 1.5 m, between the rows - 2–2.5 m. When spring planting, it is prepared from autumn, at autumn - 10–15 days before the seedling is planted in the ground. The depth and width of the pit is 40–45 cm. The upper 10–15 cm of land is laid separately, mixing with 15–20 l of humus and a liter jar of wood ash. If you do not trust folk remedies, replace the ashes with 120–150 g of simple superphosphate and 50–70 g of potassium nitrate. Then the soil is poured back into the form of a mound. The remaining soil will be needed to fix the seedling in the pit.
It is very desirable, marking up a bed, to provide a place for a trellis. Cumberland is a tall variety: it will be needed next year. The easiest option is to dig a few pillars and stretch 3-4 rows of wire between them with an interval of about half a meter. The bottom one is at a height of 50–60 cm, the top one is 2.5–2.8 m. However, the garter procedure can be avoided by correctly cutting.
Before disembarking at the bottom of the pit, 10–12 liters of warm water are poured. After waiting until it is absorbed, a sapling is placed on a mound, straightening the roots down. The pit is carefully covered with soil, periodically sealing it with palms to avoid the appearance of cavities filled with air.
Reaching the upper edge, the soil is compacted again (it is impossible to tread, the roots are very fragile), they form a low ring border and water the plant, spending 3-4 liters of water for each seedling. In 20–30 minutes, the ground in the near-circle wheel is mulched with freshly cut grass, dry peat, fallen leaves, sawdust, wood chips. You need to create a layer thickness of 5–8 cm. This will help minimize the efforts aimed at loosening, watering and weeding.
There is nothing difficult in planting the black raspberry Cumberland, the main thing is to choose the right place
How does Cumberland raspberry breed?
Since the root growth in the described culture is absent in principle, reproduction is carried out with the active participation of the gardener. Two methods are most popular - obtaining seedlings from the tips of the shoots and rooting horizontal cuttings. Individual enthusiasts and amateur breeders grow Cumberland from seeds or green cuttings, but this is a very time-consuming procedure that does not guarantee success. A new shrub obtained from a seed may not retain the varietal characteristics of the parent.
Planting material is very easy to get. Some of the most healthy and abundantly fruiting shoots bend to the ground and fixed on it at a distance of 2-3 cm from the top of the wire, bent in the shape of the letter U, or an ordinary pin. The soil beneath them is well loosened, in order to facilitate rooting, a small mound of earth is poured in from above. Every 4–5 days, future seedlings are watered moderately.
For the winter, the layers are warmed, sprinkling with spruce leaves, falling asleep with needles, fallen leaves, peat or humus. Next spring, as soon as the earth warms up so that it can be digged, seedlings with a well-formed root system are carefully separated from the parent plant and planted in the planned place. However, some gardeners recommend waiting for another season and letting them grow stronger so that the stress during transplantation is not so significant.
Horizontal cumberland raspberry layers are obtained by cutting all healthy shoots to a height of 12–15 cm above the soil level in early April. Sick and dried cut off at the root. During the summer, the bush grows, forming 6-10 new strong branches. By mid-September, they are bent to the ground, pinned to the ground, as described above. Shelter for the winter. After the appearance of the first adventitious roots fall asleep ground.
When forming a mound of soil, it is important to leave the top of the shoot open. Therefore, it is attached to the substrate at a distance of 15–20 cm from it. Next fall you will receive strong healthy seedlings that can be transplanted to a permanent place.
The way everyone is good, but often practice such reproduction is not recommended. You can significantly weaken the plant-parent. Such "exploitation" depletes it and sometimes even leads to death.
Cumberland Black Raspberry breeds only with gardener's help - it is an opportunity to form a bed the way you need
Cumberland Black Raspberry is fairly undemanding in care. But competent agrotechnology significantly increase yields.
Water Cumberland moderately. It is undesirable to turn the garden into a marsh, but a long drought will not have the best effect on the yield and taste of the fruit. In hot, dry summers, one irrigation is enough every 3-4 days. The norm for an adult plant is 7–8 l.
Especially raspberries (any, not only described variety) need moisture from the moment of formation of ovaries to the final ripening of the crop. This is quite a long period.
Those who do not have the opportunity to visit the garden plot regularly or live there, it is recommended to mulch the beds in order to retain moisture in the soil.
Cumberland's high yields require shrubs to feed. Otherwise, the root system will not be able to provide all formed ovaries with sufficient nutrients for ripening berries.
Ovaries compared with the usual raspberries formed really a lot. This is due to the fact that Cumberland blooms later and less likely to suffer from returning spring frosts. In the red raspberry flowers, stuck frost, regularly showered.
Cumberland Black Raspberry responds with gratitude to both organic fertilizer and fertilizer.
As a rule, three feedings per season are sufficient.
- When the bushes ottsvetut, they are watered with nitrogen-phosphorus-potassium fertilizer. To this end, 35–40 g of urea or ammonium sulfate, 25–30 g of simple superphosphate and 10–15 g of potassium sulfate are dissolved in 10 l of water. Those who prefer natural organics, prepare an infusion of fresh cow manure. Raw materials are poured twice in a large amount of warm water, tightly close the container and leave in a warm place for 3-4 days. When a characteristic odor appears, the contents are vigorously stirred, pouring a glass of wood ash on each liter of the infusion, again interfere well. For irrigation, the product is diluted with water in a ratio of 1: 7. Each bush consumes 4–5 l of fertilizer. After 30–45 minutes of planting, water is plentiful.Similarly, use bird droppings, but it is bred twice as much water.
- The second feeding is 12–15 days after the first. Use complex liquid fertilizer for raspberry or nettle extract, prepared as described above. The chemical solution is prepared strictly following the manufacturer's instructions in the instructions.
- The third dressing - after collecting the first portion of fully ripened berries. 30–40 g of simple superphosphate and 10–15 g of potassium sulphate per square meter are scattered around the bed. Then the soil is well loosened and waiting for the nearest rain. Or fertilizers simply diluted in 10 liters of water. You can also use complex potash-phosphate fertilizer (Diammophos, AVA, Autumn). At this time, it is strongly recommended to abandon nitrogen - it stimulates bushes to intensive formation of green mass. Raspberries will not be able to properly prepare for the winter. A natural alternative to chemicals is an infusion of wood ash. A liter can is poured over 5 liters of boiling water, left for 2-3 days. Filter before use.
Raspberry Cumberland has a high rate of growth of shoots. Thickened bushes look untidy, less fruitful, more susceptible to diseases and damage by pests. To maintain planting in near-perfect condition, you will need two prunings during the season.
Cut the black raspberries need as follows
The first is carried out in the summer in order to increase the yield. The best time is the last decade of June. Young non-bearing shoots are pruned at the growth point. In their place next summer, not one sprig will grow, but a whole “fan”. Practice shows that on one bush can, without prejudice to the size and taste of the berry, ripen the harvest from 10–12 adult fruit-bearing shoots.
Branches of at least 2 m in height are shortened by about 10%. Pull with the procedure can not, otherwise the newly formed side shoots will not get enough time for full development and, most likely, will not survive the winter.
Sanitary pruning needed raspberry Cumberland after the bushes finally spawn and the plant will begin a period of rest. Depending on the climate, this is the interval from mid-October to early November. To the point of growth, all dried, broken, affected by diseases and pests of the branch are cut off. Also completely get rid of thin, weak shoots growing down and deep into the bush. Very long shoots that extend in height beyond the trellis are cut to size (no more than one third of the length of the branch is removed).
Some gardeners are afraid to cut the black raspberries, leaving only hemp, but for her it is completely normal
The lateral shoots formed last year are pruned by 20–30 cm. It is on them that the berries will appear next year. The branches that bear fruit this year (2–3 years old) are cut as close to the roots as possible. Leave 10–12 most strong and healthy.
To pruning proceed, only appropriately equipped. You will need a thick leather glove for a non-working hand and a simple knitwear for a working one. This way you can minimize damage from spikes. The entire instrument must be sharpened and disinfected. Hold the scissors blades, secateurs in a saturated purple potassium permanganate solution.
The first time to trim is only shoots that have reached a length of at least 0.5 m. 7–10 cm (3-5 kidneys) are cut off from them.
Cumberland Black Raspberry needs to be cut twice a year to maintain proper fit.
Mount on the trellis
Cumberland is a tall bush. Trellis greatly facilitates the process of harvesting and caring for the plant. The fan-shaped method of attachment contributes to the fact that the berries ripen on the periphery, and not in the depths of the bush.
Tapestry supports Kumbelend raspberry bushes, significantly improving your care for planting and harvesting.
For the winter, the branches are carefully unhooked from the trellis and bent over the bed, fastening with metal brackets.You do not have to try to decompose the branches on the ground without fail - you can just break them. Spring shoots inspect, pruned all frozen, withered, broken. The rest is tied up at the same place.
You can play it safe and sprinkle young plants with spruce, peat, sawdust. But most gardeners agree that this procedure is unnecessary. Cumberland perezimuet great and just like that.
Another option is not to remove the branches from the trellis by attaching them to it with several turns of durable, wide synthetic tape. But in this case there is a danger that the shoots will break under the weight of snow drifts if the winter is snowy.
For the winter, the Cumberland raspberries are bent to the ground so that the long shoots do not break under the weight of the snow, but you shouldn’t have to try to spread them out on the garden bed.
When verticillosis leaves turn yellow much earlier than expected - since mid-June. Then they dry and fall off (lower ones only). Berries, if ever ripened, are very small, dry and savory. Shoots become uncharacteristic reddish or purple hue, grow poorly or stop growing.
Effective treatment is currently missing. Therefore, the emphasis is on prevention. Cumberland is planted as far as possible from potential carriers of the disease and the cultures that are also susceptible to it.
Contribute to the preservation of plants healthy purchase of seedlings adapted to the climatic conditions of the area, the correct mode of watering, regular cleaning of fallen leaves and sanitary pruning. The correct soil is important - light, in which moisture does not stagnate.
About once a month for the prevention of planting it is useful to spray any fungicide - Bordeaux liquid, HOM (copper chloroxide), copper sulphate, Kuprozan. For 10 liters of water will need 25-30 ml of the drug.
Verticilous wilt - a common problem in the garden, which concerns not only raspberries
Anthracnose and purple spot
The whole bush suffers from the first disease. It affects both shoots, and leaves, and berries. On them appear small rapidly expanding round spots of ink-purple color. Then they turn gray, a clear purple border appears on the edge. These areas are covered with frequent cracks. Leaves and berries fall, shoots dry out and die.
Anthracnose inevitably leads to the death of raspberry shoots
Purple (or purple) spotting is in many ways similar to anthracnose, but the spots have a brown tint and appear only on young shoots in the places of attachment of leaf stalks. Often they also capture the axillary buds. The branches are covered with spots, become fragile and brittle, gray-brown color at the break.
Preventive spraying with medications containing copper is important against purple blotch.
The measures to prevent and control diseases are almost identical. Maintain a neat-looking bed. Every autumn, remove from it fallen leaves, dry berries, broken and dried shoots. Do not store garbage in the area, but burn it as soon as possible.
In the spring, before the leaves bloom, the bushes are sprayed with a solution of urea (700 g per 10 liters of water). Ready to open the leaf buds and spray the buds two more times, reducing the concentration of the drug to 50 g in the same 10 liters.
If the problems described last year were observed with raspberries, two more sprays with Bordeaux liquid, HOM or Azofos (10 ml per liter of water) will be needed - immediately after flowering and 7–10 days after collecting the last berries. There are other copper-containing drugs used according to the manufacturer's instructions - Abiga-Peak, Ordan, Oksikhom, Ridomil Gold.
Sometimes the disease is called stem cancer. On shoots appear depressed ellipsoid red-brown spots elongated vertically. They slowly grow in size, changing color to gray. The edges are raised, forming something similar to a crater, the surface inside is covered with many small cracks.Looking closely, they can see barely discernible black balls - the container of the dispute.
Most often, the gardeners themselves bring the problem to the site, acquiring low-quality planting material and not keeping the distance between plantings. Stimulates the spores of the fungus to the activity of high humidity combined with heat.
Shoots with the smallest suspicious injuries are immediately cut and burned. The bushes are immediately sprayed with a solution of Bordeaux mixture (100 ml per 10 liters of water). After 12–15 days, the treatment is repeated using copper-containing preparations - Scor, Acrobat, Ordan, Profit Gold. Last spraying - after harvest.
The following spring, when the young growth reaches a height of 10–15 cm, the treatment is repeated. Next, the bushes are sprayed immediately before flowering.
All shoots with the slightest traces of ulcer spot immediately cut and destroy
The virus dramatically reduces the yield (almost by half). If you do not take action, after 3-4 years of landing completely perish. The shoots of the affected bushes become thicker and shorter, the leaves at the top do not bloom to the end, but immediately turn yellow. Their edges are highly corrugated. Berries, if ever ripen, then dry, deformed, sour and small.
There is no effective treatment. Pay more attention to prevention. Carefully select planting material, place it in the "quarantine". Fight sucking insects (especially aphids). Often, they are the carriers of the virus.
Interestingly, sometimes there are cases of "miraculous healing" planting raspberries. But too much hope is not worth it.
The only thing you can do against viral kinkiness is prevention.
To say that the black raspberry Cumberland does not suffer from pests at all is to wry one's soul. Insects, indeed, often avoid planting, but this does not apply to some "omnivorous" pests.
Female pests lay their eggs in the cracks of the shoots. The larvae hatching from them gnaw tunnels in the branches, releasing specific substances that cause blistering, blistering. Often the appearance of pests contributes to excessive enthusiasm for nitrogen-containing fertilizers.
All affected branches immediately cut and burn. To destroy the larvae, use complex insecticides Fufanon, Karbofos, Ridomid in combination with fungicides. Spraying is carried out one after the other, with an interval of 2-3 days. The first treatment - before the leaves bloom, the second - at the end of the harvest.
Characteristic blisters are easy to identify, but getting rid of the stem gall midges is problematic.
Aphids are insects that settle on plants in whole colonies, feeding on their sap. Most often, pests can be seen under the young leaves, on the buds, the tips of the shoots. The plant parts chosen by aphids are twisted into a shapeless clod.
The color of aphids can be very different - from the gentle yellow-green to dark brown and black. Not only do insects inhibit plant growth, provoke drying and falling leaves, they also suffer many infections, to which Cumberland does not have immunity.
In the early spring, for prevention, spray the bushes with Nitrafen or Karbofos (130–150 g per 5 liters of water). If aphid appeared during the summer season, and you noticed it in time, use folk remedies. The pest does not like strong sharp smells. Prepare the infusions of chamomile pharmaceuticals, home tobacco, tomato greens, marigolds, wormwood, tansy, citrus peels. Crush the raw materials, pour about two handfuls with a liter of warm water and leave in a warm place under the closed lid for at least a day. Strain and add some planed laundry soap before use.
In severe cases, cut off all the visible affected parts of the plant, spray it with Aktar, Inta-Vir, Aktellik, Kinmiks.The effect lasts for 2-3 weeks, depending on how intensely it rains.
Aph is surprisingly omnivorous.
The pest lays eggs in leafy and flower buds, cracks in young shoots. The hatching larvae gnaw them from the inside, as a result the kidneys turn black, dry and fall. Young shoots affected by the pest, lose their tone, fade. Their tops tend almost to the ground.
For prophylaxis before flowering, spray raspberries with Agravertin or Aktellik. It is also useful to treat the bed. In the autumn, repeat the procedure.
During the summer, carefully examine the bushes. Finding suspicious signs, cut off the affected shoots and another 8-10 cm, which seem to you healthy. Most likely, there are already laid eggs.
The main damage to the raspberry planting is brought by the raspberry fly larvae
The pest settles on the lower side of the leaf plate, which is covered with small whitish dots. Then thin, almost transparent threads appear that look like webs, stitching together several neighboring leaves, which then dry and fall off.
The harm from spider mites, if not taken timely measures, is quite substantial. You can lose 60–70% of the harvest. To prevent each spring, spray the blooming leaves with a solution of urea (500 g per 10 liters of water). Finding traces of the presence of pests, use Fufanon, Acrex, Actellik. The last treatment is 15–20 days before harvest.
Spider mite braids raspberry leaves with the thinnest threads, and this is not the biggest problem.
How to harvest and where to store the crop?
The first berries from the Cumberland bushes, if the summer was warm and sunny, are removed in mid-July. When the weather fails, the ripening period shifts 10–15 days ahead. Then the procedure is repeated in 2–3 days. Shrubs bear fruit for 2.5–3 weeks, and each time the number of harvested berries increases, and they do not shrink.
If the raspberries could not be harvested immediately, do not worry. The berries firmly hold on the receptacle, even those of them that have fully ripened do not crumble.
Cumberland is a versatile variety. Berries are equally well suited for fresh consumption, baking and all kinds of winter preparations. Separately note the amazing taste and aroma of home wines and liqueurs. To make it more pronounced and original, add the classic raspberry and / or blackberry.
Unfortunately, Cumberland's sagacity, like any other raspberry, is no different. At room temperature, the berries lay, not turning into unappetizing porridge, a maximum of 2-3 days.
Therefore, it is best to freeze the crop immediately. Select healthy berries of about the same size, with no signs of deformation, arrange them on wooden boards or baking sheets so that they do not touch each other, and send them to the freezer. Turn on quick freeze mode. After the time indicated in the instructions has expired, place the berries in small portions in plastic bags or plastic containers and put into the freezer again. So the harvest can be saved for 2-3 months, if you do not defrost raspberries and freeze it back.
Cumberland Raspberry Harvest is a dream of many gardeners, by the way, if you put in some effort, it’s not such an impossible
Cumberland is an old sort of black raspberry. Its disadvantage is the thorniness of shoots and small berries. I removed this variety from my collection.
Cumberland is very cute to me, until I find better varieties - I will grow it. At least, the berries are sweet and have time to ripen here in Central Russia. Even “small fruits” (and for me, it’s quite a normal size).
I waited for the Cumberland black raspberries. I will leave a grade, definitely. Taste specific, but pleasant. This year the berry is juicy (with heavy rains).At full ripeness is very tasty.
It is impossible not to admire the yield, excellent taste and the possibility of the comprehensive use of black raspberry Cumberland: if you want - get some fresh berries straight from the bush, if you want - cook jam, compotes or freeze for the winter. I consider positive dignity for an amateur garden and the fact that it bears fruit for a long time - I gather a bountiful harvest in 20-30 days literally every other day. This high-resistant culture in our Aznakaevsky district of Tatarstan, where in winter the temperature sometimes reaches -40ºС, winters without shelters. The next advantage of this raspberry is that it does not give root offspring, unlike red and yellow. In our garden, Cumberland, without replacing the bushes, has been bearing fruits for 12 years, without a reduction in yield in one place, it produces fruits up to 14–15 years. However, as gardeners understand, the black raspberry shows all these advantages with proper regular care.
Black Raspberry Cumberland is very tasty. I planted it a few years ago and every year the bushes give a big harvest. The berry is large, dense, when collecting porridge just does not work. Berries are well stored.
Cumberland black raspberry variety: photo and description
We used to see raspberries with red and yellow berries, and there is black raspberry, the most common variety of which is Cumberland. This blackberry sprawling shrub with overhanging arcuate shoots. It differs from other raspberry species in the color of shoots up to 2.5 m long, densely studded with spikes. The leaves are dark green three-pyatilepestkovye, rough, with small white bisexual flowers, collected in the thyroid brush.
The Cumberland black raspberry deserves a special description - it is very decorative. During ripening, literally from top to bottom studded with tassels of shiny black berries. And in the fall after leaf fall, the shoots become bluish and also look very impressive.
The berries of the black raspberry variety “Cumberland” are round, ripen together, do not crumble for a long time, of medium size. They attract with their appearance and pleasant sweet, with a slight sourness, taste, with a typical blackberry flavor.
Look at the photo - Cumberland black raspberries are red at the initial stage of ripening, and at full ripeness they get a gray patina:
Fruits safely carry transportation over long distances and are stored for several days. They are good not only in fresh, but also in processed and frozen species.
The yield of black raspberry exceeds many varieties of ordinary. Her agrotechnology is in many ways similar to blackberry agrotechnology.
Planting, care and reproduction of black Cumberland raspberry
This raspberry does not form root shoots, therefore it is propagated mainly by rooting the tips of annual shoots. To do this, at the end of July, the shoots bend down and, in a vertical position, they are instilled into the ground to a depth of 5-10 cm. They are watered 1-2 times a week, and more often in dry weather. By September, roots are formed at the layers, and they are already suitable for transplantation.
The black Cumberland raspberry reproduces well with green cuttings of annual shoots, seeds and woody cuttings. The results of green cuttings depend on the timing, and they are determined by the physiological state of the plant, its ability to active root formation.
Black raspberry is better to graft in the period of mass regrowth of young basal shoots. As soon as they reach 20-40 cm, the cuttings are cut.
Before planting black Cumberlin raspberry, the soil must be prepared in advance. Planted cuttings in the greenhouse, in the soil consisting of fertile loose soil and river sand, poured on top with a layer of 5-7 cm.
When caring for the black Cumberland raspberries, the seedlings need a certain temperature, good illumination and, most importantly, humidity. Before the roots appear, the humidity of the air must be constantly high.
As soon as the cuttings take root and are noticeably touched in growth, the film from the greenhouse gradually, starting from the northern side, is removed. Further care of plants is reduced to watering, easy loosening of the soil, weeding.
Lignified cuttings measuring 20–25 cm are planted in autumn in September — October (before planting they are soaked for 24 hours in a solution of “Hetero-Uksina” or “Epina”). Spring cutting is less successful, because raspberries start vegetating early, and cuttings with awakened buds take root poorly.
Seed multiplication of the Cumberland raspberry is also possible, but much more troublesome. Seeds are sown in February — March in a box and stratified for 1-2 months in the basement. Then carried out in a greenhouse. Friendly shoots appear in warm weather in a few days. Without stratification, seeds germinate only in the second year after sowing in spring.
This variety is distinguished by the violent growth of replacement shoots, which with good care for the summer grows to 20 per bush, each more than 2 m in height.
As you can see in the photo, black Cumberland raspberries are best tied on the trellis. It consists of two-meter stakes driven along the row and stretched on them in 3 rows of wire.
Frost resistance of this variety is relatively high. Successfully winters without shelter.
After landing, the Cumberland black raspberry stroke should be caring and timely. It is practically no different from the care of ordinary raspberries. Biennial shoots die after fruiting, they are immediately cut out after harvesting, removed from the site and burned.
The history of breeding raspberry varieties "Cumberland"
The Cumberland raspberry variety was bred in America in 1888, which means that this culture is over 100 years old.
This frost-resistant representative of the American school of breeding was born by crossing red common raspberries and saplings, thanks to which the new plant has a refined and unique taste. Perhaps it is thanks to him, as well as the unusual color, that the black raspberry has been very popular among gardeners in Europe and America all these years.
Nevertheless, as we noted earlier, “Cumberland” is still rarely found on the territory of the states that were previously part of the USSR.
Description of Cumberland Raspberry
Some amateur gardeners consider black Cumberland raspberries to be blackberries (with upright stems), but to make sure that this is not the case, it’s enough to familiarize yourself with its description. This root-plant has arcuate, powerful, fairly long stems, reaching a height of 1.5 meters.
Black raspberry prefers fertile drained soils with light compositions. In addition, it is highly desirable that such sites are located on illuminated terrain. Stems of plants have rare, but rather sharp thorns, as well as supplemented with complex five-fingered leaves.
The shoots of the Cumberland variety are located two or more meters from the main body, and their offsprings are located at a depth of about 20 cm, which makes it possible to carry out the usual digging without fear for the plant. However, such raspberry tolerates a change of place of growth poorly, which is explained by a small number of adventitious roots. Care (including the formation of crown), is performed as in the cultivation of any other type of raspberry: old and dead shoots should be cut.
The flowering of black raspberries coincides with the flowering of ordinary ones, but the Cumberland variety ripens later: approximately in August-September. Fruits are formed on last year's shoots, and the first berries that appear are quite large in size, and the next ones are becoming smaller. They taste very pleasant and resemble a blackberry.
If you decide to purchase Cumberland black raspberry saplings, having decided to start growing these particular varieties closely, then only choose winter hardy plantsSince the frost tolerance of them is much lower than that of the well-known red raspberry (although in dry periods Cumberland is more beneficial).
There are a number of features that distinguish black raspberries from the usual red, which largely affects the cultivation of the variety. In particular, a gardener should know that:
- "Cumberland" does not give root shoots,
- has good drought tolerance,
- the berries of this class are not showered when ripe,
- can withstand frost to -30 ° C,
- black raspberries are much less likely to suffer from diseases and attacks of pests than its red counterpart,
- she doesn't need much care
- Cumberland bush boasts a powerful root system.
The timing and choice of place for planting raspberry seedlings
As we just noted, black raspberry is undemanding in care. It will be able to grow almost anywhere, with a high level of survival rate.
However, experienced gardeners know exactly in which area such a bush will be able to bring the greatest harvest.
In addition, when planting Cumberland raspberries, which often ripen in August, it is necessary to take into account that the growing season begins very early in it, which means that it is better to plant in the fall to get early harvest. Although this recommendation is more suitable for regions with not very severe winters, as a young plant may not survive the severe cold.
In addition to the location and timing of planting, it is also worth considering the neighbors and predecessors of the raspberry in the selected area. The most profitable neighbor of the Cumberland variety is considered to be the red raspberry, although the black raspberry cannot “live” with its other close relative, the blackberry. As for the predecessor plants, it is extremely undesirable to plant a variety after solanaceous crops: tomatoes, eggplants, potatoes. It is worth avoiding those areas where such a fungal disease, such as verticillary wilting, has already been observed.
The rules of planting black raspberries provide for compliance with the requirements for the distance between the bushes. So, it is important not to plant them too close to each other, even despite the fact that they do not form root shoots. This will help avoid thickening of the landings and all related problems (especially fungal diseases).
Contrary to popular belief, it is impossible not to take into account the quality of the soil at the site selected for the bushes of the Cumberland variety. So, fertile loamy soil is fairly light and contains the optimal amount of minerals and nutrients that will contribute to obtaining good fruit. Also it is necessary to take into account the fact that no stagnation of moisture is observed in the loamy soil, and it keeps the heat warmly needed by the plants while at the same time ensuring the flow of air.
Stepwise landing process
Raspberry "Cumberland" is characterized by a fairly high yield, but only under the condition of proper planting and subsequent care. The process of planting a plant at a permanent place of growth is as follows:
- for seedlings digging pits to a depth of 50 cm,
- fill them with humus and add wood ash,
- raspberry seedlings are placed in pits and lightly covered with soil, previously mixed with complex fertilizers,
- The planted raspberries are watered abundantly, after which the land under the bushes will mulch with peat, chopped straw or rotted compost (a layer of mulch should be 7 cm).
Flexible and long shoots of black raspberry are often used for the design of garden plots, as they are ideal for creating various figures and arches.
Tips for caring for black raspberries "Cumberland"
Unlike the standard red fruit plant, black raspberry does not form side shoots, which means it is much easier to care for it (at least you do not have to prune carefully in spring, just remove the frozen and dried branches).
However, to collect a good harvest of dark purple large berries, it is still necessary to follow a few rules.
The abundance of irrigation
Chokeberry does not need abundant watering even in the summer heat, with which it can easily cope. However, during the formation and ripening of fruits on the branches (closer to the end of June - early July), moisture plays a very important role, so during this period you should not rely on the drought resistance of the variety and it is better to fill the bushes with enough liquid.
At one bush, you need to spend at least 5 liters of water daily (the usual rate of liquid absorption by the plant is 3-5 liters of water twice a week). Due to this, there will be more berries, and they themselves will be able to differ by rather large sizes. As for the type of irrigation, the preference should be given to the drip variant, because it is precisely this variety that the particular variety loves.
When and how to conduct dressing
Timely feeding Cumberland raspberries is a prerequisite for a bountiful harvest. It is enough to carry out the procedure three times per season: during the flowering period (beginning of June), at the beginning of the formation of ovaries (approximately at the end of June), after collecting the first part of the crop. In any of these cases, manure diluted with water in a ratio of 1: 6 is perfectly suitable for the role of fertilizer (when using chicken manure, the ratio will be different - 1:15). One bush will require 10 liters of such a mixture, only after applying fertilizer the ground around the bush must be poured abundantly with ordinary water (5 liters).
In addition, because of the abundance of ovaries, raspberries need feeding with the use of mullein infusion mixed with superphosphate (50 g) and ash (1 l). Fertilizer is also carried out after the shedding of flowers, during the ripening of fruits and after the first harvest.
You can feed with the use of nitrogen mineral fertilizers. They provide good growth and fruiting plants.
Garter raspberries on the trellis
When growing chokeberry raspberries, a trellis is an indispensable attribute of any gardener, thanks to which its growth is directed in the right direction with the possibility of making further adjustments as necessary.
It is possible to install a trellis immediately after the planting of the bushes (at the beginning and at the end of the row), having dug wooden or metal poles along the edges of the beds. Between them they stretch the twine or wire on three levels: the first at a height of 0.5 m above the ground, the second - 1.3 m above the ground, and the third - 1.6 m above ground level.
The trellis will begin its direct function in the second year after installation. As an alternative, you can fix bushes to the fences that are near (provided that the plants are planted near them), but do not forget that in this case, the raspberries will quickly grow shoots, which under their own weight will begin to lean towards the ground and give rise new shoots. As a result, the bush will look untidy.
Black Raspberry Trim
In addition to watering and fertilizing, gardeners are often concerned about how to cut black raspberries, because to keep it healthy, not to grow wildly and bring a rich harvest, this procedure is definitely necessary. It is necessary to perform two main pruning per year: in the summer (at the end of June) and in the fall, before the onset of cold snap.
In the summer period, the procedure is performed in order to increase the yield. By shortening the sprout at the growth point, the next year from this place you will get young twigs, forming a kind of fan. It is on them that the young shoots will form good fruit. When the flowering period ends (mostly at the end of June), you need to choose shoots that have reached a height of two meters and pinch their tops (up to 30 cm), which will help the side shoots to get stronger.
Starting from mid-September until the end of the first half of October, a full pruning of two-year-old shoots is carried out, leaving only one-year-olds to grow (up to 50 cm can be left of them). In general, autumn pruning is considered more sanitary procedure, with cutting out dry and old branches (with the arrival of spring, the pruning procedure is repeated: powerful lateral growths are shortened, leaving two to six buds on each). It helps prepare the bush for the winter period.
In addition to the sprouting shoots, in the fall from each bush, broken, weak and pest-affected branches are removed, and only 5-8 one-year-old strong shoots remain, which must be tied to a support (trellis).