Ferns - the most ancient of all existing on our planet flowering plants.
When other plants disappeared from the Earth, the ferns were modified, developed and formed new forms.
In the Paleozoic, Mesozoic, ferns looked like huge trees. It was their wood that became the basis for the formation of coal.
General information about ferns
This plant structure is not much similar to flowering species.
Despite the fact that many believe in fern flowering, it does not have flowers!
But, regardless of the type, it is always distinguished by its pure and rich greenery of lacy and gazing leaves.
Reproduction occurs by spores located on the underside of the leaf.
Once in the ground, they give growth to a small leaf plate that produces germ cells. That is, reproduction in this way is a rather complicated process, rarely found among flowers.
Design solutions with ferns
As a flower, fern has no real full leaves. It would be more reasonable to call them fronds or sheet plates. The unusual and mysterious look of this plant is widely used in design solutions. It can decorate any alpine slide, for example.
Room species of ferns are no less popular. They serve as decoration for homes, apartments, offices, hotels and other institutions.
A spectacular design solution recognized composition in conjunction with large flowering plants. If we are talking about brace or adiantum, then a great combination - Badan, Rodgers, host, astilbe.
Ferns in the garden landscape very clearly demonstrate the beauty and diversity of green.
They do an excellent background role for rarer plants and flowers.
Among the varieties of this kind there are, for example, such as the multi-row bristle-mongrel, which can safely winter with leaves without dropping them. For winter gardens are ideal blekhnumy - evergreen ferns.
Medium-sized bushes are perfectly combined with rhododendrons and are a great addition to the oak anemone.
Among all the genera of the fern, there are those who are surprised by the texture, shades, shape. For so many centuries this plant does not lose its mystery.
The most harmonious look several species of fern nearby, radically different in color and shape. This neighborhood emphasizes the decorativeness of each and reveals their beauty.
Description, species and photos of domestic ferns
All ferns are perennial terrestrial epiphytic plants. They have short rhizomes and pinnately dissected leaves. On the leaves covered with leaves are also formed ground loops, which, when in contact with the earth, quickly give rise to roots. Bottom on the leaves of the plant are sporangia.
In nature, more than 10,000 species of aquatic, terrestrial, herbaceous and tree ferns grow. Depending on the separation, they can grow in forests, swamps or meadows. There are babies and giants among them., the length of the leaves is more than half a meter. In moisture-loving plants the leaves are tender, strongly dissected and have a light green tint. Drought-resistant ferns are distinguished by leathery leaves, sometimes with a waxy coating.
The temperature of this plant prefers moderate in the range of 15 - 20 degrees, coolness is desirable at night.
It is not necessary to allow the temperature to drop to - 10 and below, but the flower tolerates more than 20 degrees badly.
It is generally believed that the fern is a shade-loving plant, but this does not apply to all species.Many of this family love the sun and the homeland of their tropical sunny forests.
Such indoor plants prefer to stand in bright but diffused light. The east and north side of the apartment is perfect for this.
To watering fern must be approached responsibly.
We can not allow the soil to dry out, but the bay is dangerous for it to rot the roots.
In the cold season, watering becomes much less.
Air humidity for fern is important. It should always be high, so it is recommended to regularly spray the flower.
Fern can multiply by division. This is the easiest and fastest way. The division is allowed if there are new shoots on the plant into 2-3 parts. The time for this procedure is spring in the process of transplantation.
There are some types of ferns in which new shoots grow at the ends of ground shoots or at the ends of wai. The first is Nephrolepis, the exalted, and the second is Kostenets л lukitsenosny.
Types of ferns
Many people do not suspect that about 300 genera and more than 10 thousand species of this plant grow in nature.
The most ancient inhabitants of our planet can be elegant and lacy representatives of their own kind, and some on the contrary are formidable giants. Each fern is individual and unique.
Orlyakordinary - giant among ferns.
Beautiful, drought resistant. Its height reaches two meters.
Able to form huge thickets.
Multiple row (Polystichum) is a very beautiful plant.
It belongs to the family Shchitovnikovye. Found widespread use in rock gardens, decorative decoration of places under the shade of trees.
It can be found in wet or coniferous forests, often on the banks of rivers and in ravines. There is Brown polytree, tripartite, setae.
Watering this fern should be abundant in the period of growth and moderate rest time. The plant prefers not direct light. Feels comfortable at a temperature of 16 to 24 degrees.
Humidity should be high. Multiply by multiplication method. The soil must be created from a mixture of turf, leaf soil and sand in a ratio of 1: 2: 1.
If necessary, the bush should be transplanted in the spring. Do not forget about fertilizer in the warm period 1 time in 7 days. For this it is allowed to use mineral and organic additives.
Pollinator should be protected from scutes, whiteflies, aphids, springtails, root rot. Any disease or pest can cause drying and yellowing of the leaves, which then fall off.
Davallia (Davallia) is a fast-growing perennial.
Belongs to the family Davallievyh. Natural habitat - Tropics of Asia, China, Japan, Polynesia, Java Island, Canary Islands.
As a rule, the plant grows well in greenhouses and greenhouses.
In the people, this fern is called “hare's feet”.
At any period of growth, Davallia needs to be watered moderately. Lighting the same should not be bright. Humidity prefers this kind of low, and the temperature of 16-24 degrees. The ideal soil will be a mixture of leafy soil, peat and sand in the same proportion. Need good drainage.
To fertilize a plant is better with a liquid plant twice a month. If Davallia is struck by a scythe, the plant will stop growing.
Shchitovnik (Dryopteris) can be found everywhere, especially in the coniferous forests of the Far East.
The leaf of this fern is twice pinnate. Exist:
- male thyroid in the form of a bowl with wintering leaves,
- Austrian or marsh,
- Linnaeus's britis growing on peaty soil in a shady spot.
These ferns are unpretentious. They can be happy with their growth for many years and will not be affected by drought, or vice versa, with too much humidity.
Reproduced by dividing the bush.
Nephrolepis (Nephrolepis) belongs to the family Lomariopsis.
The name consists of two parts - nephros (kidney) and lepis (scales).
This species prefers not direct, but bright light and high humidity.
The best soil for growth is leafy ground and peat.
Top dressing is carried out only in spring and summer weekly, but in the rest period it is better not to touch the plant.
Damage from pests and diseases cause damage to leaves that dry, die and turn brown.
Asplenium, he is a Kostenets (Asplenium) has from 30 to 700 species of this genus, but most of them grow in the tropics.
But the most interesting decorative forks are rocky. Bushes look elegant and consist of feathery openwork leaves.
- Asplenium Posten is found on the walls of old monasteries.
- North Asplenium grows on the cliffs of Northern Europe and Asia. The leaves are very simple - narrow and long.
- Hairy asplenium is the most shade-loving among its peers. The leaves are graceful, feathery.
During the rest period, Kostenets is rarely watered, and with active growth it is plentiful.
This fern does not like humidity. If you plan to transplant, then do it better in the spring.
Propagated by dividing the bush or spores. Soil for flowers mixed from peat, leaf, turf soil and sand in the same proportions.
Pelley (Pellaea) is part of the Pteris family, native to South America, Central Africa, Australia, Zeeland.
It is watered in the same way as Kostenets, but the humidity should be high. The lighting is preferably moderate.
In need of feeding every 2 weeks all spring and summer. An excellent fertilizer is mullein.
At defeat by a shield the leaves of a fern curl and lose color. They become transparent, lethargic and fall off.
Platicerium (Platycerium) or Oleniy horn is a member of the Millipede family and includes at least 18 species.
Many of them are grown at home, in greenhouses and botanical gardens. This fern loves bright diffused light, high humidity and abundant watering during growth.
It is necessary to fertilize the soil once in 1.5 months. Pests do not allow the plant to grow fully, the leaves become yellow, faded and sluggish.
Pteris (Pteris) has about 280 species.
Distributed in the tropics and subtropics. Prefer bright light, high humidity. Diseases lead to root rot.
Baseman (Athyrium) - this genus consists of 200 species.
Bushes dense, tall with delicate and thin leaves. Often in the forests of central Russia you can find a female nomad. One of the most unusual ferns. He is openwork, elegant, feathery.
It is characterized by gentle dissected leaves, resembling palm and falling in early autumn. Popular purple and silver color.
In the Far East, the nomadic Chinese-reddish grows.
This genus prefers moderate humidity, grows in ordinary garden soil for a long time - up to 15 years. Does not need fertilizer.
Tsirtomium (Cyrtomium) is a family of Shchitnikovs.
In total there are about 20 species of this genus. It grows in Asia, America, Oceania.
Does not like abundant watering, but prefers high humidity.
Comfortable temperature from 16 to 24 degrees. The soil needs fertile, supplemented with peat and sand.
Centipede (Polypodium) consists of 100 species.
The common one is called Sweet Fern and is a rather rare plant. Occurs in forest, mountain forest, subalpine, and mountain tundra areas.
Winter hardy. Grows in the Russian climate. This is the only epiphyte fern of this kind.
Epiphyte means growing on a tree, on a wall.
The fern is fastidious, but unusual.
It is a low evergreen shrub with leaves reaching up to 20 cm in length.
The root is crawling on the ground, and its taste is sweet, hence the name.
This fern is recommended to grow near water in a place protected from the cold.
Propagate the plant, you can use segments of the roots.
- sad-i-ogorod.ru- “Garden and Garden” - Gardens of Russia is an online store of seeds and seedlings.
- abekker.ru- “Becker” is a popular store of saplings, seeds, bulbs, delivery throughout Russia!
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Room fern: home care, watering, breeding
Many indoor plants have such a decorative appearance that they seem artificial.
If you want to have a real “corner of the forest” at home, you should acquire one of the most ancient plants, the ancestors of which still remember dinosaurs - the fern.
External attractiveness and undemanding to the content of this plant caused love florist. And now we have a fern room, care at home for which is not difficult.
Room fern: home care
In the homes of Russians from ferns, nephrolepis is most common. It easily adapts to room conditions, it looks spectacular. Saturated green color, elegant rosette, carved leaves - up to half a meter long.
Even if the fern is the only plant in the house, after a while it will grow so much that it will look like a piece of the garden and begin to attract the eyes of the guests.
But in order for the fern to be healthy, you need to comply with a number of conditions.
It would seem, what could be the care of a fern growing in the forest shade? Who is there watering, fertilizing, carefully growing? But no, there are requirements, and quite a few.
First of all, it is worth remembering that it is for the forest land that flower growers are trying to provide the best soil for their plants.
What is the land in the forest? Fertile, peaty and light. That is, it has enough nutrients, but water does not stagnate.
If you purchased a fern and are going to replant it, then you can add a bit of rotted foliage or old needles to the soil purchased in the store.
No matter how fond of fern loves, and stagnation of moisture is categorically contraindicated. The storey soil “coalesces” with time, it becomes dense, so the addition of foliage will be very useful.
Lighting and temperature
Have you ever seen a fern in a meadow? And you will not see. Bright sunlight plant dislikes. Therefore, it is undesirable to place it on the window or loggia, which overlook the south side.
Generally, since the fern grows large, the window sill is not its place. It is best to place a pot for a bedside table, which will be - depending on the lighting of the room - closer to the window or farther from it.
With regard to temperature - a person can offer the plant only that which is maintained in his home. But in the forest in the summer is cool and damp. Therefore, it is good if during a hot time - in the room where the fern “settled”, an air conditioner is working or at least there is a humidifier.
In winter, it is undesirable that the leaves of fern "burned" draft from the vents. The air dried out as a result of the work of steam heating is also unfavorable for the plant.
It is more often to ventilate the room, the batteries can be covered with a damp cloth, or you can install several containers with water so that it evaporates, providing the fern with the necessary humidity.
The optimum temperature for it is + 18-20 C.
Watering and spraying
Owners of a pet should get a small sprayer. Watering should be regular, but moderate, so that the pot does not stagnate water. Depending on the air temperature in the room - watered 2-3 times a week. You can spray it regularly, the plant is only good. It is necessary to look only so that the sun rays do not hit the wet leaves and the fern does not get burned.
Consider a situation where, for some reason, the potted soil is completely dry, but the plant is still alive. In this case, it would be a big mistake to immerse the pot in water, or to pour water on the ground abundantly - so that water would leak and fill the drain pan.With almost 100% probability, the roots of the fern in this case rot.
It is better to moisten the ground several times in a sprayer with a sprayer, and then a few days to moisten the soil. Treat the fern in this case as a starving person who is also starting to be fed a little.
It is preferable to use distilled water for watering the plant. In winter, you can successfully use thawed snow; in summer, if you can, it is worth collecting rainwater.
Top dressing and fertilizers
Feeding fern fertilizer is also not worth it. There is a widespread opinion that it is impossible to “re-land” the earth. With regard to potatoes, this may be true, but it does not apply to the fern.
If cow dung is used as a fertilizer, it should be diluted and the plant should be watered little by little, no more than 1 time in 2 months. More often you can use fertilizers that are sold in the shop "Nature": once every 3-4 weeks, spreading them, according to the instructions. Another option is to add a little peat to the pot with a fern from time to time.
The fern is transplanted, like other indoor plants, in the spring, picking up a pot for it 4-5 cm more than the previous one. It is best to transfer the fern to a new place, without clearing its roots from the old earth, but preserving, as far as possible, the whole earthen room. That is, "to cross" it from place to place.
If the ground is damp, no additional watering is required. The fern is carefully removed, you can use the spatula, designed to care for indoor plants, and, together with the earthy clod, dipped in a new pot. Then the top and sides fill up the missing ground, slightly crushing it.
Transplanting is a good time for plant reproduction.
Breeding room fern
If someone still believes in a beautiful fairy tale telling that a fern blooms one night in a year, and at this time indicates treasures, perhaps this “someone” can start looking for “fern seeds”.
In fact, the plant can multiply spores. The sporangia are on the underside of the leaves But if you do not possess Michurin's perseverance, you will hardly succeed in mastering the most difficult process of breeding a fern with the help of a dispute.
It is best to separate an adult bush during a transplant - that is, carefully separate the young basal rosettes from it, "kids." They are planted in separate pots, or in a common container, under the film.
Conditions for the kids need the most that neither is greenhouse. But even in this case, not all "kids" can survive.
Diseases and pests
Of course, if the ferns were sissies, they would not have survived on Earth for thousands of years. So, diseases, in principle, they are not characteristic. But in case of water stagnation - or, on the contrary, excessive drying, the leaves become covered with rusty spots, and then die.
Another attack is a nematode. These parasites appear when watering ferns with cold water, for example, from a garden barrel. To bring them extremely difficult, because they literally nest everywhere: on the leaves and in the roots. You can try to urgently transplant fern, but not the fact that you can get rid of the infection.
On the contrary, when the air in the apartment is too dry, fern can be chosen by such pests as aphids or scab. The right spray will come to the rescue. The plant should be sprayed with a solution of karbofos.
Thus, with the advent of the fern in your home, the microclimate of the dwelling will also change. Cool, humid and clean air, which will require a plant, will be useful to man. Let the fern pleases you for many years.
Indoor fern - care and reproduction at home, structure, development cycle and fern bloom, photo, video
Ferns are among the oldest representatives of the plant world, they survived dinosaurs, witnessed human evolution, and today they are successfully growing not only in nature, but also indoors. Attention to the plant from the side of flower growers will be explained by the beauty of the figurally rugged leaves and the fact that taking care of a room fern at home is completely uncomplicated.
There are about 10,000 species of ferns all over the planet today, but there are certainly fewer varieties in the collections of indoor plants. The most unpretentious and at the same ornamental plants fall on the window sills. Among them are davalalia, aslenium, pteris, nephrolepis and other species from different parts of the world.
The structure of ferns
Occupying an intermediate position between mosses, algae and gymnosperm species of plants, ferns have retained the features of the oldest representatives of the flora and at the same time successfully adapted to life in conditions that have changed over millions of years.
This feature becomes apparent when considering the structure of the fern. The leaves, or more correctly, the fronds form the aboveground part of the plants and, as a rule, are distinguished by a figured, pinnate or repeatedly dissected form. Young, not yet opened leaf plates at ferns tightly folded into a spiral.
As they grow, they unwind, become darker and denser. Under a layer of soil rhizomes of ferns are located.
How to care for ferns at home?
When taking care of indoor ferns at home, they are trying to create a microclimate that is most similar to the natural one. This fully applies to:
- air temperature at different times of the year,
- environmental humidity
- frequency and volume of irrigation,
- making feedings
Most of the indoor ferns grown in the room, as in the photo, are from the tropics or subtropical regions of the planet. But there are also indigenous inhabitants of temperate zones. To adapt to the demands of plants, all ferns are protected from drafts and sudden temperature changes, and also protected from the scorching sun.
Depending on the cultivated species trying to maintain an acceptable temperature. In summer, the plants withstand heating to 28–30 ° C, but subject to other conditions of care and increased attention from the owner.
How to care for a fern if this maximum is exceeded? The plant will need not only the usual protection from direct sunlight, but also frequent irrigation on particularly hot days. It will help to fill the entire free volume of the pot with wet sphagnum or place the flower in a wet florarium. A useful solution would be the relocation of the fern for the entire warm period under the open sky.
But with the onset of autumn, even before the first frosts, the florist will have to find a cool place under the roof for a green pet. Some species are content with the content at normal room temperature not lower than 17 ° C.
But there are those who are more comfortable at 14–16 ° C. The minimum allowable temperature of the content - + 10 ° C, if the air is colder, it threatens to overcool the rhizomes, which is especially dangerous in wet soil.
At home, the care of indoor ferns will be greatly simplified if the pot is placed on the east or west window. Here, the plants do not threaten sunburn, and the incoming light is enough to actively grow and maintain decorativeness.
Do not forget that all members of the family react negatively to air pollution, smoke, car exhaust. Therefore, not the best place for a flower is a smoker's room or a balcony overlooking a noisy street with heavy traffic.
The frequency and intensity of irrigation varies with the season. When a room fern, as in the photo, is actively growing, it is watered more often, a decrease in growth rates signals the need to moisturize the soil less often.
For ferns, excessive and poor watering is harmful. The first case threatens with compaction and acidification of the soil, a decrease in the intensity of respiration and plant nutrition. Although the roots do not perish, the flower quickly turns into a depressed, weakened state.
Dryness of the substrate leads to the death of the leaves. You should not expect that those who lost the turgor and the bright color of the frond come to life after the resumption of watering. Even with the resumption of proper care, they die off, which adversely affects the appearance of the flower.
How at home to care for ferns who have lost the entire above-ground part? It is possible to reanimate a plant affected by drought, knowing the subtleties of the fern development cycle.
The plants are removed and already dead, and still remaining green fronds, after which the pot is transferred to a well-lit window sill. With regular, but not too abundant watering, the fern will be able to quickly recover.
A sign of awakening will be taut green spirals that appear above the substrate.
Effectively help maintain the plant complex feeding with the inclusion of organic matter and minerals. They are regularly carried out from mid-spring until autumn.
Transplant room fern
The best time to transplant room fern - spring. Depending on the type of home plant, the procedure may have its own characteristics.
Since among ferns there are not only terrestrial plants, but also epiphytes, then it will be necessary to prepare for this stage of care for indoor ferns at home. To do this, select:
- a suitable pot, basket or piece of wood for epiphytic varieties,
- satisfying the needs of culture loose, necessarily lightweight substrate.
Although the stores offer ready-made mixes, for most home-grown plants, it is better to additionally ask about the needs of your pet. For example, for epiphytes, it is preferable to add large fragments of fallen wood, steamed bark, moss to the soil, and people from the tropics require the inclusion of more nutrients into the soil.
Everyone is familiar with folk tales about bringing the wealth and luck flower fern. One cannot find an unprecedented miracle only during one, the shortest night of the year, when the fern blossoms. And although the heroes of fairy tales managed to get a magic flower, in reality, no one was destined to repeat their feat!
Because of their structure, ferns do not bloom. But how does the fern reproduce? The fact is that ferns have retained one of the oldest ways to produce offspring using spores.
At home, it is used extremely rarely because of the laboriousness and long wait, when tiny plant beginnings will hatch and grow older. But multiplication by spores cannot be replaced if it is a question of growing especially rare species.
The reproduction of ferns by spores begins with the formation of sporangia on fronds containing haploid spores.
Ripening, they are scattered on the nearby areas of soil, spread by wind and animals, and, falling into a favorable environment, germinate.
After fertilization, the life of a new fern begins, but it may take up to several years to form a self-feeding plant, depending on the species.
In the indoor environment they carry out the division of adult specimens. It is best to undertake a rather unpleasant procedure for the plant in the spring, combining it with a transplant in fresh soil.
The fern is divided into separate sockets so that each one has:
- few leaves
- its growth point
- sufficient for growth area of rhizome.
Ways of breeding ferns are many. Individual species are easily propagated by dividing underground shoots. Others give a gain on a peculiar mustache.
And the third ferns, to speed up the growth and provide their offspring with a greater chance of survival, became viviparous. They form child outlets right on the fights.
When the embryos grow enough to lead their own lives, they fall off and take root.
Ferns species overview
Ferns are an ancient group of plants, the history of the emergence and development of which far exceeds the time of the existence of flowering plants on our planet.
The flowering of ferns has long passed.
In the Paleozoic and Mesozoic eras, hundreds of millions of years ago, many of the ferns were large trees, compressed wood which later served as the basis for the formation of coal.
The structure of ferns is very peculiar and not much resembles the structure of flowering plants. Contrary to popular belief, they never bloom, multiplying in nature with the help of spores.
The latter are usually located on the lower side of the sheet in the form of special clusters covered with films — sorus. From a spore that has fallen to the ground, a small lamina develops, which begins to produce sex cells.
From the foregoing it is clear that breeding ferns with the help of spores is not an easy task, and it is rarely practiced.
Ferns do not have true leaves characteristic of flowering plants. It is more correct to call them vayya, or leafy plates, although in popular literature the word “leaves” is often used to refer to ferns. Due to its unusual appearance, ferns are able to decorate an alpine slide, give it a decorative and even somewhat mysterious look.
Fern multi-row: home care
Polyonis fern is a very popular plant that is most often found in deciduous and coniferous forests of the Northern Hemisphere. There are about two hundred species of fern, which differ in decoration and can be used both in garden cultivation and in home.
General requirements for the care of ferns
Temperature: Moderate, prefer cool at night, but low temperatures should be avoided. The most suitable temperature is about 15-20 ° C, most ferns do not tolerate temperatures below 10 ° C and suffer if it exceeds 22 ° C.
Contrary to established opinion, not all ferns belong to shade-loving plants, many of them come from tropical forests, where they grew in spots of bright sunlight.
They are suited by bright but diffused light, like an east or north window.
Watering: An earthen ball should never dry out, but at the same time, over-wetting of a fern threatens to rot the roots. In winter, watering is limited.
Air humidity: Almost all ferns require high humidity. Spray the leaves regularly.
Transfer: In the spring, if the roots fill the pot, most young ferns may need annual transplanting.
Reproduction: The easiest way is by dividing a plant (if it forms spikes) into 2-3 parts in early spring during transplantation.
Some ferns give rise to new plants at the ends of ground rooting shoots of stolons (for example, nephrolepis sublime) or at the ends of wai (stone lucovitose).
A possible, but more difficult way is to germinate spores formed in the sporangia on the lower part of the adult leaf blade.
Fern Multi-Row Care Tips
Location and lighting
Multiple rows are preferably grown in areas with high humidity, while protected from sunlight and wind. Forest species easily take root in moderately wetted areas, fertile garden soils.
Caring for spear-shaped and rooting fern species is much more difficult than forest species. As a substrate they are suitable for large stones, between which there should be a minimum amount of soil. This creates perfect drainage.The spear-like view takes root even on a bit brick.
Pollinator grown in a room with a moderate temperature (20 ° C), in winter, the temperature should be in the range of 10-12 ° C.
Watering and humidity
The moisture-loving and responsive to good lighting in the warm period of the plant requires abundant regular watering, spraying everyday on hot days.
For watering, use separated rainwater, preferably. In the winter months, watering is reduced to a minimum, and the plant is transferred to a room with a lower temperature.
It is desirable that in this room there were no sudden changes in temperature and drafts, which are very harmful to the bushes of the fern of multi-row trees.
As a top dressing complex liquid fertilizer is applied. Feeding polnogoryanik held monthly, except for the winter period.
Transplantation and reproduction
A multi-row fern doesn’t need to be replanted often, it’s enough to transplant a flower in a larger pot every few years. When transplanting strongly overgrown bushes divide, removing dead roots.
Plant reproduction occurs in several ways: by dividing rhizomes and spores. For reproduction, the first method is spring and the end of summer. Many varieties appear brood buds on the leaves, some rooted kidney.
Polynyad pests and control
The main danger for the plant are the worms, scale insects, whiteflies and thrips (both ordinary and decorative).
Waterlogging of the earth coma leads to rotting of the roots, and excessive dryness leads to yellowing and death of the leaves.
Common botanical features of ferns
The structure of ferns is very peculiar and not much resembles the structure of flowering plants. Contrary to popular belief, they never bloom, multiplying in nature with the help of spores. The latter are usually located on the lower side of the sheet in the form of special clusters covered with films — sorus. From a spore that has fallen to the ground, a small lamina develops, which begins to produce sex cells. From the foregoing it is clear that breeding ferns with the help of spores is not an easy task, and it is rarely practiced.
Ferns do not have true leaves characteristic of flowering plants. It is more correct to call them vayya, or leafy plates, although in popular literature the word “leaves” is often used to refer to ferns. Due to its unusual appearance, ferns are able to decorate an alpine slide, give it a decorative and even somewhat mysterious look.
kinds of "Poly-row"
- 1. Description
- 2. Growing
- 3. Diseases and pests
- 4. Reproduction
- 5. First steps after purchase
- 6. Secrets of success
- 7. Possible difficulties
A very common fern, found in coniferous and deciduous forests of the Northern Hemisphere. The genus includes about two hundred species, many of which are highly decorative and are used in home and garden breeding. Pollinitnik is listed in the Red Book of Russia, is also protected by the United States.
The leaves of the plant are hibernating, hard, form a fairly regular funnel-shaped outlet that moves away from the thick short rhizome. They sit on short petioles, pointed, pinnate. The leafy plates are dark green in color, shiny, with whitish hairs, covered with brownish scales along the central vein. Spores develop in the sporangia on the underside of the leaves. They are located in several rows, which gave the name of the genus.
Ferns of the genus Polyanus are widely used for interior decoration, as well as grown in shady gardens and rock gardens.
A row of rows does not need frequent transplants, it will be enough to pick a bigger pot in the spring every 2-3 years. During transplantation, the overgrown bush is divided, dead roots are removed.Many rows require abundant watering, but it does not tolerate stagnation of water, so when home growing a plant, good drainage is more important than ever.
Multi-row: description of indoor fern
The fern multi-row has the following description: the rhizome is thick, horizontal, forms a single growth point, the branches on the rhizome grow poorly.
Almost every person has seen and knows what a fern looks like. The leaves at the fern hard, they form a funnel-shaped outlet, departing from the rhizome. Located on small petioles, pointed, pinto-dissected form. The leaves are shiny, dark green, with white hairs. In the center of the leaf on the veins scales brown.
Even in winter, fern leaves remain invariably green. In the lower part of the leaves, in the sporangia spores grow, which are located in one or two rows, this was the name of the genus fern.
Basically, this plant is grown in open ground, so the question often arises: is it possible to grow a fern at home? Next, we take a closer look at exactly how to do it and what conditions are needed for this.
Conditions for growing multi-row
As a houseplant polynyadorny does not require much attention in the care. Even if the fern is put in the farthest corner of the room, periodically without sunlight, it will grow well. It is necessary to water a plant in moderation, and to feed not very often. Next, we consider what conditions are necessary for growing a multi-row.
Lighting, temperature and humidity
Before you plant a fern, you need to choose a suitable place. In nature, all ferns grow in the shade of trees, and multiple rows are no exception. If the apartment is located in the partial shade, the plant will feel very good.
Even in full shade a bush will grow well, but then it will not be fully decorative.
The humidity of the air in the room where the plant is contained must be high. If it is very dry, polyniyadorny can begin to act up, so it is important to know how to care for him in this case. It's simple: you need to sprinkle fern a couple of times a day with separated water..
If you need to remove dust from the leaves of a fern, you can do this with a shower, while the water pressure should be weak. The soil of the plant should be covered with a package to prevent water from getting there.
Capacity and soil requirements for planting
The soil for planting ferns should be slightly acidic. The ideal would be a mixture of peat, sheet, turf soil, sand and humus. The soil should be permeable and loose. Capacity for planting fern is better to choose medium size, so that the root system of the plant can grow without problems. When choosing a pot, preference should be given to those where the water will not stagnate. Otherwise, the fern in the house may die or get sick. If you notice brown or brown spots on the leaves, it means that the soil of the plant is too wet.
How to plant a multi-row: breeding room fern
Before planting, you need to find out how ferns breed. At home, there are several ways: reproduction by spores, dividing the bush, as well as rhizomatous cuttings. After a multi-row transplant, be sure to monitor the maintenance of the optimum level of soil moisture so that the soil does not dry out.
Planting fern bush division
Planting the division of the bush - This is quite relevant and affordable method of breeding ferns. In order for everything to be successful, young basal rosettes are best suited. It should be very careful and when separating the outlet from an adult plant does not damage the fern. It is necessary to make sure that the same amount of earth remains in the pot as it was.For successful reproduction, young plants need to provide fairly humid air, up to 75%, otherwise dry air and earth will be deadly for the fern.
Multiply reproduction of rhizomes cuttings
Propagation of room polynomovnik rhiznimichnymi cuttings - This is the most reliable method that does not require a lot of effort. For this method, use small children-outlets that appear near the main bush.
They should be carefully separated together with a small part of the rhizome and put in a pot. After this, the young bush needs greenhouse conditions. With this reproduction, not all plants take root, but this is the fastest and most convenient way.
Many have heard about this method, as in the wild, the fern breeds by spores. However, for home conditions it is quite a long and painstaking process. Even experienced growers very rarely use this method for propagation, because it is inefficient. For the multiplication of multiple rows, it is better to use the above methods, especially if you are a beginner florist.
Features care for ferns at home
The fern multi-row is an unpretentious plant, so planting and caring for it at home will not take you much time. For the plant to be healthy and beautiful, it is enough to follow simple recommendations. If the planting was done correctly, the main part of the care will be timely watering.
How often to water multi-row
The poliorodnik very much likes moderately moist soil, therefore the soil for the normal growth of the fern should always be moist. In summer and spring water the plant must be after the top of the ground was dry.
Autumn and winter watering should be done one or two days after drying on top of the soil. Water is best used at room temperature, separated. Excessive soil moisture can lead to the death of the plant.
Organic and mineral fertilizers are commonly used for supplementary feeding. This should be done from May to August, every two weeks. It is best to take a portion of the fertilizer in half the amount indicated in the instructions. In winter and autumn, the plant does not need any additional feeding.
Home fern transplant
Among the issues of how to care for indoor fern, a special place is occupied by transplantation. It is required if the pot in which the plant was located is already too small for it. Soil is best to choose the one in which there is sand, peat, leaf soil and humus. Such a mixture can be found on sale.
The main problems in growing multi-row at home
Although a multi-row and unpretentious plant, growing it can be a problem with improper care. If the leaves of the fern turned yellow and abruptly stopped their growthit means that the air in the room where the polynyadnik is located is too dry.
When exposed to direct sunlight on the plant leaves become drooping, lethargic and faded. The appearance of home fern can also be worsened by a draft, low temperature, watering the plant with undifferentiated water.
Leaves can wither, turn yellow, curl and even fall off. Dummy shield or shieldfish are known pests that can affect ferns.
Home flower fern can be an excellent indoor plant, and whether to keep it at home is up to you.
Room fern: care at home, how to transplant and grow
Caring for home indoor fern is not very difficult, so many plant lovers choose this particular specimen among many. Of the many types of ferns, nephrolepis is the most popular. It has a beautiful and lush crown, able to revive even the most boring interior.
Room fern: growing nuances
Florists love the fern for its beauty and ruggedness. However, the peculiarities of cultivation are still there, and in order for the plant to look attractive, they should be observed.
The main feature of nephrolepis is its ability to detect dirty air, in which it immediately begins to wither.
Unsuitable conditions for him is to be in a stuffy, smoky or dusty room. "Do not like" fern low humidity.
The flower can stoically tolerate the lack of regular watering, high or low temperatures. But if the air is not clean enough, its leaves will quickly turn yellow and dry.
Care for indoor ferns is easy. Like any other home plant, it requires a certain soil, a suitable location in the apartment, watering and spraying. Does not do without periodic fertilizer. In addition, you should know the features of transplantation of a flower, as it should be done every year because of its rapid growth.
For cooking you will need to take in equal proportions:
- sod land
- leaf ground.
You should also add a little humus and sand. This recipe is the most suitable, forming the same soil conditions that are required indoor fern.
For the content of nephrolepis the clay pot will be the most suitable. It tends to collect excess moisture from the soil, and then dispose of it as needed. This nuance helps control the humidity of the earth.
However, the clay has the property of being covered with fungus, which is subsequently very difficult to withdraw.
Plastic packaging is also suitable. It should be remembered that this material does not allow air and does not have good stability. In order for the plant to feel great and not fall from the surface, it is necessary to choose a steady and large pot. Its diameter in the diameter should be 2 times smaller than the size of the flower crown.
Top dressing and fertilizer
Fertilize room fern is recommended in spring and summer. This can be done using any ready-made solutions for feeding. They must be diluted according to the instructions on the package. Then add the same amount of pure water to the resulting solution. This option is the most appropriate feeding for nephrolepis.
How to transplant?
One of the main stages in the care of a green flower is its transplant. To carry out it is required every year, as the rhizome of the plant grows rapidly. The crown is also becoming larger, which is why the previous pot can not withstand its weight. Choose a new container should be 2-3 cm larger in diameter.
To transplant indoor fern, you will need:
- Gently holding the flower by the base, pull it out of the container along with the earthy clod.
- Part of the old soil shake off the rhizome. If there are rotting roots, they must be removed.
Transplantation is best in the spring.
If this is done at a different time of the year, the room fern will take a long time to take root and look not the best way.
To reduce the incidence of nephrolepis, you must:
- Abandon self-preparation of the soil. Store soil is thoroughly sterilized and does not contain pests.
- Quarantine newly acquired plants.
If you follow the recommendations for the prevention of diseases of room fern, they can be successfully avoided.
But if the plant is still sick, you must put it in quarantine and immediately take action.
Possible diseases and how to deal with them:
It appears dark brown drips on the ends of the sheet. Affected leaves are recommended to be removed from the plant, the crown should be treated with a fungicide.Watering for some time must be reduced, and the sheets do not spray.
At first the leaves turn yellow, then turn brown. Fern dies quickly. At the initial stage, it is important to monitor the irrigation, not to re-moisten the soil.
It appears wet brown spots. It is necessary to completely remove the affected areas, treat the plant with a fungicide and do not water for some time.
Leaves, stems and soil are covered with gray moldy bloom. The fern should be quarantined, all affected leaves should be removed from it, treated with a solution against mold.
Fern affects: whitefly, white poduras, mealybug, nematodes, spider mites, aphids, thrips, bills and others. Most pests start up due to improper plant care.
The affected areas should be removed by carefully treating the entire crown and rhizome with a suitable insect solution.
The plant in this case requires quarantine, as the pests quickly move to healthy flowers.
Among them are:
- falling foliage - is due to insufficient watering, darkening - the effects of overflow,
- yellowness on the leaves indicates dry air,
- Slow growth and pale green foliage indicates insufficient feeding.
If you comply with all the conditions of nephrolepis, it will decorate any room with greens of its magnificent crown. Therefore, all the efforts to care for the flower are definitely worth the time spent.
Fern room: care at home. Nephrolepis fern: cultivation
One of the most mysterious plants on Earth is the fern. There is this species for millions of years. On the night of Ivan Kupala, many who wish to find a flower of this plant are sent to the forest, but no one has yet found it.
Everyone knows the fern, some know him only as a forest dweller, and for some this green handsome man feels quite comfortable in the room. Want to house a room fern? Care at home for him is not difficult. It is only necessary to get acquainted with some rules in order not to bring your green pet to death.
Room fern nephrolepis is most common among flower lovers. With a rich green color of its leaves, it makes the room cozy.
Among all the ferns, nephrolepis is the best option for growing in rooms, as it is the most enduring representative of this species. Nephrolepis is a very beautiful ornamental plant with leaves of deep green color of dark and light shades. The colors of the leaves completely depend on the lighting and on the ground in the flowerpot.
How to care for indoor fern? The main thing - do not pour and overfeed the plant. In addition, there are still some features: you need to know what the fern likes, and from what it starts to hurt and dry. Basically there are no difficulties, just need to follow the rules set forth in this article. In the end, get a beautiful plant with luxurious green leaves.
Indoor flowers. Ferns: Care and Atmosphere
Ferns are considered unpretentious plants, but still there are some conditions, without which they will not please the eyes with their green beauty.
Take, for example, their forest counterparts: in natural conditions, ferns feel great without regular watering, without spraying, and without fertilizers applied according to the norms and at the right time.
At the same time, their relatives in the room, even with the observance of all the rules, with timely replanting and cutting can wither right before our eyes. What is the cause of the death of the plant?
In order not to wither the fern room, care at home must comply with all the rules. In addition, the florist must take into account the fact that the fern is an accurate indicator of the atmosphere in the house or apartment. If the air in the room is dry, gassed or smoky, the handsome green will start to ache.
Thus, you will have an excellent adviser in the form of a fern: by its appearance you can determine that the atmosphere in the house does not meet the standards and you need to look for the reason for this. There may be a gas leak - call the gas workers and make sure that everything is in order. There may be a shortage of fresh air in the kitchen - install the hood.
Maybe the air is too dry, very low humidity - buy a humidifier. As a result, you will provide yourself a normal life, and plants.
What place to put?
In order for a room fern to grow and develop normally, care at home must be correct. Think carefully about where to plant the plant. Nephrolepis can tolerate shadow, but it also needs light, though not direct, but slightly diffused and not in large quantities. Therefore, it is better to put it in the corner opposite the window. At the same time he needs to provide fresh air.
It is necessary to take into account another feature of plant growth. Nephrolepis grows quite large, its beautiful leaves grow to the sides and upwards. Based on this, the place on the window sill is definitely not enough for him. The leaves will rest against the glass window and deform, the shape of the plant will be ugly.
Soil for ferns
To find out what kind of soil is needed for a room fern, it suffices to recall what kind of soil in the forest. The land there is very loose, with rotted leaves or needles, with remnants of peat. This is the basis needed for nephrolepis, then it will feel comfortable, like at home.
When filling a flower pot, remember that the land mixture for fern must be with high acidity, with the addition of forest leaf land. Add more sand and humus there, make sure that the soil is free flowing water, was loose.
If water in the flowerpot will stagnate, then the roots of the fern will immediately begin to rot, the plant will get sick. Signs of this are brownish spots on the leaves. Sometimes it is very difficult to understand the reason for the dropping of a room fern. Leaves dry and become covered with brown spots even when the soil is drying out.
You just need to do everything according to the norms, water the plant on time, but do not overdo it.
Finding out that the fern can die without fresh air, you need to take measures to prevent such a sad ending. To do this, you must regularly spray the bushes room ferns.
To carry out such a procedure is necessary often, with an eye on what kind of atmosphere prevails in the room.
If the air is too dry, it is necessary to spray nephrolepis every day, if the atmosphere is normal, then it is recommended to do it two or three times within seven days.
Fertilizer for handsome green
If, when planting a fern, the soil was prepared according to the rules with all the necessary additives, then it is often not necessary to feed the plant. It will be enough twice a month to feed, so that it will continue to please the rich and bright green color of its leaves.
For these purposes, a solution of mineral fertilizers of weak consistency is used. In addition, suitable organic fertilizers, such as mullein infusion. Only using organic matter, you can overdo it and overfeed the fern, this can not be allowed.
The easiest way to buy ready-made mineral potash fertilizers, which are sold in every flower shop. On the package there is an instruction. In accordance with it, fertilize the fern in spring and summer.
As a result, thanks to the efforts of a careful grower, nephrolepis will delight you with the beauty of green leaves!
Room fern: features of care and cultivation
Fern (Polypodiophyta) - one of the oldest representatives of the plant world, growing on our planet millions of years ago.
In total there are more than 10 thousand varieties of ferns belonging to 300 genera and united by one department.
The plants are resistant to different weather conditions, but not so many varieties are suitable for home breeding - polypodium and pelley, fern nephrolepis, platicerium and adiantum, some others.
Features of the plant
Ferns - one of the most ancient plants of our planet.
Ferns grow in different climates and environments - in meadows and marshes, in forests, even in trees. But most of all they are common in the tropics. And it is tropical species that have taken root in home gardening. There are also resistant to frost. Their gardeners are happy to grow their home gardens.
All types of ferns consist of two parts: the roots and openwork, feathery, arc-curved leaves, called wyai. Most plants have pinnately dissected leaf plates, but there are species with solid sheets of various shapes and sizes.
Ferns are mysterious and mysterious plants that are mentioned in many legends. According to one of them, the fern blooms once a year - on the night of Ivan Kupala. Despite the legend, the plant does not appear flowers, do not form fruits and seeds. Fern breeds spores, like mushrooms, mosses and algae.
The fern has a characteristic feature: the plant is very hardy in nature, but it can not survive at home even with proper care and the creation of optimal conditions of detention. Plants are indicators of clean air: when released into a polluted and dusty atmosphere, the leaves of a fern fade quickly, it dies.
The fern cleans the air and has healing properties, helps with bleeding, eczema, boils, but at the same time, the rhizome of the fern is poisonous, and you need to prepare decoctions, strictly following the recipe.
There are not so many species of ferns grown at home.
- Maidenhair. The plant with thin, but strong stems and graceful vayya loves heat, shade and moisture. Adiantum is better to grow in winter gardens and terrariums than at home. The names of Adiantum varieties are radi, tender, small-haired, lady's hair.
- Asplenium. Loves shade and humid air. Houses breed several varieties of asplenium, which in appearance are completely different from each other. It is an asplenium nested and onion-bearing, viviparous.
- Nephrolepis. The plant loves space and does not tolerate neighborhoods. Vayi nefrolepisa strongly dissected, which creates a unique openwork effect. The most common cultivated variety nefrolepis sublime, care for which at home is quite simple. Nephrolepis propagates too simply - by dividing a large bush or shoots-siblings.
- Blehnum (aka derbyanka). The crown of the plant reaches a diameter of about 1 m, and the hard fronds look like a palm tree. The most common types - blekhnum hunchy and Brazilian.
- Davallia Plant with a very thick rhizome. Because of this feature, he was given the popular name hare or squirrel paws.
- Platicerium (aka plateau). The presence of large, showy leaves divided into lobes, externally similar to deer horns, is characteristic of the plateau.
- Dysconia. A small young plant in adulthood can reach 3 m, suitable for spacious interiors.
- Pelley Pelley loves dry habitats, which distinguishes it from other species. The most common varieties of pellets round leaf and green.
- Polypodium (aka millipede). The plant with strongly dissected leaves has two features: a rhizome crawling along the surface and the ability to grow in places with dry air.
A large plant looks very impressive in hanging pots and on stands, and its beautiful feathery leaves are used for decorating bouquets and flower arrangements - the fern restores pretty quickly the plucked waii.
Room fern usually grows normally and feels good without additional fertilizing.But the fact that the leaves of the flower turned pale and became small indicates a lack of nutrients in the soil.
The need for feedings often occurs in the phase of active growth - in late spring and summer. Flower can be fertilized with liquid complex mineral fertilizers, for example, with a solution, which contains in 1 liter:
- potassium salt - 1 g,
- superphosphate - 1.5 g,
- ammonium nitrate - 1.5 g
Organic material for fern is used with great care - it can cause a burn. Some growers periodically add tea leaves to the pot or pour it with weakly brewed tea.
The fern plant is fast-growing, and therefore at a young age it is transplanted every year. Adult specimens recommend replanting every 2-3 years. Fern transplantation is carried out in the spring.
In order not to cause harm to the plant, it is advised to transplant it into a larger pot by the method of transshipment. During transplantation, the base of the rosette of leaves cannot be dredged into the ground.
Land from the roots of the indoor flower is not cleaned, so as not to damage the fragile roots. The exception is the disease of the indoor flower, in which you need to detect damaged roots and remove them.
The fern painfully perceives the transplant procedure, and its recovery can last several months.
For fern transplantation, you can buy a ready-made soil substrate with an acidic medium in the store or prepare the soil yourself. For this you need to take:
- leaf land - 1 part,
- humus - 1 part,
- peat - 1 part,
- bone meal - 1/5 part.
You can use another primer containing:
- 3 parts of sheet soil and peat,
- 2 pieces of turf land,
- 1 part of humus and sand,
- 1/2 cup ash
- a handful of sphagnum moss.
Secrets of success
Pollinator is absolutely not picky about lighting conditions, it can grow in highly shaded areas under artificial light. Air temperature is needed at room, uniform throughout the year, without sudden drops, not lower than + 13 ° С. An important factor is humidity, it is useful to spray leaves every day with soft water at room temperature. You can also put the pot on a wet-pebble pan or purchase a humidifier. Watering requires regular, almost daily. It is important to ensure that the water in the pot does not stagnate, and drain the excess from the pan. Fertilizers are applied in the spring and summer once a month, in half concentration. Fern must be protected from drafts.
Types of room ferns
To date Many cultivated fern species are cultivated. at home. The most popular of them include:
- Nephrolepis is the most unpretentious and well-known type of home fern. It has a spectacular rosette, which is formed by openwork leaves with spores on the inside. The length of each sheet reaches 45-50 cm.
- Davallia or hare's foot is distinguished by reddish shaggy rhizomes that hang over the edges of hanging pots. Exotic plant is covered with lush green leaves.
- Platicerium is a plant, the flat leaves of which grow in different directions and are very similar to deer horns. Its middle with brown leaves resembles a head of cabbage.
- Asplenium or Kostenets differs from other fern species by undivided, wavy leaves along the edge. He does not like when his leaves touch.
- Blehnum or derbyanka its structure is like a palm tree. In an adult plant, the crown reaches one meter in diameter and consists of rigid waia.
- Dysconia as a houseplant can only be grown at a young age. Over time, it grows into a tall tree, whose height can reach up to 3–6 m.
- A polypodium or millipede is distinguished by deeply dissected leaves located on thin stems. The rhizome of the plant creeps and clings to the surface, and the bush itself is able to grow in the air.
Watering and humidity
When caring for ferns at home is required to observe a certain mode of watering. The plant needs a large amount of water. Water it required regularlyas soon as the top layer of soil dries out. The optimal irrigation mode depends on the air temperature in the room. In the hot season, the plant is watered several times a week.
Long overdrying of soil is detrimental to ferns. You should know that a flower that has been in a dry earthen mixture for several days will not recover after watering.
Excess moisture to the roots of the plant is also harmful. That is why the ferns are planted in well-drained soil, so that excess moisture immediately drained. For watering shrubs it is recommended to use soft water at room temperature.. It is desirable that it be boiled or separated for several days.
Ferns are very fond of high humidity. They respond well to daily spraying. In hot weather and in areas with batteries included the plant must be sprayed several times a day or use a special humidifier. Also, shrubs are encouraged to periodically arrange a shower.
If during active growth the plant does not receive the necessary nutrients, the color of its leaves will first become very pale, then they will begin to turn yellow and dry.. Therefore, once a week at home, the bushes should be fed with special complex liquid fertilizers.
From late October to mid-February, an indoor plant needs to triple its rest period. If at this time the fern is kept in a cool room, then it will be necessary not only to stop feeding, but also to reduce by half the watering.
Caring for ferns in room conditions includes the annual transplant of young plants. Adult plants are transplanted only after the roots have completely filled the pot..
The difficulty lies in the fact that shrubs painfully tolerate the transplant procedure and can be restored after it within a few months. therefore It is recommended to use the handling method, replanting a plant from one pot to another without clearing the roots from the ground.
The best period for a transplant is spring. For fern you need to pick a wide, low pot and soil with acidity level from 5.0 to 6.6 pH. For self-preparation of the earth mixture will need to mix:
- peat - 1 part,
- humus - 1 part,
- leaf ground - 1 part,
- bone meal - 1/5 part.
At the bottom of the pot, which should be 5 cm more than the previous one, the drainage is poured first, then the moss spreads, and the substrate is poured. The plant is planted, and its roots fall asleep earth mixture so that between them there were no voids.
Immediately after planting and for another two weeks, the plant requires abundant watering.
Possible problems with the care of ferns
If plant create the necessary conditions and take care of him in compliance with all the rules, then there should be no problems with growing. However, under room conditions, shrubs may be affected by some pests:
- Aphids, thrips and scale insects may appear on the plant if there is dry air in the room. Therefore, when caring for a fern requires frequent spraying. If, however, insects appear, the plant is treated with special chemicals.
- Nematode affects shrubs that are watered with cold water with lots of chlorine. Plants affected by this insect turn yellow and dry leaves. Shrub urgently needs to be transplanted into fresh soil, having previously treated the plant with insecticides. But this procedure fern can not help.
When growing a fern in unsuitable conditions for it, it can react by yellowing and drying leaves. The main causes of leaf drying are recommended to study:
- Watering with cold water.
- Watering with water with a high content of chlorine.
- Growing plants in a too cold room.
- Exposure to direct sunlight.
- High temperature and too dry air in the room.
It should be noted that brown dots located on the underside of fern leaves are spores of a plant, which some growers consider to be pests.
Choosing as a houseplant fern, you will not regret it. These wonderful shrubs live great and grow in different conditions.. And with proper care, they look colorful and beautiful, decorating the room and recalling the forest.
1. Multi-row (Polystichum)
One of the most beautiful ferns. Genus of ferns of the family Shchitovnikovye (Dryopteridaceae). Used for planting in rock gardens, decorating shady places under the canopy of trees. Decorative fronds can be used in arrangements. Grow in wet, coniferous-deciduous forests along the slopes of the banks of rivers and ravines.
Care and maintenance
- rest period: moderate
- period of active growth: abundantly
- rest period: 13-16 ° С
- active growth period: 16-24 ° С
- a mixture of turf and leaf soil, sand in a ratio of 1: 2: 1
- in spring and summer 1 time a week with mineral and organic fertilizers, in a dormant period without top dressing
Pests, diseases, problems
The whitefly, springtail, thrips, shchitovka, aphid, root rot, the leaves turn yellow, dry out and fall off, the brown tips of the leaves.
Davallia is a genus of perennial fast-growing, exotic-looking ferns of the Davalliaceae family (Davalliaceae). The natural area of distribution is predominantly in tropical Asia, is found in China, Japan, Polynesia and on the island of Java, on the Canary Islands.
Some species are widely distributed in culture, cultivated indoors, usually in greenhouses, often as ampelous plants.
The popular name of this fern is “hare's feet”, or “reindeer leg”, which is usually called the most popular type in decorative floriculture - Davallia Canarian.
3. Nephrolepis (Nephrolepis)
Nephrolepis is a genus of ferns of the Lomariopsis family, but in some classifications it is included in the Davallia family.
The name of the genus is derived from the Greek words nephros - “kidney” and lepis - “scales”, in the form of a bristle. About 30 species of herbaceous perennials distributed throughout the globe.
Some species are used as pot plants, as well as ampelous plants.
6. Platicerium Oleniy horn (Platycerium)
The Platicerium, or “Oleniy horn”, or Plaskorogorne, a genus of ferns of the family Millipede (Polypodiaceae), numbers about 17–18 species distributed in the tropical forests of the Old World. Many members of the genus are popular in indoor and greenhouse floriculture, as well as widely represented in botanical gardens.
9. Centipede (Polypodium)
The centipede is a genus of ferns of the family Centipede (Polypodiaceae), includes, according to various estimates, 75-100 species.
Centipede, or Sweet fern (Polypodium vulgare) inhabits the forest zone, mountain forest, subalpine and mountain-tundra belts of the temperate part of the northern hemisphere and in some places of the temperate belt of the southern hemisphere.
It is found in rock crevices and on stones, often mossy. Rare. The only epiphytic fern growing in the climate of Central Russia.
Epiphytes are plants that live not on the ground, but on trees (in the south), on the stone walls of houses, especially in humid areas, such as the islands of the Baltic Sea, the island of Valaam, etc. The plant is winter hardy.
Low-growing evergreen fern with leathery, palmately complex leaves up to 20 cm long. Rhizome creeping, covered with golden-brown scales, has a sweetish taste, thanks to which it received the popular name “sweet root”.
Sori arranged in two rows along the central vein, initially they are golden, darker later. Spores ripen in the first half of summer. The plant is original, but quite capricious. It can be recommended for cultivation only near water bodies, in a place protected from cold winds, in partial shade.
It propagates easily - rhizome segments.Transplanted in spring (May), quickly take root.
If it is wrong to care for a fern at home, it is sick, more often it is affected by pests.
- Nematode. It affects indoor ferns when watering with cold water containing a lot of chlorine. The leaves of the plant become yellow, dry. The only way to save it is to transplant it into a new pot, after having been treated with insecticides. But the treatment is not always successful, in some cases the decorative fern dies.
- Shchitovka, thrips, aphid. The fern, which is contained in a room with excessively dry air, is attacked more often by a flower. Prevent the defeat of the flower will help frequent spraying, periodic warm shower. If the pests appear, the plant is treated with insecticides.
Diseases and pests for ferns are not the only problem. Flower growers who have a fern at home often face the problem of drying leaves. Domestic ferns are sensitive to inappropriate conditions of detention, which is manifested yellowed, dry wyai.
The reasons for drying out a lot of plants. It may be:
- low or, on the contrary, high (more than 25 ° С) air temperature,
- use for watering cold water
- watering with water containing a lot of chlorine,
- dry air, the presence of heaters near the indoor flower,
- direct sunlight (leaves fade first, then dry),
- growing in a cramped pot or nutrient deficiency in the soil (leaves turn pale and their tips turn yellow).
Fern leaves can darken and dry out due to drafts.
Where can one buy?
You can buy fern in greenhouses, specialized flower shops or on the Internet portals. The cost of a plant depends on its variety and size:
- Nephrolepis Boston and Aspleum nesting height of 25 cm - about 800 rubles,
- asplenic nest height 65 cm - 5 500 rubles,
- Nephrolepis elevated 40 cm high - 2 100 rubles,
- Nephrolepis Vital and Sonata - 3 200 rubles.
Fern perfectly decorates any interior. But it will look healthy and lush only in case of constant correct care and creation of suitable conditions. Only with good lighting, timely watering and frequent spraying the openwork waii of a flower will delight with its beauty and grace.
Fern indoor care at home, photo plants
This plant is considered one of the oldest. Archaeologists find the prints of its leaves on the ancient fossils and it is believed that it saw dinosaurs, caught the whole evolution of man.
A huge number of legends are connected with this bush, one of them has purely Slavic roots. They say that to see a flower on this plant on the night of Ivan Kupala is a real success. It's about fern.
Some mistakenly consider him only a forest dweller, but now there are a huge number of varieties that are easily amenable to home conditions.
Fern perfectly complement the interior of any home and add a little mysterious atmosphere.
Growing and caring for a fern at home is not difficult and all species subject to domestic breeding require the same rules of care. The most popular domesticated species is Nephrolepis.
It looks like a classic fern, unpretentious in the care and fits into the interior of any home. An interesting fact is that the fern can improve your health.
If the plant looks bad, but you are sure that you are properly caring for it. And nothing can harm him - pay attention to the environmental situation in the house.
This is usually the reason. For example, dirty air, dust and other unpleasant factors that spoil the health of not only the plant, but also man.
Therefore, looking at the state of the fern, you can make your life much better.
Ground selection and preparation
Soil required should be good to pass moisture and air. Here it is imperative to remember that in no case should the overmoistening of the soil be allowed.
This means that the water should not stagnate in the ground. Therefore, stop the selection on loose soil, and a drainage layer of expanded clay is usually laid on the bottom.
An increased level of acidity (from 5 to 6) is also welcome.
Avoid oversaturation of soil with needles or peat. The most important thing to know about caring for soil for a fern is he should not be too wet. If your fern leaves have brown or brown spots, be aware that waterlogging has just happened. If the spots are yellow - the soil is dry, this should not be allowed.
Pests and diseases (how to treat them)
The most popular diseases and pests affect the fern with one problem - improper watering. For example, leaves may turn yellow and dry or turn brown and brown and fall off. This is either due to insufficient watering (when yellowing) or vice versa due to too abundant watering (with brown spots).
In addition, if the soil is initially picked up incorrectly and water stagnates in it, nematodes can start inside. These are worms eating plants.
Upon detection, it is necessary to transplant the landing as quickly as possible and it is best to do it after being treated with a chemical (for example, Aktellik).
Spray chemical need not only the roots and soil, but the leaves, as the nematode can penetrate into them.
If, on the contrary, the air is too dry, pests such as aphids, scale insects or thrips can appear. It is also insect pests that suck the juice, and with it the life force from the plants.
If you saw them on the fern - you must also apply measures for their destruction with the help of chemicals. In this case, the popular "Karbofos" mentioned above "Aktellik" or "Aktara" will help.
Reproduction and transplanting
Again, because of its ancient age, ferns have a huge number of species of reproduction. For example, one of the most ancient is reproduction using spores. This is a very long and complex process, which not every professional can master. However, there are varieties that can multiply by dividing into shoots.
From some bushes peculiar antennae are pecked, on which a new bush appears. That is, if you have a desire to allocate a few more from an adult and a large fern, this will definitely not be a problem.
Inspection before purchase
Despite the fact that the purchase of ferns usually occurs in greenhouses, it is still necessary to inspect the plant. firstly, not really greenhouses are observed in all of the greenhouses, and secondly, you should be confident that you are gaining. It is important to pay attention to the inspection of the soil (it should not be dry, take a look, if there are any pests in it).
Give a detailed inspection of the leaves and shoots. Inspect both the outer and the lower part of the sheet, as they may be damaged from the invisible side.
If there are rudiments of defective spots, it is better to refuse to buy such a plant. Pay attention to the nearby landing, they should also look great.
What to do immediately after purchase
Check when the last watering took place, and if you brought a fern home and forgot to ask about it, look at the ground. If it is dry, water it. In addition, if there is a desire to transplant the landing, it is better to wait a bit. Give him some time for so-called acclimatization.
Fern must get used to the home conditions, get comfortable. Only then it is recommended to move it to another container. In case of transplanting, the pot should be 3-4 cm longer than the previous one. When moving a plant from one pot to another, the pot does not need to shake off the soil left on the roots.
If you recorded pests, remove the soil from the plant immediately and process it with a chemical. Completely change the soil, set aside the fern from healthy plants to avoid infection.
The most popular types and varieties
Due to the fact that the fern has existed for more than one million years, it has a huge number of relatives, more than a dozen species and varieties have been bred (there are about 20 thousand of them). However, for home breeding is not such a popular amount.
For example, the most popular type of home content is nephrolepis. It is also divided into several species, which by and large are different only in height. If you don’t have so many places, and you still want to get a fern, look at the variety aslenium (Kostenets).
These two varieties are probably the most popular ones that plant at home. However, do not think that there is no diversity - it is not. Two species are further divided into a certain number of groups that differ in height, leaf size, pattern on them. Because of this, the price varies. Usually, ferns are purchased in greenhouses, it is not so easy to find access to them in regular stores.
Room fern: peculiarities of courtship at all stages of growth (95 photos)
Fern - the oldest plant that caught the era of reptiles, was an eyewitness to the development of the inhabitants of our planet, and now successfully grows both in nature and in the room. The interest in the plant according to the views of gardeners is explained by the beauty of uneven leaves, simple supervision of home fern at home.
Currently, there are about 10 thousand types of ferns, although adherents of houseplants, naturally, have much less species.
On the windows of the house are the most undemanding and with all this charming plants.
The structure of indoor plants
Ferns are located among the lower plants, as a result they have the features of the oldest plants of the flora, and they have successfully mastered the criteria that have changed over so many years.
This specificity is indisputable when studying the structure of a fern. Foliage, or more precisely, fronds, represent the upper part of the flower and, for the most part, are distinguished by an interesting and repeatedly cut type.
Young, not blooming deciduous plates in plants elastically twisted into springs.
When growing, they bloom, darken and compacted. The roots of the plant are located underground.
Taking care of homemade ferns create a climate very similar to natural. This requires:
- ambient temperature
- moisture around the environment
- the presence of light
- frequency and size of hydration,
- the presence of fertilizers
The bulk of divorced ferns, as in the photo, immigrants from hot spots or subtropical areas of the planet. Although there are native inhabitants of zones with mild conditions. They must be protected from wind, sudden changes in temperature, hot sun.
Based on the specific type, it is necessary to set the optimum temperature. In the hot period, plants can be heated to 28-30 ° C.
But if this limit is higher, then how to look after a fern? The plant will need the usual shelter directly from the sun, and plenty of splashing in the hottest time.
A good solution would be a fern relocation in a warm time under the open sky.
Long before the onset of frosts, it is more expedient for the gardener to select a cold space for the plant under the roof. For some species, an average temperature of 17 ° C is suitable.
Although there are others for whom it is comfortable to stay at 14–16 ° C. The most optimal temperature of stay is + 10 ° C, in case the air gets colder, the rhizomes can overcool, it is unsafe in damp ground.
At home, taking care of a houseplant is not complicated, placing the pot on the east or south-west window.Here they are not threatened by sunburns, and the falling illumination is sufficient for intensive lifting and strengthening the decorative effect.
It should be remembered, such plants are adversely affected by air pollution, smog. As a result, the optimal location of the flower is not the smoker's room or the balcony located on a busy street with intense movement.
The frequency and intensity of irrigation varies based on the season. When an indoor flower grows up, it is watered more, a slowdown will raise a sign that it is less necessary to saturate the earth with water.
For them, harmful and too much, and insufficient moisture. The first option threatens thickening and acidification of the soil, lowering the saturation of breathing and feeding the plant. The plant becomes weak.
The lifelessness of the base leads to the death of foliage. Do not think that due to watering the plant will be restored.
How to take care of a plant that has lost all the top elements at home? Bring back to normal damaged by the heat of a flower can, understanding the details of the cycle of formation of ferns.
The plants now eliminate lifeless, as well as preserved greenish fronds, after which the pot is placed on a well-lit window.
With constant, although not very rich watering, the fern may soon be reborn. And the resilient greenish springs of fresh foliage formed above the base will be an indicator of recovery.
Excellent support plants can be using fertilizers with the connection of minerals. This procedure is carried out from mid-spring until the end of autumn.
Replanting home fern
The ideal period for replanting a indoor flower is early spring. Based on the type of plant, the process will have its own distinctive features.
To achieve the desired result, choose:
- optimal in volume pot, basket for epiphytic species,
- a lax, satisfying culture, not a heavy base.
Shopping centers sell harvested compounds, but for many plants it is necessary to take into account the demands of their own pet.
For example, for epiphytes, it is preferable to add significant particles of fallen wood, warmed rind, moss to the ground, while immigrants from hot countries prefer to add to the land the highest number of high-calorie elements.
Everybody knows the ethnic fables about the fern flower that brings wealth and fortune. To find such an amazing plant is possible only during one night of the year during its flowering.
Despite the fact that the fairy tale characters managed to find a wonderful flower, in reality it is impossible to make it!
Due to its structure, ferns do not bloom. How does their reproduction occur? It turns out that ferns have one of the oldest methods of obtaining embryos using spores.
At home, this method is quite complicated due to the long occurrence of plant embryos. When rare species appear, spore reproduction cannot be undone.
Methods for increasing the number of ferns. Some types are easily propagated by crushing underground parts. Others provide an increment on a specific mustache.
And some to accelerate the growth and provide their own offspring with more opportunities for survival, have become viviparous. Appear generated sockets straight on the fry. After the primordia grows, they are showered and rooted.