Agricultural technology lingonberries, varieties and basic rules of care will be disclosed in this article.
Lingonberry is a shrub up to 40 cm tall with powerful branched roots. This small shrub is found in coniferous and deciduous forests, as well as forest tundra and marshland.
Lingonberry berries have a bright red color, or as they said before - purple, lingonberry. It is for the color of the fruit shrub and got its name.
Growing lingonberries began recently - about 40 years ago, but to date, the culture already has more than 20 varieties. The creation of varieties involved in Scandinavia, Germany and the United States. Some varieties are obtained in Russia, and they are not inferior in quality to foreign ones.
Due to the fact that lingonberry is an evergreen shrub, it is often used as garden landscaping. A neat shrub with small shiny dark green leaves is often used to design a garden or as a hedge.
The plant blooms in late spring - early summer with small white and pink flowers. Berries ripen at the end of the summer.
When choosing a place for planting it is necessary to take into account the location and characteristics of the soil. The site should be well lit and located away from water or near groundwater location. The plant prefers more peat soils with a pH of 3.0-5.0. Sandy soil may be a good alternative, but other types of soil are unsuitable for shrubs.
Lingonberry demanding watering. During the week, the plant should receive moisture 2-3 times. In hot weather, sprinkling is recommended. It is necessary to monitor the weeds and carry out weeding on time. When loosening the soil mulch does not need to be removed.
Lingonberry does not like strong winds, so it can be planted next to coniferous trees to protect it as much as possible from the weather.
The shrub can ache with some fungal diseases. The most frequent of them are exobasidiosis and rust. Diseased plants no longer develop and may die. When a disease is detected, lingonberries are treated with fungicides, and the affected areas are removed.
The start of fruiting cowberries will depend on the quality of the seedlings. Under favorable conditions, lingonberries can bear fruit in the year of planting, but a good harvest should be expected not earlier than the 3rd year.
Conditions for planting lingonberry garden
The conditions for planting lingonberries are quite simple and do not require special skills. The selected area must be cleared of weeds and other debris. The soil must be enriched with fertilizers. For lingonberry well suitable nitrogen, potash and phosphate fertilizers.
Important: Lingonberry badly reacts to chlorine-containing fertilizers, and manure is categorically contraindicated to it.
A landing pit is dug about 30 cm deep. The width of the pit should be about 1.2 meters. This is necessary given that the roots of lingonberries are horizontal and develop well in breadth. To fill the pit, peat is mixed with coarse sand in a ratio of 1: 3.
It is important that the landing hole is not in the recess. If the need arises, the bed can be raised, especially if the groundwater is close. The bottom of the pit is lined with gravel or rubble.
This will help eliminate the problem of water stagnation and saturate the soil with oxygen.
Lingonberry planting is carried out in the spring.
It is best to buy seedlings in the nursery - with a closed root system. This will provide an opportunity to carry out planting throughout the growing season. Plants adapt well to a new place regardless of their age.Nursery conditions allow you to grow a healthy plant with a high survival rate.
It is possible to plant lingonberries both in rows, and by belt planting. The density of the series depends on the conditions and fertility of the soil.
After planting, the bush should be mulched with peat about 4 cm and watered. Soil moisture should be maintained in the range of 60-70%.
The following year, after planting, new bushes grow from shoots, which gradually merge. For 4 years you can carry out preventive pruning.
Care for the lingonberry garden in spring
Caring for the garden lingonberries in the spring is extremely important, since quite often this plant is under stress from spring temperature drops.
Sudden frosts, which for many regions are not rare even in May, can significantly damage the shrub, which will affect its development and fruiting. To avoid this, you need to cover the lingonberries with a film, and lay straw on top.
This design will allow you to better withstand weather conditions. However, it is not recommended to resort to it for no apparent reason, since the plant may often not have enough air in such conditions.
Tip: Young plants or seedlings especially need to be in additional shelter in the springtime after planting.
In the spring, the plant is fed with mineral fertilizers at the rate of 6 g of potassium sulfate and 10 g of urea per 10 liters of water. Further fertilizing is carried out with fruiting, but it is important to observe the dosage in order not to overfeed the shrub.
During the year, caring for the plant consists in abundant watering, feeding and loosening the soil. Regular mulching and loosening will help preserve moisture and protect the plant from many diseases. Thinning bushes should be carried out every 5 years. The best time for pruning is spring, before the start of sap flow.
Characteristics of lingonberry varieties
Characteristics of lingonberry varieties will help determine the choice of plants. Breeders tried to achieve the highest yields of lingonberries and increase its resistance to various diseases. Varieties differ in plant height and fruit characteristics.
The most promising varieties:
- Coral. Variety can be used as a decorative. Its second value is in high yield. The shrub is rounded, compact enough, does not exceed 30 cm in height. The crop is about 400 g. It bears fruit twice a year.
- Ruby. Late variety that can withstand temperatures down to -30 ° C. Not sensitive to spring frosts down to -3 ° C.
- Red Pearl. Tall variety bred in Holland. The berries have a dark red color, large - up to 12 mm. Fruits twice a year.
- Mazovia. Low-growing variety of Polish breeding. Shrub in height about 20 cm. Often used for decorative purposes, because the yield of shrubs is low. With one bush you can get only 40 grams of berries.
- Kostroma pink. Low-growing variety up to 15 cm in height. It will decorate the garden well during its flowering, but it has a low yield.
- Sannah Variety of Swedish breeding. The berries are tasty, large - up to 400 mg. It has a good yield - about 300 g of berries from one bush.
The chemical composition and benefits of lingonberries
The chemical composition and use of lingonberries have long won deserved fame around the world.
- Lingonberry berries contain valuable vitamins, acids, tannins, pectins and other substances.
- Lingonberries have a high content of ascorbic acid, polyphenols, chromium, copper and mineral salts. Berries are shown to use:
- In diseases of the gastrointestinal tract
- For the treatment of kidney and bladder
- With colds
- As an antimicrobial, tonic and wound healing agent
- Berries can be used for making jam, syrup and other dessert dishes and drinks.
- Valuable are not only the berries, but also the leaves of the plant, from which they make a useful decoction.
With care it is necessary to use the berries for people with diseases of the stomach with high acidity.People with individual intolerance and allergies to lingonberries should abandon it.
Lingonberries will help maintain health and beautify the garden, especially since growing this plant is easy.
This evergreen shrub is often used in landscape design - lingonberry covers large areas and is a real decoration of the garden. The plant is highly valued in traditional medicine, and healthy berries are used in cooking. Breeders brought about two dozen interesting varieties of lingonberries - each of them has its own advantages.
Lingonberry: the best varieties
Under natural conditions, lingonberries can be found in the tundra. In addition to beauty, it attracts people with its benefits - the leaves and berries contain a large number of useful elements. Plant material is indispensable for avitaminosis, diseases of the genitourinary system and colds.
Lingonberry is a self-pollinating plant that produces two crops a year. The plant is unpretentious - lingonberry does not make high demands on the soil, to light, climatic conditions (but in good conditions it bears better fruit).
Due to this property, berries are grown on an industrial scale (this brings a good profit).
Minus lingonberries - a good harvest, she begins to give 4 years after planting (in the second year the plant gives the minimum number of berries).
Cowberry selection was started relatively recently - they became interested in berries in Germany, Finland, Switzerland, Holland. Various varieties have been developed, including remontant ones. Plants differ among themselves not only in yield, but also in the height of bushes and decoration. In the State Register of Russia registered only three varieties:
We also cultivate varieties of foreign selection:
• Red Pearl • Coral • Erntkrone • Erntedank • Sana'a • Erntezegen • Sussi (Suzy) • Mazovia • Erntekarn • Scarlet
Compared to wild plants, cultivated varieties are more fruitful - by planting them in your plot, you will collect 2-2.5 times more useful berries.
Lingonberry: Coral variety
Cowberry variety Coral
Cowberry variety Coral is considered one of the most fruitful and decorative. The height of the bush is about 30 cm, the plant forms a spherical crown. The yield is quite high (you can pick berries twice a year). Average fruit weight: 0.3-0.5 g. Taste characteristics are good.
Lingonberry varieties Mazovia
Cowberry variety Mazovia
This variety is bred by the Polish breeders from a wild-growing form. The height of bushes does not exceed 20-30 cm. The minus of the variety is low yield. The advantages include the excellent taste of rounded dark red fruits and good resistance to adverse factors.
Lingonberry: varieties for the Moscow region
For the conditions of central Russia and Moscow region, many varieties of lingonberries are suitable. Plants in favorable conditions grow by tens of meters and give a couple of crops a year.
Lingonberry: what varieties are best suited for the Moscow region? The best reviews have varieties:
• Coral • Sana'a • Erntekrone • Linnea • Sussi • Ida • Erntegegen • Mazovia • Rubin
Description Linnaeus varieties
Lingney's cowberry variety
Plant height is 15-25 cm. The leaves are large, the bushes are weakly branched. Early flowering, the berries begin to ripen in mid-August, their average weight is 0.4 g. The taste of the berries is sweet-sour, there is a slight bitterness. Secondary bloom is weak.
We grow tsar-berry lingonberries in the open ground: tips on farming
Interest in this wild berry, the favorite of rural doctors, in the middle of the last century resulted in a successful attempt to cultivate the plant, as a result of which the lingonberry appeared at our disposal.
The proposed article discusses the nuances of growing crops in the open field, from planting to use in landscape design.
Following the recommendations for the care of varietal lingonberries will always have on hand the healthiest berries.
Varieties and varieties of lingonberries: what to choose
To turn the wild-growing lingonberries into a garden plant began in Sweden and Finland, so most varieties are of European origin and foreign standards of care.
The following varieties are most suitable for cultivation in open ground:
- Coral - harvested, decorative, bears beautiful curved shoots resembling currants, can give up to 1 kg of berries from a bush,
- Linnaeus - plants are low, but with large leaves, berries differ interesting notes of sweetness and bitterness,
- Mazovia is a low-growing cultivar used as a ground cover plant.
- Ruby - selected for the size of the berries, which reach 12 mm, the bushes are large and have excellent frost resistance.
Among the plant varieties, there are two: remontant varieties that produce two harvests per year, for example, Coral and Ruby, as well as all the others that are capable of only one generation of berries.
Council Lingonberry goes to its maturity for a long time, so be patient to wait for the first significant harvest for at least four years.
Planting: soil composition and special conditions
In nature, lingonberry lives on quite acidic, well-moistened soils. Like other heather (cranberry, blueberry), its roots do not alone cope with the task of providing the plant with water.
But it turns out well in soil fungi, with which lingonberry comes into symbiosis - mutually beneficial cohabitation.
Therefore, the best soil for the plant - taken from under the natural lingonberry and therefore rich in the mycelium of the desired type.
For planting it is better to purchase bushes with a closed root system. They will take root better, because the roots will not be damaged, and the soil ball is already populated with the necessary fungi. Planting is made in April-May and for a couple of weeks they cover the seedlings with film on the frame.
The planting pattern is determined not so much by the needs of the plants, which, anyway, will soon tighten the rows as by the convenience of the gardener. The aisles are organized from 30 to 50 cm, the distance between the seedlings is from 15 to 30 cm. If the site is located on a bog or transitional swamp, the bushes can be placed less frequently, and for quick closing of the crowns on decorative flower beds - more often.
Proper care for lingonberry - a pledge of a stable harvest
To get sturdy, rich in vitamins and microelements berries in open ground, do not provide lingonberries to itself. During the growing season, agrotechnical care operations must be performed, the most important of which are listed below.
Lingonberry needs mulching
- Mulching. A thick layer of conifer wood chips can cope with weeds without the use of herbicides or grueling hand weed.
Lingonberry is moisture-loving, however, an excess of water in the soil and the surface layer of air is unfavorable to it, as it provokes fungal diseases. If it is possible to organize drip irrigation in the open field, it is worth using it. Competent wind protection.
The absence of a strong cold wind allows the lingonberry to ripen earlier, but planting a solid wall of trees around the plots is not necessary for the plants to be aired after rains or watering. Crop.
Starting from about seven years old, lingonberries are periodically subjected to rejuvenating pruning, which has a very beneficial effect on plant longevity and crop quality.
Council Adding 4-5 cm of mulch in the fall in the care of lingonberry will protect the plant from bulging out of the soil.
Fertilizer and lingonberry feed
Used to grow on high-moor peatlands, lingonberries do not need a lot of fertilizer. After the snow has disappeared, on the basis of one hundred square meters, they contribute no more than:
- ammonium sulfate - 0.5 kg,
- potassium sulfate - 1 kg,
- superphosphate - 1.8 kg.
Before flowering repeat the introduction of ammonium sulfate in the same dose, and during flowering add 0.1 kg of manganese sulfate and zinc. On the planting of the first year must make copper sulfate.
Periodic feeding can be carried out using complex granular fertilizer Ogrod 2001, designed specifically for heather crops.
Excellent results are obtained by combining fertilizing and mulching with sand.
Cowberry breeding on its own
Lingonberry superbly roots and green, and semi-lignified shoots, so the best way to propagate it is grafting.
You can spend it in spring and autumn, immediately planting cuttings 4-5 cm long in open ground and covering them with a film for a couple of weeks.
A more reliable option is planting cuttings in greenhouses or greenhouses, where it is easier to keep high humidity and provide proper care. Plant reproduction can be timed to pruning, expanding the plantation during the removal of excess shoots.
Foreign agronomists practice the reproduction of lingonberry seeds, which are sown either before winter or in early spring after preliminary stratification. However, the seedlings give the first harvest later than the plants propagated vegetatively, and do not retain varietal qualities.
Attention! Lingonberry refers to those rare plants whose seeds germinate only in the light.
Cowberry diseases and pests
When growing cultivated lingonberries, the gardener most often faces the following problems:
- exobazidiosis, which is expressed in the growth and whitening of the shoots,
- sclerotinia, causing mummification of berries,
- monilioz, leading to shrinkage of the plant.
These fungal diseases require triple treatment with Bordeaux mixture with a frequency of 2-3 weeks and prevention of waterlogging.
Lingonberry pests are mainly represented by leaflets, gnawing young leaves, flowers and ovaries. However, due to the small areas of lingonberry plantations, pests have not been widely distributed at present.
Lingonberry will look good on an alpine hill
Lingonberry Combination with Other Garden Crops
Low-growing evergreen lingonberries, as seen in the photo, looks particularly colorful on the Alpine hills and as a framing of the tracks. In the spring, it will immediately refresh the garden with bright greenery immediately after the snow melts.
On the red bilberry carpet, richly decorated with scarlet drops of berries, dark junipers and other conifers, as well as high heathers, look spectacular.
Gorgeous compositions of romantic wooden benches and narrow curved rabatok with fruiting lingonberries.
This plant is still gaining popularity among gardeners, so now it can not only revive low-lying corners of the garden and serve as a source of culinary inspiration, but also surprise neighbors and relatives with its unexpected presence in a country estate.
Lingonberry garden: planting and care, cultivation
Lingonberry, planting and caring for which do not require special efforts is a favorite berry, giving a colorful taste to Russian national dishes. Known since time immemorial, it grows in vast areas, especially when it is massively found in taiga and forest-steppe zones, and yields only yields to cranberries.
The name of the perennial plant, which is a low evergreen shrub with fleshy succulent leaves, received from the word “bruce”, which means “red”. Lingonberry is quite small (up to 25 cm), has creeping rhizomes and erect, well-branching stems.
This sweet plant blooms with small white-pink flowers, fruits of berries of rather large size (up to 8 mm in diameter), having a sweet-sour taste.
Growing garden cranberries is gaining increasing popularity both in the household and at the industrial level. Planting a plantation requires minimal investment, and the return is expected to be high and as soon as possible. Moreover, the bred remontant varieties completely cause a high yield (from 1 square meter - 1 kg) and, accordingly, high profits.
At home, the cultivation of lingonberries, planting lingonberries, care features are minimized, the main thing is to provide the plant with a comfortable growing place, the most optimal are well-lit areas that are not subject to regular flooding. Troughs should be avoided, because they accumulate moisture and stagnate cold air.
The soil for planting these shrubs should be light, sandy or peat, with an increased level of acidity. Moreover, the plant can be planted on any, even the most unsuitable land for planting, sprinkling a 30 cm layer of sand with added peat and sawdust.
Lingonberry seedlings are planted and the plants are taken care of mainly in spring (April – May) or in autumn. Seedlings are deepened into the soil by about 2 cm. It is advisable to plant the lingon at a distance of 30 cm from each other in a row with a 40 cm row spacing.
It is convenient both for manual, and for the mechanized collecting of berries. The main thing is to prepare high-quality planting material, and planting lingonberries will not cause much trouble. The principle of planting lingonberries and blueberries is the same. In flowerbeds and beds you can plant shrubs after 20 cm to fully connect their crowns.
After that, the area needs to be watered for compaction and grouting about 5 cm.
Mulching is a good harvest factor
As mulch is recommended to use sawdust, pine needles, straw, wood bark or shavings. In the first two weeks, the plant is required to be watered regularly, and then watered as needed. Top dressing start from the second year after planting.
Mineral fertilizers can be made in the period of fruiting lingonberries. Organic do not contribute.
By the way, lingonberry, planting and care, the reproduction of which gives more joy than any particular trouble, has one interesting feature: it gets its nourishment from the soil with the help of the fungus living on its roots, which sucks mineral elements from the roots.
Reproduction and watering cranberries
Lingonberry can be propagated by seeds or cuttings obtained by separating part of the ground shoots with roots from the mother plant. Harvesting seedlings can be made from spring to autumn.
Lingonberry, planting and caring for which are fairly light, negatively tolerates both stagnant water on the site and drought, so you should be careful with watering the plant. The best is drip irrigation or small-drop irrigation, recommended twice a week. Water consumption per square meter should not exceed 10 liters.
For optimal conservation of moisture, the soil is required to periodically loosen and mulch. It is imperative to get rid of weeds, therefore, to prevent the site from clogging up, it is initially necessary to provide the plant with mulch or modern covering materials. Coniferous chips are also aesthetically and environmentally efficient.
Lingonberry: protection from winds
Lingonberry, planting and caring for the gardener gives aesthetic pleasure, does not like the winds, so protection should be carefully considered, most optimally provided by planting of pines and junipers.
Lack of wind ensures active work of bees and bumblebees, better warming up of the site and favorable climate for the early ripening of the crop. At the same time the moisture evaporates less, the quality of the berries due to the preservation of the wax coating is higher, more their size.
A small breeze is very useful for airing lingonberry areas after rain.
Planting and care of lingonberries are aimed at maximizing harvest, and since the bushes tend to thicken, periodically plants need to be thinned.
At 7–10 years of age, the plant needs to be cut, it is necessary to rejuvenate the bush, to maintain the quality of the berries and their fruiting.
Cuttings obtained as a result of pruning are excellent material for reproduction and expansion of the landing areas.
Winterhard quality cowberry
Lingonberry garden, planting and care that do not require material costs, has excellent winter hardiness, does not require shelter for the winter, in a cold period under the thick layer of snow you can find dark green, shiny leaves of the plant. Flower buds can be adversely affected by temperatures below –4 ° C.
With proper care, the crop should be expected in the second year. Fruit ripening occurs in August – September, depending on the area and variety. Harvest can be dried, wet, freeze, make fruit drinks and preserves.
Lingonberry - the key to excellent health
For the health of lingonberries, growing, planting, the care of which gives one only pleasure - it's just a godsend! In this pretty little plant, everything is useful: bright red berries (accumulating a huge amount of useful microelements and vitamins), as well as shoots and leaves, which are an excellent basis for a useful medicinal decoction.
Lingonberry leaves have a powerful antiseptic, wound healing, diuretic, antimicrobial, anti-inflammatory and tonic effect. This is an excellent treatment for viral diseases.
Decoctions and infusions are recommended for use to rinse the throat and oral cavity, which is very effective in treating many infections, especially staphylococcal.
It is also an excellent means of reducing the concentration of sugar in the blood, which is very useful for people with diabetes. It is a valuable source of protein for people on a diet.
Collecting leaves for healing broth
Lingonberry leaves for the preparation of medicinal broth should be collected in early spring, before flowering, and you need to take only those who survived the winter, because the young leaves will turn black when drying. Secondary raw materials can be collected in the autumn, after the end of the flowering of lingonberries.
The leaves of the bush must be plucked gently, without cutting off the shoots, in order to avoid injury to the bush. Repeated harvesting of leaves is allowed in 5–10 years after full regeneration of the plant. Before drying, unsuitable leaves should be selected: injured and blackened.
Fabric for drying should be spread in a warm dark place, the leaves spread out in a thin layer.
Good quality cranberries
Basically, lingonberry is used as a diuretic and is used to treat the kidneys (with stones in them) and the bladder (with incontinence, especially in children). Also, this sour berry helps to get rid of gout, rheumatism and diarrhea, has the ability to lower blood sugar levels.
Juice from ripe lingonberries, as well as the fruits themselves, is useful for high blood pressure and vitamin deficiency. In case of catarrhal diseases and feverish conditions, the plant berries make healing soothing tea. The bitterness in this priceless berry causes an increase in appetite, therefore, for children and people weakened by illness, it is an indispensable ingredient.
Lingonberries are often planted and cared for medicinal purposes, because this berry is an excellent antiseptic that prevents infection in the urinary system and protects the intestines and stomach from poor-quality food.
Long-term daily intake of decoctions or tea from berries and leaves completely cures urinary tract infection. Lingonberry is used in the treatment of various diseases.
Also, the plant has a good antipyretic effect.
Description of lingonberry
On a small evergreen shrub, covered with bright red berries, beads, pleasing the eye in the dreary autumn season, there are legends. One of them tells about a swallow, which, having obtained drops of living water, was in a hurry to bring them to people, in order to bestow immortality. But her plans were upset by an evil wasp that stung a bird.The swallow spilled precious moisture on the ground, and she fell on the cedar, pine and lingonberries that grew under them. Since then, these plants have become the embodiment of eternal life, because they do not lose their green outfit neither in winter nor in summer.
Lingonberry, not losing green leaves all year round, has become the personification of eternal life
Lingonberry - a resident of the harsh edges. Its habitats stretch across the tundra zone, mixed, coniferous and deciduous forests, peat bogs, it is found on treeless tops of Siberian hills and alpine meadows.
Lingonberry shrub is tiny, its raised branchy shoots grow from 5 to 25 cm. Rhizome thin, horizontally located, creeping. The leaves are alternately, often. Their length is from 0.5 to 3 cm, width is only 1.5 cm. The surface is leathery, dark green above and shiny, matt below and lighter below. The shape of the leaf plate is obovate or elliptical, the edges are solid, curved. The peculiarity of the plant is located on the lower side of the leaf-shaped formations capable of absorbing moisture.
Lingonberry - a miniature plant
Lingonberry is a vivid example of plant and fungus symbiosis. Threadlike mycelium twines around the roots of the berry. The fungus draws nutrients from the soil and transfers them to the cranberries. Therefore, white bloom from the roots of the plant is not necessary to remove.
Flowering occurs in May - June. During this period, a delicate aroma is felt over the cranberry glade. 10 or 20 flowers, the corollas of which are painted in porcelain-white or pale pink color, sit on short pedicels. The whole bunch is assembled in a drooping brush. Bell-like flowers look very beautiful against the backdrop of brilliant green.
Small, porcelain-white flowers of lingonberries are collected in a bunch of flowers
Cowberry fruits resemble a ball up to 8 mm in diameter. Ripe berries are covered with shiny red skin, and at the beginning of ripening they are greenish-white. The flesh contains a large number of red-brown, very small seeds. The taste of lingonberries is sweet and sour, with a slight bitterness, juicy.
Surviving the first frosts, lingonberry berries become soft and watery. For transportation in this form, they are already unsuitable. Under the snow they can hang on the branches until spring, but with the onset of heat they fall off from the slightest touch.
Cowberry fruits are shaped like a ball
Lingonberry from ancient times is used as a medicine. Raw materials are the leaves and berries. Lingonberry is very popular in the treatment of kidneys as a diuretic, helps in the fight against gout, rheumatism, reduces blood sugar levels. Lingonberry is used in cosmetology. Broth leaves helps get rid of dandruff, helps to restore skin tone, strengthens it and returns elasticity.
The cultivation of plants first began to engage in the XVIII century. But truly massive cultivation on an industrial scale was undertaken only in 1960 in the United States and Europe. And in Russia, the first plantations appeared in the 80s. It is a pity that in the garden plots the useful berry is a very rare guest. But breeders have carried out painstaking work on the creation of new varieties of lingonberries, which, unlike the wild-growing ancestor, have large berries with high taste and more fruitful fruit.
In the USA and Europe, lingonberries have been grown on an industrial scale since 1960
Popular domestic and foreign varieties of lingonberries
Lingonberry garden differs from the wild-growing mass of positive characteristics, one of which is remanufacturing - the ability to re-or repeatedly bloom and bear fruit during one growing season. In addition, the size and, correspondingly, the mass of a berry of a cultivated plant is much larger than that of a forest dweller. And if you take the yield indicator, the cultivated plants with 1 weave yield 20, and sometimes 30 times more berries than ordinary ones.
Agricultural technology of growing lingonberries
Growing lingonberries at home is not at all difficult.It is only necessary to adhere to certain rules.
If you decide to plant lingonberries on your plot, you should consider the following nuances:
- for planting use young - one or two years - plants,
- lingonberry does not like heavily fertilized soil
- favorable conditions for the growth and development of plants have only loose and acidic soils with a pH of 3–4.5,
- it is advisable to prepare the soil yourself, be sure to include in its composition high-moor peat, coarse sand, pine litter and pine bark,
- the land in which the lingonberry grows must be acidified periodically,
- the landing place should be even, well lit and slightly blown by the wind, especially after rain or watering, so that excessive evaporation does not provoke fungal diseases. The ideal option would be to place lingonberries next to a hedge of pines or juniper. Such natural protection from strong winds will contribute to the active work of pollinating insects,
- the groundwater level should be 60 cm below the surface.
- distance between bushes - 25–30 cm,
- row spacing - up to 40 cm
- landing depth - 10–15 cm.
Watering, loosening and mulching
First you need to know that the cowberry surface root system, which in the loose soil dries very quickly. Therefore, it is necessary to maintain soil moisture at a very high level - not less than 70%. This is achieved by the frequency of watering at least 1 time per week. In an especially hot period, water should be watered more often: up to 2-3 times in 7 days. But at the same time, frequent waterlogging or flooding of cowberry plantings can stop the access of oxygen to the roots, which will not slow down affect the health of the plant.
During the ripening of the second wave of the crop on the remontant varieties there is a deposit of flower buds of the future crop. And it was during this period that the lingonberry most needed watering.
Sprinkling is the best method for cowberries, but on condition that the site is well ventilated. You only need to spend it early in the morning or in the evening so that the wet leaves are not affected by the sun. In addition to sprinkling, you can use drip irrigation. Water consumption rate per 1 m2 - not more than 10 liters.
If the area where the lingonberry grows is well ventilated, the plant will like sprinkling
Landings need frequent, but careful loosening, eliminating weeds. But digging can not be carried out. In addition, be sure to use mulch, which will help retain a sufficient amount of moisture. For mulch on peaty soils, use coarse sand or fine gravel. For sand, the best choice is pine sawdust and needles, peat.
Lingonberry bushes must necessarily be mulched
As already mentioned, lingonberry does not like rich soil. Therefore, fertilizing the plant, do not get carried away. The rule here is that it is better to underfeed than to feed. An overuse of nutrients can lead to lower yields, leaf shedding and stunting.
All your favorite organics in the form of manure or bird dung for lingonberry is not suitable. It contains a large amount of nitrogen, which can burn sensitive roots. In addition, organic matter cleaves the soil, which leads to chlorosis, and then to the death of the plant. Potassium chloride is also contraindicated.
Fertilizing lingonberry should be dealt with no earlier than 3 years after planting, when the berries enter fruiting season. When choosing fertilizers, give preference to mineral compounds. To feed with nitrogen, choose urea, ammonium nitrate, or ammonium sulfate. Also not to do without potassium sulfate and superphosphate. Manganese, boron, zinc and copper are necessary for plants growing on peat soils.
Mineral fertilizers are applied only in liquid form in pre-moistened plantings.
Instead of the listed fertilizers, you can use the complex, for example, Kemira or Kemira Universal.
Experienced gardeners instead of fertilizers regularly make high peat, distributing it over the soil surface in plantings.
Unfortunately, organic fertilizers for lingonberries are not suitable
Lingonberry treatment for diseases and pests
Lingonberry has strong immunity and is resistant to many types of diseases and pests. But with excessive humidity, combined with high air temperature, fungal infections are possible.
- Exobazidiosis. The disease affects shoots, leaves and flowers. In addition to the deformation of the leaves, the symptom is a change in their color. The leaf plate becomes pink, whitish patches of fungal spores appear on it. Bordeaux fluid is used to stop the spread of the disease. Spraying is carried out 3-4 times with a weekly interval. Affected plants will have to cut and burn.
- Sclerotony. First of all, the fruits are affected. They shrivel and mummify. They fight the disease with Bordeaux liquid in the spring, before the leaves bloom, and in the fall, after they fall. Spend 2–3 treatments. You can use a 0.2% solution Zuparena - 3 spraying at intervals of one week before flowering and the same after harvesting. Fallen sick berries pick up and destroy.
- Rust. The leaves are covered with dark orange spots. To cope with the disease, carry out 2-3 processing Bordeaux fluid before the leafing and after shedding. Collect and burn all fallen leaves.
Cases of pest infestation are rare, and there is no appreciable damage to plant growth and yield. Among insects, leaf-eating species were observed - caterpillars-volnyanka, leaf-beetles, lisperies. As a rule, at the beginning of detection they are collected by hands. Also, lingonberries can be attacked by aphid and shchitovka. They are fought with insecticides, in accordance with the instructions and only when absolutely necessary.
Photo gallery: possible diseases and pests
This procedure is carried out to rejuvenate plantings when the lingonberry is 7–10 years old. Removing most of the old shoots, you maintain the productivity of the bushes. Landing themselves become more durable.
Pruning can be carried out throughout the growing season. But the best time is still the early spring, when the movement of juices has not yet begun. Long shoots are shortened by a third, and old ones are cut. At the same time on the bush must be a few twigs. And the cuttings obtained after pruning will serve as an excellent planting material and will help to expand the plantation.
Reproduction stem cuttings
- In early spring, before the beginning of sap flow, or in late autumn, cuttings with a length of at least 5 cm are cut with the help of a secateur.
- Soil mixture is prepared from 2 parts of peat and 1 part of sand. Mixed soil is poured into the container and moistened.
- Before planting, the cuttings are soaked for several hours in a growth stimulator solution (you can do without it).
- The lower cut of the cuttings is immersed in the substrate, leaving at least 2–3 buds above the surface.
- In order to maintain high humidity, containers with cuttings are covered with a package, creating a greenhouse with a temperature of + 25 ° C inside the microclimate.
- Landings are periodically aired and sprinkled with water.
- During the growing season, the cuttings acquire the root system. The following year, they are safely relocated to a permanent place.
Reproduction root segments
The procedure is carried out only if the plot of rhizome has growth buds or shoots. This method of breeding lingonberries is suitable for the end of April or the beginning of May.
- To rooting was successful, prepare the bed, which is filled with sand and peat substrate in proportions of 1: 3 or 1: 2.
- Ten-centimeter grooves are made in the substrate and moisten the surface.
- Planted pieces of rhizome, covered with soil and watered again.
- Above the bed, be sure to install the wire arcs and cover the landing with covering material.
- During the month, watered, not allowing the drying of the substrate.After rooting, shelter can be removed, but watering should be carried out regularly. Young plants that grow stronger by the end of the growing season, leave to winter in the garden.
- To transplant to a permanent place lingonberries grown from root segments, will be ready in a year or two.
Rhizome having shoots can be divided into parts
Reproduction partial or affiliated bushes
From formed under the cowberry underground rhizome shoots - stolons - young plants are formed. They are associated with the mother plant with the help of rhizome and are called partial bushes. For the purpose of reproduction use only bushes that have their own root system. Reproduction in this way is possible both in spring and in autumn. To do this, young and well-formed bushes dig up and separate from the parent plant.
- It is possible to plant lingonberry bushes both on a prepared separate garden bed for growing and in separate tanks.
- Plants growing in containers are ready for transplantation into open ground in a year.
- It is best to plant the bushes in the spring for further planting. The plant will have enough time to take root for the winter.
- Planted in the autumn bushes need to be well mixed with peat, spruce branches or set a nonwoven cover over them.
Partial lingonberry bushes can be planted in separate beds for rearing
This type of breeding is more suitable for off-grade lingonberries. The process is time consuming, but expedient due to the cheapness of the material obtained for the expansion of plantings. For the selection of seeds, only well-ripened berries are suitable. They are kneaded and washed in a small amount of water. The pulp and skin are removed, and the seeds are thrown back on a sieve, and then dried.
Before sowing the seeds must be prepared. This procedure is called stratification. It can be natural - the seeds are sown in autumn in the garden. Hardened by winter conditions, the seeds germinate in spring. And you can collect the seeds and 4 months to store in wet sand at an average temperature of 4 ° C, for example, in the lower compartment of the refrigerator.
Before sowing, lingonberry seeds necessarily stratify
The seeds that have undergone treatment show the best germination.
- Seeds are sown in containers filled with a mixture of peat and sand. Since the seeds germinate well in the light, they do not need to be buried.
- To maintain high humidity and an average temperature of 20–25 ° C, the container can be covered with a transparent bag or glass and put in a bright and warm place. But not under direct sunshine!
- Mini greenhouse air and moisten the substrate.
- After the appearance of the first shoots in 2-3 weeks, the shelter can be removed.
- When the seedlings appear 4 adult leaves, they can dive into separate pots or on a greenhouse bed.
- During the year, seedlings are watered regularly, after which they are ready to transplant to a permanent place.
It is very convenient to germinate seeds in mini-greenhouses
How to grow a garden cranberries in a pot
Lingonberry, which has a compact size, if desired, you can settle at home - on the windowsill or on the balcony. But it is worth considering the difficulties that may arise:
- lingonberry has a horizontal and creeping rhizome, which will be cramped in small volumes,
- You will have to strictly control watering, as overdrying and over-wetting of the soil can destroy the plant.
Watering the lingonberries only needs rain or at room temperature which has been settled for several days.
For landing you need to prepare:
- low, but wide pot. The dimensions will depend on the root system of the bilberry bush. At the bottom there must be holes for draining excess water into the pan,
- drainage is a prerequisite
- substrate - it is better to prepare it yourself. Ordinary garden or universal soil will not work. The simplest mixture can be obtained by mixing 3 parts of high peat and 1 part of coarse sand,
- planting material. You can buy it in the garden center or dig it in the forest.
- Lay a good drainage layer on the bottom of the pot.
- Pour the prepared soil mixture from above.
- Set the bush in the middle of the tank and fill the sides of the soil to the sides.
- Lightly tamp the soil around the perimeter of the pot and water it abundantly. Be sure to remove residual water from the pan.
- Keep the lingonberry in a bright place, but avoiding drafts. Very good plant feels outdoors. Therefore, if there is a balcony or loggia, you should move the pot to there.
Lingonberry in a flowerpot will be a real decoration of the balcony or window sill. Glossy green foliage, which does not fall even in winter, will be pleasing to the eye throughout the year. Flowering lingonberries will allow you to admire miniature flowers, collected in bouquets, tassels. And ripened coral-red fruits will not only revive the greens, but also help to diversify the taste sensations, if you add them to the preparing dishes.
Lingonberry grown in a flowerpot will be a real decoration of the window sill or balcony
Features of growing lingonberries in different regions
Lingonberry is a fairly plastic plant that tolerates frosts and fever, but only if it is properly cared for. The difference in the cultivation of this crop in different regions is that in a hot and middle climate, lingonberry does not require shelter, as it is easily adapted. In the northern areas for early-flowering varieties, spring frosts can be a threat. Therefore, before the onset of stable warm weather bushes need to cover non-woven material.
Growing cowberries in Ukraine
In Ukraine, lingonberry is not popular. Almost nobody grows it. To meet this plant in nature is possible except in the foothills of the Carpathians, where coniferous forests begin. But varieties adapted to the conditions of the local climate may well be cultivated on plots.
A feature of growing lingonberries in Ukraine, especially in its southern areas, is frequent watering. If the humidity is less than 50%, then the plant will have to be watered almost daily. The rest of the landing and care are very similar to the same methods that are carried out in other regions.
Growing lingonberries in central Russia and Moscow region
Despite the fact that lingonberries are grown on an industrial scale for a long time abroad, in Russia it is cultivated only by amateur gardeners, and even then it is not everywhere.
And in vain. The climate of central Russia and its suburbs is very suitable for growing this berry. In addition, in the conditions of the Moscow region varietal plants have enough heat and daylight in order to seed twice. If you follow all the above rules for planting and care, then there will be no problems. For cultivation, try to acquire only zoned varieties.
Lingonberry feels great in the climatic zone of central Russia and its suburbs
It is also possible to cultivate lingonberries in cooler regions. But in order to get a guaranteed harvest, the choice will have to be stopped in early varieties.
As soon as a cowberry glade appears in your garden, you can be sure that the guests will not keep you waiting. After all, this wonderful plant can be admired all year round. And how charmingly ripe berries look out from under the fluffy snow cover! In addition to aesthetic pleasure, lingonberry will benefit the body.
Abroad, lingonberries have long been grown commercially, but for some reason, Russian farmers don’t like this berry. And in vain - there is no competition in this market segment, and the demand for useful products is always stable and the price for it is high.
Lingonberry production is mainly concentrated in Sweden and Finland, there are some plantations in Germany and the USA. In Russia, varietal lingonberries in a small amount are grown only by amateur gardeners. Meanwhile, the production of this berry can be a very profitable business.
For just over 40 years, more than 20 lingonberry varieties have been registered in the world (3 of them are in Russia), industrial plantations have been laid and even machines have been created for mechanizing the processes of planting and harvesting berries.
All costs will pay off in the second year.
The main part of the costs for laying a lingonberry plantation is the cost of seedlings. However, growing lingonberries is very profitable. A plantation planted with 3-year-old seedlings begins to yield berries already in the year of planting, and a year later it reaches its design capacity.
Even with a minimum yield of 200 g / bush with a single-line planting for the 2nd year, you can get about 80-100 kg / 1 hundredth of berries, which cost about 24-25 thousand rubles. This allows for 2 years to recoup all the costs of its production and already make a profit.
The lifespan of lingonberry plantation without rejuvenating pruning is at least 15 years, and with rejuvenating pruning carried out once every 10-12 years, at least 50-60 years. During this period, investment is required only for harvesting, mulching, fertilizing and, if necessary, treatment for diseases, while the income from the sale of the berries far exceeds these costs. Since the primary costs for laying a lingonberry plantation are significant, you can start the business with a few hundred square meters, and then, earning from the sale of the berries, gradually increase the planting area.
Of all the varieties of lingonberry most popular today Dutch variety Coral (Koralle).
Registered in 1969, it is still the most high-yielding - 0.2-0.4 kg / bush and more. Bushes with a height and width of more than 30 cm have long erect shoots, oval leaves. The berries are medium (0.8-0.9 cm in diameter), light red, sweet and sour with a slight bitterness. Forms two crops per season: at the end of July - the beginning of August and at the end of September - the beginning of October.
No less well known is another Dutch variety registered in 1981, - Red Pearl (Red Pearl).
Tall and sprawling, densely branched plants reach a height of 20-30 cm. The leaves are large, round, dark green. Berries are large (7-12 mm), round, dark red, good taste, sweet and sour with a slight bitterness. Able to form two crops per season.
The variety is quite popular in Germany Ammerland (Ammerland). The bush is 30 cm high and forms a crop twice per season: at the end of July - the beginning of August and at the end of September - the beginning of October. The yield is high - 0.2-0.3 kg / bush and more. The berries are medium (0.9-1.1 cm in diameter), light red, sour-sweet. The aerial part grows well, forming compact, abundantly fruiting, spherical bushes, similar to the Coral variety.
Low (up to 20 cm) bushes in variety Erntekrneregistered in 1978
The berries are somewhat larger (0.9-1.1 cm in diameter) than in the Coral variety, dark red, with very good taste qualities (sour-sweet with a slight bitterness), juicy. Annually forms two crops, but summer fruiting is unstable. The yield is about 1.5 times lower than that of the Coral variety.
The most large-fruited variety (diameter of berries - 1.2-1.4 cm) - Erntesegen (Erntesegen).
Bushes tall (up to 40 cm), flexible shoots long, large leaves, elongated. The berries are light red, with very good taste - sour-sweet, with a slight bitterness. True, the yield is 2 times lower than that of the Coral variety.
Low-growing bushes (up to 15 cm) are characteristic of varieties Mazovia (Masovia)which forms many rhizomes and very quickly covers the soil with a solid carpet.
The berries are dark red, medium, with good taste, sweet-sour. Ripen in late August. The yield is good, but lower than that of Coral.
Good yield is different Runo Bielawskie variety (Runo Bielawskie), bred in 1996, the bushes are compact, 25-30 cm tall, dense. The leaves are oval, dark green. The berries are oval, the skin is thin, tender, dark red. Ripens in early September.
Swedish and Finnish
Strong, high (up to 25 cm), weakly-branched bushes with large leaves varieties Linnea (Linnea)registered in 1997
The early ripe grade, ripens from the middle of August. Capable of weak secondary flowering. Harvest at the age of 3 - 150 g / bush. Partiation (growth) is weak. Berries are from medium to large, bright red, sweet-sour, with a slight bitterness.
Thick and compact bushes in the form of a dense ball height of 15-20 cm in varieties Ida (Ida), registered in 1997. The leaves are large, the fraction is weak. Fruits are large (1 cm in diameter), bright red, sweet and sour, ripen from mid to late August. The variety is capable of secondary flowering and fruiting. Yield at 3 years of age on average -140 g / bush.
Quickly forms a solid carpet Sanna variety (Sanpa)characterized by intense partisation.
Registered in 1988. Erect bushes, 15–25 cm tall. Elliptical or obovate leaves. Fruits are red, round, weighing 0.4 g, sweet-sour, ripen in mid-August. The yield of adult bushes - 300-400 g / bush.
Low-growing bushes with a height of 10-20 cm Sussi varieties, registered in 1988. The berries are round, dark red, large, weighing 0.4 g, sweet and sour. Harvest ripens in the 3rd decade of August. The yield is slightly lower than the Sanna variety.
Evenly branched bushes 15 cm high at varieties Kostroma pink, registered in 1995. Mid-season self-fruiting variety, ripens in Kostroma region on August 15-20. The fruits are rounded, with a diameter of about 1 cm, pink color, with a sweet-sour taste. The average weight is 0.34 g. The yield is 0.76-2.68 kg / m2.
Very dense, densely branched bushes with a height of 15-18 cm in the variety Kostromichka, registered in 1995. The early ripe variety in the Kostroma region ripens on August 10-15. Fruits are round, with a diameter of 7-8 mm, dark red, sweet acid. The average weight is 0.24 g. The yield is 0.96-2.48 kg / m2.
Intensive partisation is characterized by Rubin varietyregistered in 1995
Bushes sredneroslye height 15-20 cm. Late-ripening samobesplodnyy variety, in the Kostroma region ripens on August 20-25. Fruits are round, dark red, sweet-sour. The average weight is 0.22 g. The yield is 0.94-2.88 kg / m2.
All of these varieties can be successfully grown not only in central Russia, but also far to the north. After all, first, the lingonberry is winter-hardy and without shelter it can withstand temperatures down to -30 ° C, and secondly, the height of the bushes does not exceed 20-45 cm, thanks to which they are well covered with snow and do not suffer even when it is below -30 ° C.
Where and how to plant
It is necessary that the site for laying a lingonberry plantation meets a number of requirements. The site should be well lit, protected from the wind, so that it would be comfortable to pollinating insects, and in the winter the snow did not blow from the plantation. The soil should be loose, water and breathable and very acidic (pH 3.5-5.5). Suitable peatlands, sands and sandy loam. On the remaining types of soil before planting will have to improve their structure.
On sandy, sandy and clay soil, lingonberries can be grown in rows enriched with peat. At the site, furrows are plowed with a depth and width of 10 cm, and they are filled with acidic (pH 3-5) top peat. To fill 100 rm. m furrow will require 1 m2 of peat.
The single-line planting scheme is often used when the distance between the rows (rows) is 0.75-1.0 m, and between plants in a row is 25-30 cm. In this case, up to 400 seedlings / weave are placed on average. This scheme is most convenient for the mechanization of planting, caring for the plantation and harvesting berries. For this variant of planting, the most suitable varieties are characterized by a weak fractionation: Coral, Amerland, Red Pearl.
In this case, the planting is not thickened, and the farmer does not need to spend time and money to clean the rows.
Care is easy
Lingonberry requires minimal feeding - no more than 250-300 g / weave of full mineral fertilizer.It is better to use special fertilizers recommended for heather. Of the most suitable and widely used can be recommended "Kemira-Universal", "Kemira-Lux", "Mortar".
To protect against weeds, rows are mulched with sawdust, and row spacing is treated with roundup or mowed there. Mulching is carried out once every 2-3 years: the width of the mulch layer is 25-30 cm, thickness is 5-7 cm.
To diseases and pests Lingonberry is stable, so treatments are rarely required. For prophylaxis, it is possible 2 times a year - in early spring and late autumn, when the plants are at rest, - to process the planting with Bordeaux mixture.
When commodity growing lingonberries most labor-intensive harvesting. It is carried out manually using special scrapers. The collected berries do not spoil for a long time due to the content of benzoic acid in them, which prevents the development of yeast fungi.
By the way, additional income can be obtained from the sale of seedlings.
Varietal lingonberries are propagated only vegetatively: rhizomes, partial shrubs or stem cuttings. With seed reproduction, there is a significant splitting of characters and a complete lack of uniformity. Rooted cuttings exclusively in the greenhouse, the other methods can be used in open ground. Rooted cuttings grow in open ground in pots or on beds in shkolke. Commercial seedlings are usually obtained after 3 years from the time of grafting. Well-developed plants (10–12 cm high with 3–4 shoots) are used to lay the plantation; the weaker ones are left in the schoolhouse for another 1 year.
Varieties of garden cranberries
If you decide to plant lingonberries in your summer cottage, you should familiarize yourself with its varieties. We will tell you what varieties of lingonberry garden is best to choose, and describe the most popular ones.
The variety is a shrub whose height is about 30 cm, the diameter of the crown is the same. It grows in raw coniferous and deciduous forest plantations, peat bogs are a good place to grow.
The inflorescences are white flowers of regular shape with a pink tint. Flowering occurs in the period May - June. Lingonberry can be planted even in sour, poor soil. Among the most suitable substrates are peat and sand. The variety of cowberry "Coral", grown under the supervision of a person, has a good yield: during the season you can collect 60 kg of fruit from 1 hundred.
Switzerland is the homeland of the variety, it has a good yield: one bush can produce up to 300 g of fruits. The growth of lingonberry occurs quite rapidly, for this reason it is often used to create beautiful landscape compositions. The height of shrubs varies from 15 to 30 cm. They are characterized by branching, pomp, grow among the thick of evergreen leaves.
With one brush you can collect about 6 berries. They have a smooth skin of coral-red gloss. The fruits have a sweet and sour taste. The mass of one cranberry is about 0.4 g.
Cowberry varieties "Sanna" It does not require special care. It can grow well in shading or near larger bushes. It has good winter hardiness, is not subject to diseases.
"Red Pearl" refers to the early varieties of lingonberries, its homeland is Holland. The height of the bushes reaches 30 cm, they have a wide, spreading crown. The variety has leaves of large size, dark green color, round shape.
Cowberry fruits are quite large, reaching 12 mm in diameter. Have a round shape, burgundy color. They are distinguished by a sweet and sour taste with a slight bitterness. For the season variety can give 2 crops. Frost resistant and is able to withstand temperatures up to –25 ° C.
"Ruby" refers to late-ripened lingonberry varieties. It is represented by an evergreen ground cover shrub whose height is 15–30 cm. It has small smooth elliptical leaves colored in dark green color.Inflorescences have a pale pink color, similar to small bells.
"Ruby" refers to light-loving plants, it is better to plant a variety in acidic well-drained soil. After planting, the first harvest can be obtained after 4 years. Berries have a rich chemical composition, so they are often used in the preparation of infusions and decoctions.
It is presented by low spherical bushes no more than 30 cm high. Their foliage has emerald green color. Ammerland has a high yield: 300 g of fruits with a sweet-sour taste are collected from one bush. They have a light red color and large size (1.1 cm in diameter). Fruiting occurs twice per season: in July and early September.
For planting fit well-lit lawns that are far from large trees that create shade. The above-ground part of the bushes grows fairly quickly, resulting in beautiful compact bushes.
The variety was obtained as a result of the work of Polish breeders from a wild-growing bush. Refers to the evergreen, there is always foliage on the bush. Plant height is about 30 cm. The fruits are quite small, the weight of one lingonberry is only 0.25 g. The variety has low yields. - from one bush only 40 g of fruits are collected.
Bred by Swedish scientists, was named in honor of the famous breeder. It is represented by tall bushes with a strong main shoot and underdeveloped peripheral ones. Plant height is 25 cm. The foliage is quite large. Flowering begins early, sometimes repeated in the autumn.
The fruiting period falls on the second half of the summer. Fruits of the variety have a size of about 0.45 cm. Painted in bright scarlet color, have a sweet-sour taste with bitterness. The yield of one bush at the age of 3 years is 150 grams of berries per season. Cowberry "Linnaeus" resistant to frost. In the absence of snow, it can survive frosts down to –15 ° С. It is recommended to plant the plant in sour peat soil with good drainage.
Belongs to the early ripe varieties of lingonberries. Represented by vigorous, compressed shrub with green middle shoots. On one fruit brush there are about 7 berries. Fruits of medium size and mass (0.28 g) have a rounded shape, are colored in burgundy, taste is sweet and sour, and have no flavor. The plant has good frost resistance, able to withstand cold to –15 ° C.
"Erntzegen" is the most large-fruited variety. The diameter of the fruit is 1-1.5 cm. The height of the bushes can reach 40 cm, they have flexible long shoots, long large leaves. The berries are painted in light red color, have a pleasant taste. Often they make jam, make jams, marmalade and other delicacies.
It has a good yield: 200 g of berries are collected from one shrub. But in most cases, this variety is used to create beautiful landscape compositions.
The growth of the average shrub of this variety is 25 cm. The fruits are colored dark red, characterized by a rich, sweet-sour taste. "Erntkrone" refers to large-fruited varieties - the mass of one lingonberry is 40-50 g.
When planting shrubs in well-lit areas can significantly increase the amount of the crop. Proper care of the plant will allow harvesting 2 times per season. The grade possesses good frost resistance, has immunity to diseases and pests.In this article we told you what lingonberry looks like, presented the most common varieties and gave a description of them. Having planted lingonberries in your plot, you will not only acquire a storehouse of useful vitamins, but also decorate the garden with an unusual beautiful shrub.
Despite the fact that the berries of lingonberry are sour to the taste, jams and jams turn out just great. By the way, lingonberry jam is a sweet cure for prostatitis, and tincture cooked on lingonberries will help with hypertension, fever and chronic gastritis.
Eat berries both fresh and soaked. Due to the content of benzoic acid berries can be stored for a long period of about 2-3 weeks. The valuable qualities of the berries, as well as their natural wax coating, can be preserved for a long time by soaking in water or low-temperature freezing.
In cooking, lingonberry sauce is often served with meat, because it contributes to the maximum digestion of dishes from it, reducing energy consumption for digestion. And in the old days fresh meat was often stored in lingonberries.
Decoction for the kidneys and liver.
60 g leaves on 3 glasses of water - boil for 10 minutes in an enamel bowl. After cooling, strain and drink for a day in 3 doses.
There are several varieties of lingonberries, popular, giving excellent yields and having large berries. Most varieties differ in height, decoration, the size of the berries and yield.
As lingonberries naturally grow in marshes, taiga, and forest belts, soils, respectively, should be lightly sandy or peaty, acidic, that is, 3.0-5.0 pH. On peat soils berries are larger, and the harvest is greater. Clay and heavy loam will not transfer, however, as well as flooding, despite the fact that this plant loves moisture. Therefore, the groundwater level should be at least 40 cm, the site should not be subject to spring or seasonal flooding. Loves sunny places and good watering. In the shade it blooms and bears fruit very badly.
By and large, lingonberry does not suffer from a lack of organic and mineral fertilizers in the soil, but it has a need for sulfur, therefore, for 1 square meter. m need to add about 50 grams of sulfur. If peat is not in the ground, then you should attend to the preparation of the soil mixture. To do this, add to the soil of river sand, high peat, sawdust from conifers. On 5 parts of peat take about 2 parts of sand. It turns out that most of the mixture will be peat. Enrich the soil with humus and compost should not be.
Planting a seedling deeply is not worth it, the root system is fixed at a depth of about 30 cm, so the 30x30 cm scheme is suitable for planting. After planting, water the plant well and grumble the soil around the crumb of bark or pine litter. Such a mulch not only protects, but also acidifies the soil.
Harvesting and harvesting
Lingonberry is widely used in the treatment of many diseases. The leaves and fruits of lingonberry relieve inflammation of the bladder and are indicated for various kidney inflammations. They also have antipyretic effects.
The leaves are harvested only in early spring from under the snow, before the appearance of buds. It is possible to harvest in October. In summer, the harvested raw materials are not suitable for medical purposes, the leaves turn black when dried.
Pluck leaves from the bush without cutting off the shoots so as not to injure the bush. Repeated collection of leaves can be made not earlier than 5-10 years, after full recovery of the plant.
Before you put to dry, choose the blackened and injured leaves. Spread the fabric and in a dark, warm place spread out on it a thin layer of leaves.
Berries ripen from the end of July to the beginning of frosts, depending on the variety and area. Collected berries can be dried, freeze, drench, make fruit drinks and preserves.
A recipe, not just tried on grandmother: boil 60 g of leaves for 3 cups of water in an enamel bowl for 10 minutes. After cooling, strain and drink for a day in 3 doses. This decoction is good for the liver and kidneys.
Cowberry varieties and hybrids
Breeders were able to give us excellent remontant varieties, giving excellent yields and amazing size of the berries. To date, we can boast 20 or more varieties of lingonberries. Basically, the differences of varieties are in terms of height, decoration, size of berries, as well as yield in central Russia.
Variety aimed at increasing the yield. Berries weighing about 0.22 g. Dark red color, sweet-sour taste.The surface of the leaves is smooth, they are leathery. The flowers are white, medium size. The variety is resistant to temperatures down to -30 ° C. In the spring stand frost to -3 ° C. Ripening berries late.
Decorative and high-yielding variety. Spherical bush, compact enough. In diameter and in height reaches 30 cm. It will delight you with flowers and fruits 2 times a year.
Red Perl Lingonberry
The diameter and height of the bush about 25 cm, the berries are rounded, dark red color. Flowers and fruits, like the previous variety, twice a year.
If you want a very short, ground cover shrub, then the following varieties will do:
Bushes up to 20 cm tall, dark red berries, high yield.
Cowberry “Kostroma Pink”
Bushes up to 15 cm tall, mid-season (ripens in mid-August). The berries are pink, about 1 cm in diameter.
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Although the lingonberry shrub receives enough mineral elements, it is important to use fertilizers to get a good harvest. But in any case should not use large doses. Apply several visits when using small doses. Nitrogen fertilizers: urea, ammonium nitrate, ammonium sulfate. Phosphate fertilizers include superphosphate. Potassium fertilizers are also used - potassium sulfate. For lingonberry is useful to use trace elements such as manganese, copper, zinc and boron. In the first year of planting shrubs using copper.
The homeland of this variety is Holland. A bush in the form of a ball, up to 30 cm high. It begins to harvest from the second year after planting. During the season, it blooms and harvests twice, in July and September, in September, most of the harvest is accounted for.
This variety is good because it can withstand spring frosts down to -3. In winter, it brings frost down to -30. Gives a very abundant harvest, and the berries are quite large in size, weighing about 220 mg, dark red in color, taste sweet and sour. The leaves are smooth, leathery. White flowers.
The height of this shrub is about 25 cm. It bears fruit twice a season. The berries are round, dark red in color.
Originally from Sweden. It has quite large berries, up to 400 mg, and about 300 g of berries can be harvested from one bush.
Refers to undersized, up to 20 cm in height. Harvest up to 40 g per bush. The berries are very tasty, dark red.
The use of plants for medical purposes and cooking
Both berries and leaves are used with lingonberry shrubs. It is full of the most valuable elements for human health. The berries contain vitamins of group B, also PP, A, E, and C. It contains tannins, carotene, carbohydrates, organic acids, such as: salicylic, malic, citric. It is rich in minerals: iron, zinc, manganese, phosphorus, potassium, calcium. One hundred grams of berries contains up to 46 kcal.
Berries containing chromium, copper, mineral salts, help in the fight against vascular atherosclerosis, coronary heart disease, diabetes. Improves the gastrointestinal tract, with low acidity.
Successful this valuable berry in the treatment of kidneys and bladder. It also has antipyretic, antiseptic, antimicrobial, wound healing, tonic and antimicrobial action. For viral diseases, gargling is used, as well as tea made from berries.
Harvesting and storage
Lingonberry leaves can only be harvested before flowering begins (April-May), and only those leaves that survived the winter should be selected. Young leaves are not suitable for drying, they will turn black. Or the harvesting of leaves can be postponed until the autumn, when the bloom ends. Only after 5-10 years can the next collection of leaves be carried out. The leaves should be decomposed into a thin layer and dried in a dark, well-ventilated room, stirring from time to time. Properly dried leaves do not turn black, but retain a green color.
Berries are picked well ripened, remove all garbage, wash. Next, use a variety of storage methods in the winter.Dried, boiled jam and jams, frozen in the freezer. When frozen, all vitamins are stored. But it is worth remembering that when freezing it is important to use hermetic bags, otherwise foreign smells will pass to the berries.
Delicious jams and preserves are made from lingonberries. They also cook lingonberry sauce, which is served with meat dishes. Thanks to him, the taste of the dish is enhanced, and the digestibility is improved.
So, lingonberries, the cultivation of which is quite an easy task, is a very valuable plant. This shrub is not only a good decoration for your garden, but also a storehouse of vitamins to help you stay healthy.
Varieties of berries
This sort of lingonberry is characterized by dark red berries that have a sweet and sour taste and weigh about 220 mg. Leaves are leathery, with a smooth surface. Flowers of medium size, white. The variety can withstand temperatures up to -300 C, in the spring it can withstand frosts up to -300 C. The ripening period is late.
High-yielding ornamental variety that came from Holland. The bush has a spherical compact form and reaches a height of 30 cm. The average mass of the fetus is about 300 mg. The crop gives 2 times a year, from one plant you can get up to 120 g of the crop.
This variety reaches a height of 25 cm, characterized by round-shaped berries that have a dark red color. Fruits 2 times a year, bred in Holland.
The undersized variety, height of a bush makes 20 cm, berries dark red, productivity is high.
Shrubs up to 15 cm tall, pink berries, about 1 cm in diameter, ripen in mid-August.
Variety bred in Sweden. Fruit weight reaches 400 mg, yield per bush up to 300 g
Lingonberry is a tasty berry characterized by healthy properties and excellent yields of fragrant sweet-sour berries. In any case, the cultivation of lingonberries is an interesting occupation, bringing a lot of pleasure and delivering aesthetic pleasure.
Lingonberry Coral: growing on summer cottages | Useful articles on the Becker blog| Useful articles on the Becker blog
Lingonberry, or as it is called - lingonberry, lingonberry - wild berry. Most often found in coniferous and mixed forests, tundra and along the edges of the marshes of central Russia, Western Europe, North America and in the eastern part of Asia.
In nature, this evergreen erect plant, height from ten to thirty centimeters and up to half a meter in diameter. Thanks to thin and long roots, the bushes intertwine with each other and form thickets or curtains, often with blueberries or lily of the valley. Leaves of dark color, glossy, in August-September acquire an orange-red shade.
In shape, they are slightly elongated in length, measuring about a centimeter. The flowers are light pink, clustered in a brush, have a faint fragrance. Lingonberry blooms in May and June for about three weeks, less often up to a month. The berries, from the beginning, are green, whitening as they ripen, and when fully ripe, they turn dark red. Crop is removed in August and September.
The taste of sweet and sour berries with a barely noticeable bitterness.
Bushes need sour wet soil and good lighting. The amount of sunlight directly depends on the amount of the crop. They are not afraid of frost. Fruiting begins in the third or fourth year, the seedlings - a little later. The life span of a shrub is more than 30 years in natural conditions, and with proper care it can be up to 60 years. Annual growth is about 2 cm.
As a cultivated plant, lingonberries have been grown for a little over forty years. Total bred about 20 varieties. The most decorative and fruitful is cowberry varieties Coral. Light red shrub fruit brings twice a season - in late July and late August.
It is not difficult to care for cowberries Coral - it is only necessary to take into account some features of the shrubs.
A double granulated superphosphate (14g / m2) and potassium sulfate (7 g / m2) are introduced into the land cleared from weeds.Then the plot is leveled and the landing pits are dug in it, which are filled with a mixture of top or transitional peat and coarse sand at the rate of 2: 1. Required requirements for the soil are:
- soil acid reaction (3.5-5.5 pH),
- open, well-lit place, in extreme cases - partial shade,
- sufficiently deep occurrence of surface water, otherwise the bed is raised, and under it lay a drainage layer of gravel or gravel.
Lingonberry can be propagated in three ways:
- plant rooted bushes.
Before planting, the seeds must be stratified in a refrigerator at a temperature of + 50 ° C for at least one and a half months.
After that, they can be sown in boxes with specially prepared peaty-sandy soil and pH level of pH 4. For successful germination, it is important that the temperature does not fall below 250C.
Seed germination, according to various sources, ranges from 11 to 50%. The first shoots can be seen in two weeks. Seedlings begin to bear fruit at 4-5 year.
The works are carried out in spring, in the stage of bud swelling with lignified processes or in summer, in July - with green ones. Cuttings, up to 8 cm long, are planted in a peat-sand mixture, leaving 2-3 buds above the ground, pre-cutting the lower leaves. Thus, above the ground should be about a third of the plant.
Planting scheme - 5x5 cm. After planting, the cuttings are covered with a film and support 100% humidity. On average, 50-85% of rooted cuttings. After rooting, usually this process takes about one and a half months, the shrubs are left in place for at least 2 years.
With this method of reproduction, fruiting should be expected in three to four years.
If you have acquired rooted bushes in the nursery, then they should be planted in the pits, 10 cm deep, according to the 10x40 cm scheme. Coral shrubs are better planted in the second decade of April, as they grow slower during the autumn planting and give less growth.
The plant is carefully removed from the pot and planted in the soil along with an earthy ball. Deepening the root neck by two centimeters. The mother plant produces many new lingonberry bushes, as it is capable of producing underground rhizomes, on which young bushes grow.
You can separate a new bush from the parent one with scissors or shears. The survival rate in this case is 90-100%.
After planting, the plants must be watered and mulched. For mulching well suited:
- high-moor peat, 2-3 cm thick,
- sawdust, sphagnum, coniferous litter, 3-4 cm layer.
A layer of mulch on the soil will prevent it from drying out.
Feed Coral bushes should be in the third year. It is better to conduct top dressing in spring and early summer using ammonium nitrate at the rate of 30-40 g per 10 l of water, and in the twentieth of July, using superphosphate (30 g / m2) and potassium sulphate (15 g / m2). You can use special preparations for heather. Of the most common is well suited "Kemira" and "Mortar."
Important! Do not feed the bushes immediately after planting, as mineral fertilizers inhibit the formation of roots. Lingonberry is also contraindicated in potassium chloride, manure and bird droppings, they make the soil more alkaline and contain a lot of nitrogen, which can “burn” the plant.
Water cranberries should be once a week, the best - sprinkling.
Rules for the care of lingonberries
- Berry needs to loosen the soil in the summer.
- Lingonberry does not tolerate waterlogging.
- In the warm period weeding is obligatory.
- With a strong thickening of the planting, young shoots are pruned with shears.
- Lingonberry during flowering can withstand a temperature drop of -30 ° C, if the temperature drops below this mark, it is better to cover the bushes with agryl or spunbond. As protection against spring frosts, sprinkling and smoke can also be carried out.
In general, cowberry Coral is a rather disease-resistant variety. However, it is subject to certain diseases:
- Exobazidiosis - a disease of leaves, shoots and inflorescences, they are deformed, become pink, with a noticeable whitish bloom of fungal spores. To combat this disease, fungicides, such as Bordeaux liquid, are used, and the affected areas of the plant are cut and burned.
- Rust infects shrub leaves. They are covered with spots, from the upper side of the sheet - red-yellow, and from the bottom - yellow-brown. The leaf itself turns brown and falls. The disease inhibits the growth of the whole bush and can lead to its death. For the treatment of plants, the fungicide Topaz, Bordeaux liquid or its substitutes are used, branches with diseased leaves are cut and burned, and the soil under the bushes is mulched.
- Beetle leaf beetles, Wolf caterpillars, leafworms are collected by hand.
Lingonberries are useful not only berries, but also leaves. From the bushes of the variety Coral the crop of berries is removed twice a year. The harvest is started in dry weather after the berries have fully ripened.
After reddening the berries, it is desirable that they hang on the bush for a few more days, this will give them a sweeter and more saturated taste. The high content of benzoic acid provides good storage of the crop, in the refrigerator - a month, and in cold boiled water in the cellar - up to a year.
If you collect the berries before full maturity, benzoic acid in them will be less, and, consequently, the storage time of the crop will be reduced.
Lingonberry leaves are harvested in the spring before the flowering period and in the autumn, after the berries are fully ripe. It was at this time that they accumulate the most tannins and arbutin. After collecting them, they are crushed and dried on paper or cloth. To preserve the maximum amount of useful substances when drying the leaves of lingonberry is necessary:
- dry in a well ventilated area
- stir occasionally
- Avoid exposure to sunlight.
Due to the fact that lingonberry is an evergreen, it is perfect for decorating the site. Bushes can be grown as ground covers, as a frame for flower beds and paths. Coral variety is especially decorative in August and September.
Lingonberry berries are eaten fresh, as well as wet and pickled, boiled jam, jam and jams, compotes and juices. This is a great addition to sauerkraut.
Lingonberry water is a natural antiseptic and prevents inflammation. It is used from overheating in the sun and intoxication. Refreshing drink from this berry is consumed after a bath or after a rich fatty food. Hot broth acts as an antipyretic and diaphoretic. Broth berries rinse with angina.
Virintas, diluted honey brewed with cranberry juice, is considered to be a very effective means. It is used for colds, aching joints. For heavy sweating, 2-3 spoons of virinthas are diluted in a glass of hot water and drunk in one gulp. With bronchitis, hoarseness, shortness of breath, the same drink is drunk in small sips, it promotes the separation of sputum and facilitates coughing.
Moistened lingonberries taken orally with catarrh of the stomach with low acidity and gout.
Cranberry leaf decoction is known as a good disinfectant and diuretic for urolithiasis. It is used in inflammation of the kidneys and bladder, arthritis, rheumatism, the common cold and diabetes.