Milk mushrooms are one of the most beloved and widespread mushrooms among Russians, they are used in the preparation of many dishes or used as a separate dish in salted form. The most interesting thing is that in many other states and countries, Georgian are equated with grebes and are not considered edible.
To date, there are a considerable number of varieties of wetlands. One of these varieties is a false sink. They are called false because they look like ordinary and familiar milk mushrooms, but while growing inside the pulp of the fungus, there are uncharacteristic substances for simple feeding. It is because of the presence of these substances in the people, these mushrooms are called "false mushrooms".
You can distinguish them from the usual white weight, if you slightly press on its cap. When pressed, it is much softer than its "real" fellow, and if you press harder, then a few drops of milky liquid will seep out from under the cap. Also, false mushrooms can be recognized if they are cracked: in the crack, again, that same white liquid.
Despite the dubious name, false mushrooms are edible, although this fact remains in doubt. The fact is that from the usual mushrooms they are distinguished only by the white liquid substance contained in the pulp. If you eat such a mushroom, it will not lead either to death or to hallucinations, but it is possible that in the near future, a person who has eaten this mushroom will have to spend in the toilet. This white matter can cause severe vomiting and diarrhea. That is why such a delicacy is better to refuse, especially if a person has problems with the stomach.
The hat of this dressing is not just brown, but with a violet or blue tint. If you put a little pressure on this cap, it will turn out to be very soft and, probably, from the inside it will begin to ooze, as already mentioned, a light liquid with a weak coconut flavor. The size of the mushroom itself usually ranges from four to eight centimeters. The shape of the cap is usually flat, but sometimes it may be slightly concave inward. With the growth of the fungus on the leg, you can see the flesh of a reddish hue, emitting a faint aroma of coconut. When breaking the cap very quickly becomes dark or even black.
Where can I meet?
Before you go into the forest in search of mushrooms, be sure to study the pictorial photos of all kinds that can be found in your local forests, this simple procedure will save you from many troubles. It is worthwhile to carefully study and white false, because in appearance it is difficult to distinguish from the ordinary, but you can verify its authenticity in the same way - press the cap a little, if it is soft, and white juice starts to ooze out, it means you came across false weight. Such mushrooms grow, as a rule, in large “flocks”, one by one they are extremely rare. It is possible to meet false milk mushrooms in the impassable forest more often, and on the clearing. These mushrooms are unpretentious to the environment. You can only find such a mushroom in the fall.
Types of moorie
From a scientific point of view, it would be correct to call mushrooms, belonging to the genus Mlechnik (Lactarius), but, strangely enough, not all milt plants are considered to be “moths”, but they are called such by many representatives of the genus Russula. If you delve into the intricacies of botany, you can find out that the lacteals and russules are included in the common Russulaceae family (Russulaceae), although the former differ from the second ones by the presence of many hyphae - thick-walled vessels with milky juice.Both those and others are either edible or conditionally edible, so some of them with a similar appearance, growth pattern and the best taste qualities of the mushroom pickers were conveniently combined into a common group of milk mushrooms. Milk mushrooms often appear in the literature (especially Western) as “inedible”, but knowledgeable mushroom pickers and “mushroom hunters” claim that absolutely all these mushrooms become edible and very tasty after proper cooking. Despite the fact that there are no poisonous (false) twins in the crawlers and syroezhek, it is impossible to consider them absolutely safe: weakly toxic and having too unpleasant taste (odor) that if insufficiently treated can cause repeated vomiting and diarrhea can occur. Since these mushrooms are acquired “safe edibles” only after a long soaking and salting, all dishes (fried, boiled, canned) from far away are strongly recommended to cook only from salty mushrooms. Older specimens, which are much worse treatable and retain bitterness even after it, should not be collected at all.
The best taste characteristics of mushroom pickers, as a rule, are attributed to Gruzdyu present (Lactarius resimus), which is also commonly called white, raw or wet. It forms mycorrhiza with a birch and usually grows in large groups in the thickets of young birch trees, on the edges and glades of mixed and deciduous forests (pine-birch, birch) of Western Siberia, the Urals, the Volga region and Belarus. The fruiting season of this mushroom lasts from July / August to the end of September. In adulthood, it is quite easy to distinguish it from other fungi along a wide (up to 20 cm in diameter) funnel-shaped cap with pubescent edges tucked inside and white-cream plates in its lower part. The surface of the cap at this end is light - white or with a yellow tinge, and the mucous, often with parts of leaves or soil, the leg is short (maximum height 7 cm), cylindrical and hollow inside. As he grows older, the yellow or yellowish watery concentric circles are becoming more pronounced on the surface of his cap, and even very expressive rusty spots on very old specimens. The pulp of the fungus has a dense structure and a strong fruity odor; at the cut, it emits white caustic juice, which quickly turns into a sulfur-yellow color. Appearance of the present gruzdy is considered “the most correct” among all the mushrooms and according to the taste characteristics this particular mushroom is included in the I category of nutritional value. From the beginning of salting (after soaking for at least two days with rinsing and changing water every 3 to 4 hours) only the present can be eaten after 30 to 40 days, since in all other mushrooms the fermentation process lasts much longer ( 40 - 60 days).
The black and black (Lactarius necator), the yellow (Lactarius scrobiculatus), the aspen (Lactarius controversus) and the oak (Lactarius zonarius) also have good taste among the 2nd and 3rd categories. The places of growth of these mushrooms and their appearance, which, one way or another, differ from the “classical” characteristics of the present, can be judged by their names. A black bum (gypsy, nipper) has a short leg, a dark olive, almost black cap with a slightly pubescent wrapped edge and dirty greenish plates, and a dense grayish flesh, which gives off white milky juice on the cut and quickly turns brown. This fungus is found on the clearings and edges of coniferous and mixed forests, both near birch and spruce. The yellow weight looks more like other real ones: it forms mycorrhiza with birch, the pulp and milky juice of the fungus on the cut are similarly yellow, but its hat is already young and has an intense golden yellow color (sometimes with clearly visible concentric circles), and in cream.The noticeable salmon-orange color of the plates is also characteristic of aspen (poplar), but unlike yellow, it prefers to grow under aspens and poplars (less often under alder and willow), the color of the milky juice on the cut does not change and has a dirty-white sticky hat , often with slightly tucked (sometimes even with wavy) and slightly fringed (rather felt) edges. Oak mounds are usually found in oak and deciduous forests, on humus-enriched soils. It has a yellow-orange cap with concentric rings (for which he received the popular name "oak redberry") and yellowish-cream plates, on the fracture it gives off a very bitter milky juice, which is painted on contact with air in brown. Note: all these milk mushrooms before eating are highly recommended to soak and salt for at least 50 - 60 days. Among these mushrooms, black gruel has the best qualities in salting - it acquires a beautiful dark cherry color and maintains its density and excellent taste for three years.
Among the mushroom pickers, other milk mushrooms are less popular - “colored” (blue-blued, resinous-black, etc.), which do not have fringed rims on the cap (squeaky, peppermint) and do not emit any milky sap from the genus Syroezhka (dry, blackened , often plate, etc.). Many of them can be recognized externally by the characteristic dry, often velvety surface of the cap without an “edge” on the edge and the color change is not cut: in the blue, the flesh turns violet, in the pepper it is olive-green, and in the podgruzk at first it turns red and then quickly turns black etc. These mushrooms form mycorrhiza not only with birch, but also with pines, beeches, oaks, therefore they are found in deciduous and mixed forests. An exception is a dry load, it is white under load, which does not change color at a break and often prefers to grow in lowlands (holes and ravines) under old trees. Despite the fact that fungi that “suspiciously” change color on the cut, most mushroom pickers are suspicious, practical experience confirms that these mushrooms, after proper processing (salt for at least 2 months), become quite edible, although in a gastronomic sense may be inferior to those listed above.
Black gruzd belongs to the genus Mlechnikov, family Russula. Currently, there are about twenty different species of mushrooms, some classified as edible, others conditionally edible. Black gruel in foreign catalogs often refers to inedible mushrooms, in Russia it is long ago considered to be one of the most delicious mushrooms for pickling for a long time and is officially classified as a conditionally edible type.
The composition of the mushrooms is also worth special attention. First of all, it is a rather high-calorie product that contains a large amount of protein, even more than in chicken meat. The mushroom is also rich in vitamins of group B and, one of the few products of plant origin, which contains vitamin D, hence the universal love for this product from vegetarians and followers of a healthy lifestyle.
INTERESTING FACTS!Milkworms were popular during the times of Kievan Rus, as evidenced by some chronicle sources. Our ancestors accurately noticed that these fungus does not grow alone and called it a "pile" or "pile." And surprisingly, in our days, its popularity does not fall, for example, in Siberia I consider it the most useful of all kinds.
What does this tasty and healthy mushroom look like?
Leg - about six to eight centimeters in height and two to three centimeters in diameter, funnel-shaped cap, slightly torn up. The diameter of the cap is about fifteen centimeters. The color shades of the cap are found in the range from brown to dark olive. The color in the center is always darker in several tones from the color of the edges of the mushroom cap.Depending on the habitat and the type of forest, salmon heads may or may not have a sticky coating, it depends on the moisture level of the forest.
How to distinguish black gruzd from false gruzdya and svinushki
Unfortunately, it is very easy to confuse the black sala with his poisonous counterparts — the false salvo and the pig, which in recent years have been increasingly referred to as poisonous mushrooms, due to the ability to accumulate heavy metals.
In the pig, harmful substances were found that, if they enter the human body, lead to a significant decrease of red blood cells in the blood, which can provoke severe intoxication, or even death. The danger is that the manifestations of poisoning can occur not immediately, but after a few hours, and sometimes years after eating the fungus!
IMPORTANT! Be careful picking mushrooms! In recent years, there has been a trend of mimicry of poisonous species of mushrooms, which are becoming more and more like edible mushrooms. And such cases of poisoning "familiar to us mushrooms" are becoming more frequent!
You need to know a few simple nuances to be able to distinguish the black burden from the poisonous "imitators":
- A black weight usually grows straight.
- Black plunging plates attached to his leg evenly
- The plates are always light.
Now let us consider in more detail the differences between black and svinushka and false ones.
In the forest, often black milk mushrooms grow next to pigs and can be misleading for an inexperienced mushroom picker. There are details to consider both fungi, it can be noted that the pig has a larger cap, up to twenty centimeters in diameter, against an average of no more than fifteen centimeters of the cap of the hat. The shape and shades of the svushka's cap are also slightly different - the cap is first convex and then flat, with the edge wrapped inside. Color - yellow-brown, sometimes with an admixture of olive. The pulp of the fungus is light brown, darkens on the cut. Plates easily get off the cap. Leg up to nine centimeters, one color with a cap, and, as a rule, shifted sideways and narrowed downwards.
The difference between black vagdya from false and poisonous fellow
A hat with a diameter of four to twelve centimeters, dense and fleshy, sometimes with a tubercle, which is first bent on the edge and then lowered. The older the false fungus, the more “naked” its hat. The color ranges from crimson-red to dirty pink with a gray or brown tint. The plates are narrow, whitish, beige-pink or orange-ocher with age. The stem is dense, with time it becomes the hollow Pulp of a false mushroom yellowish with a reddish tinge.
Where grows black gruzd, fineness of search and transportation
The season of collecting black wetlands begins in August and lasts until the end of autumn. "Habitat" - meadows and edges in pine-birch and mixed forests, sometimes these mushrooms can also be found on the mountain slopes and abandoned country roads.
As mentioned earlier, black milk mushrooms grow in groups, so if you find one mushroom, then most likely, a whole nest lurked next to it, but despite its rather large size, masking in the pile of leaves is comparable to chameleon masking.
INTERESTING!Many experienced “hunters” on black wetlands rely on their scent when searching for them, asserting that a specific mixture of smells of mushrooms, fruits and pepper spices is inherent in this genus of mushrooms, which allows them to accurately determine their location.
It is better to collect milk mushrooms after a light rain and medium-sized, so they will be stored longer and the risk that the mushrooms have ripened and worms decreases.
It is necessary to carefully cut the mushroom, not to break and not to uproot it, so as not to damage the mycelium. The leg should be cut off near the ground.
Milk mushrooms belong to the genus Mlechnikov and their tissue structure is fragile and fragile, therefore it is necessary to put the mushrooms in such a way that the space between them remains.If the mildees are put tightly, they will surely be damaged.
Is it possible to grow black milk mushrooms at home?
Many gourmets would like to be able to grow black milk mushrooms industrially or at least at their dacha and theoretically this is possible. But almost too problematic.
Mud grows in close symbiosis with a tree, its mycelium located in its roots. In addition, milk "grows" to certain species of trees, so it is very difficult to grow them at home.
Preparation of black mushrooms before salting
Black mushrooms are very tasty and there are many recipes for their preparation. However, they all take a lot of time. And you need to start with the mandatory preparatory activities.
Mushrooms need to be very thoroughly washed, as they usually have a lot of earth and sand, which can pretty spoil the taste of any dish.
It is better to cut large mushrooms into several parts in order to completely eliminate bitterness during prolonged soaking. Small mushrooms can not be cut.
Milk juice has milky juice in the composition, so they should be soaked in lightly salted water for three days. Water needs to be changed every six to seven hours. Soaking dishes suitable for any, except galvanized and aluminum. Keep the mushroom container in a cool place.
Pickling black wetlands in a cold and hot way
There are two main ways of salting black sweets: cold and hot.
- Cold pickling - a long procedure, but culinary specialists resort to it more often, as it is considered that the taste of milk mushrooms during cold salting is more unique, resinous.
- Hot pickling much easier and less time, but the taste of mushrooms is not so bright.
Let us dwell on each of these recipes for black black milk in more detail.
We will need at the rate of 1 liter:
- - black milk 1.5 kg,
- - salt rock - 3-4 tbsp. l.,
- - a leaf of currant or cherry - 5-6 pcs.,
- - horseradish sheet - 5 pcs.,
- - bay leaf - 5-6 pcs.,
- - dill, umbrellas / dry - 4-6 pieces / 3-4 tsp.,
- - garlic - 2-3 cloves,
- - Black pepper - 1-2 tsp,
- - Pepper black sweet pea - 4-6 pcs.
Initially, milk mushrooms should be prepared for salting as mentioned above in the article. Three days later we get mushrooms. Each bed is rubbed with salt and placed in layers in a pan, alternating alternately with chopped horseradish and garlic. Lay the layers covered with gauze, lay out currant leaves or cherries and horseradish leaves on top. I set the pressure and keep the month in a cool place. It is important to monitor that the milk mushrooms are not moldy and regularly add brine. A month later, the mushrooms are spun into sterilized jars.
Hot salting - a minimum of time and effort
Ingredients for salting at the rate of 1 liter:
- - black milk 1.5 kg,
- - salt rock - 3-4 tbsp. l.,
- - a leaf of currant or cherry - 5-6 pcs.,
- - horseradish sheet - 5 pcs.,
- - bay leaf - 5-6 pcs.,
- - dill, umbrellas / dry - 4-6 pieces / 3-4 tsp.,
- - garlic - 2-3 cloves,
- - Black pepper - 1-2 tsp,
- - Pepper black sweet pea - 4-6 pcs.
Soak the mushrooms for at least three days. We get. Place in a saucepan, add water so that the mushrooms float freely and cook them over medium heat. As it boils, wait 20-30 minutes.
In another pan, prepare the pickle. Mix 1 liter of water, 2 tbsp. salt and set on fire. After boiling, add all the rest, except garlic, spices.
Boiled mushrooms from the first pan shift in boiling brine. Cook for 30 minutes. Turn off and let cool. Then add garlic, stir and remove to a cool place under the load for 10-15 days. In two weeks our salted crispy mushrooms are absolutely ready to eat.
Marinating Black Salmon
The most popular method of pickling is pickling in brine with garlic, vinegar, pepper and bay leaf, some cooks add more cloves.
The process is simple:
- Soak the mushrooms for at least three days. We shift in a saucepan and bring to a boil over the fire. Boil milk mushrooms should be at least 10 minutes. In the process of cooking regularly need to remove the foam from the mushrooms. After 10 minutes, recline on the city and rinse under running water.
- Cooking brine based on 1 kg of cargo. Ingredients (water 1 liter, 2 tbsp. L.salt, bay leaf, horseradish, pepper) mix, bring to a boil and cook for 15 minutes.
- We spread garlic, dill, currant leaves on the bottom of sterilized jars, then put mushrooms on top, pour marinade and add 1 tsp. 9% vinegar for 1 jar.
- Cover with lids, cover with a warm blanket and allow to cool completely. Store marinated black milk mushrooms better in a cool, dark place.
Fried black milk mushrooms
How to fry mushroom delicacy?
Frying black wetlands is not as popular as their salting, but also has a right to exist. For this method of cooking black salads, it is best to use only caps.
Soak the mushrooms for three days. Boil twice in boiling water for 5 minutes, change the water each time.
We throw the mushrooms in a colander and let them cool and drain excess water. Then finely chop and simmer under the lid in a pan without adding oil for 10 minutes.
Juice, which was released in the process of stewing, must be drained, add vegetable oil, garlic and parsley to the pan and fry the milk mushrooms until golden brown.
Types of Edible Gruzdy
It is worth noting that there is an incredibly large variety of this type of mushroom. The most popular ones
- The size of the diameter of the cap of the fungus is on average 12 cm. It is characterized by a red-brown matte color, flat and convex in shape, which, over time, becomes fleshy and funnely.
- The hat of ripe mushrooms has a red-brown or dark red shade. Light circles are characteristic of some of the species.
- The pulp of the fungus has a pronounced aroma of resinous wood, rather thin. As for the emitted juice, it is plentiful, white color is peculiar to it, it is burning and caustic.
- The length of the mushroom stem is capable of reaching 10 cm, while the thickness does not exceed 2 cm. Young fruits have a whitish surface, and old ones are rusty-red or pink.
- Marsh view is considered to be lamellar. They grow on the ground abundantly and in a heap, forming into small groups. The fruit itself is incredibly fragile and breaks easily.
- This species occurs almost everywhere, but prefers lowlands and wet areas. The season of this species begins with the arrival of summer and ends with the November cold. It is worth noting that the peak of fetal growth occurs in August and September.
- The size of the diameter of the hat, as a rule, is 5 cm, the shape is prostrate, sometimes the hat can visually resemble a funnel. In its central part there is a sharp tubercle. Hat color can vary from a reddish to red-brown color.
- The leg of this species is rather thick, abundantly covered with down below. The color is identical to the tone of the cap, sometimes a little lighter.
- This type of fungus is among the plate. This species is characterized by wide plates, the color of which may be reddish-orange or whitish-pink.
- This species has a wide cap, in the form of a funnel. Leg rather dense, narrowed down and flat.
- Juice is plentiful, white and spicy in taste. Surprisingly, reacting with oxygen, it does not change in color.
- The diameter of the cap can vary from 6 to 30 cm. It is characterized by a flat, convex or slightly indented shape in its central part.
- The peel is painted in white tones or covered with a miniature spot of pink. Sometimes there are fruits, on the surfaces of the cap of which there is a small down.
- The flesh tastes spicy, gives a little fruit to the smell, the color is white and easily broken.
- The foot can be up to 8 cm long, strong and painted in pink or white.
Useful and harmful properties of white and black mushrooms
Most people are aware of the existence of either edible or poisonous mushrooms. However, it is worth paying your attention to the fact that there are also conditionally edible types of them. Black milk mushrooms belong to this category.
Of course, experienced mushroom pickers own this information. As for newbies, then for them it can be a real discovery. But what does the concept of conditionally edible mean? This concept implies that poisons are part of the fungus, so in this case it is important to properly prepare it.
If, for example, it is easy to fry it in a frying pan, then this poison will not go anywhere and will not be transformed into something safe. The result is that a person can be very poison, the outcome can be fatal.
Before cooking, black milk mushrooms should be thoroughly washed with running water, and then boiled for at least three consecutive hours. Only in this case, the poison will be neutralized.
As for white milk mushrooms, it is capable of causing not only good, but also harm to the human body. In this case, everything will depend only on the human factor, how well this mushroom will be cooked.
Places of growth and collection
There are forests where a large number of various mushrooms grow, and in the other there are only poisonous ones. Therefore, the correct choice of forest - this is the key to success in this case. If you are planning to poison for the woodlands in the forest, then you should be guided by the following recommendations:
- In a good area in the air is a peculiar smell of mushrooms. Where you want to stay on the search, as a rule, there is a moist aroma and mushroom smell.
- Try to give preference to wet forests, or go for mushrooms early in the morning, when the dew fell.
- Near each tree should grow low grass. Note that in the high grass mushrooms are extremely rare.
- The forest should be middle-aged, not young or old. This is due to the fact that mushrooms have not yet appeared in young forests, and the old ones are already overgrown.
If you already go in search, then the following should be taken into account: this type of mushroom grows, as a rule, in lowlands because it does not like dry soil. If in the forest in which you are going, the soil is dry or sandy, then we tell you right away that it is a waste of time, there will be no mushrooms.
Now let's talk about the time framewhen you need to pick these mushrooms. It all depends on their type:
- If you like black mushroom, then it should be collected from July until September.
- Pepper and yellow tea are recommended to be collected from mid-July until the end of August.
- The blue look appears, as a rule, during the whole of August.
- It is advisable to look for aspen or oak trees starting from the end of July until September.
Of course, the above terms are conditional. During the harvest, remember that the forest should be abundantly wetted, otherwise you will not be able to harvest a good harvest.
In addition, you should pay attention to the local vegetation. If horsetail grows on the ground, then there is no mushroom. Horsetail is a plant that indicates that the soil is acidic in the forest. But gruzd such a ground oh how does not love.
Distinctive signs of poisonous mushrooms
Gruzdyam allocated honorable first place among edible mushrooms. No experienced mushroom picker will pass a glade with these mushrooms, since it has a bright and nutritious taste.
Unfortunately, a false squeaky mushroom, which has distinctive features, is quite common. In addition, the papillary can enter the basket to the mushroom picker. It can cause serious poisoning.
Let's look at the main distinguishing features of false mushrooms:
- The edible mushroom pulp is exclusively white.
- This edible grudge emits copious amounts of milky juice.
- Edible mushroom plates are painted white with yellow edges. The edges themselves are rather loose and wide. If you find a false mushroom, then it is characterized by thick, rigid and dense plates that have an unnatural appearance. In most cases, thanks to the plates, it is possible to distinguish the poisonous mushroom from the edible mushroom.
- The caps of edible mushrooms are quite dense and moist. May be cream or white. As a rule, they are abundantly covered with mucus, dirt and sprigs.
- The appearance of the edible mushroom has such characteristic features: the hat is convex and wrapped around the edges. Over time, the shape of the cap begins to transform. The edges begin to rise, forming the shape of a funnel in the central part.
The mush is a mushroomwhich possesses quite a large number of false twins. But most of them are conditionally edible, because according to certain characteristics they are similar to the present.
Poisonous mushrooms similar to milk mushrooms
The white sapod is very similar to the white one, which has a gray-pink color. It is forbidden to eat it, as it is among the deadly fungi for the human body.
The diameter of the cap of this fungus can reach up to 12 cm, it is relatively dense, fleshy, flat prostrate or convex in the form of a funnel. At the very beginning, the cap of the mushroom has folded edges, which, over time, are abundantly covered with numerous numerous scales, dry and fall. When the fungus begins to age, the hat becomes bare, acquires a pink-brown, pink or red hue, and after drying on the cap vague spots are formed.
The leg of the mlechnik is rather dense, its length can reach up to 8 cm, and its width is up to 4 cm. It has a cylindrical shape. The pulp of the fungus is yellow with reddish tint colors. At the bottom of the leg has a reddish-brown color. This poisonous mushroom grows from mid-July to mid-October.
Mushroom, which in its appearance is very similar to.
- In the common people this mushroom is called moth. Visually, waves are very similar to milk mushrooms.
- The cap has the shape of a funnel, the diameter of which can reach 9 cm.
- The cap has a curved bottom edge. Young fruits are white, after a while, they begin to acquire a yellowish tint.
- Mushroom is among the edible, belongs to 3 categories.
Features of moorie
The false balance of the present is determined on the basis of external qualities:
- round top with a compressed center up to 20 cm, always wet, slimy,
- funnel top shape,
- color white, yellowish,
- there are brown spots,
- white or yellowish plates. The plates determine the quality of the fungus,
- the flesh is white, firm and fleshy,
- sharpness in taste and smell
- a lot of milky juice, missing only in dry.
False ship is different from the present appearance
Difference from a creak
It is difficult to distinguish a white grudge from a false squeegee even by an experienced specialist.
Skripun is edible, similar to white, but the taste is different. It also has useful properties. The main differences:
- it is called squeak because of the special squeak when used,
- there are false later real
- the worms contain only white, they do not start at the squeak,
- plates less fleshy, light and thinner in white.
Difference from dry
False black gruzd is popularly called “noggin”, “dry” or “chameleon”.
He has a different color: from greenish to dark, brown. Cellular juice is absent. Features dry:
- needs a well-lit place
- inhabits mixed and birch forests
- the cap is mucous, lighter than the leg,
- the fossa at the apex is deeper.
Difference from gorchaka
White grudge from the false is different and the place of growth. Gorchak is found in the North in the forests. It grows in well-humid places in large groups.
The top is up to 8 cm in diameter. The cap is flat, in young organisms it is convex, in mature it becomes funnel-shaped. The plates are pale, yellow and red, with a touch. Leg up to 8 cm. Cellular juice bitter. The taste is sharp and bitter, because this mushroom is only salted. It refers to conditionally edible.
Difference from the pig
Svushka is a poisonous type, its poisoning is fatal. Symptoms appear after a few hours.
The difference between this mushroom and the svushka at the top. The cap of the pig has its own characteristics:
- size - up to 20 cm,
- the edges are directed inward
- covered with fine hairs
- color olive, brown, yellow.
The squirrel's brown flesh, at the site of the incision, it darkens. Leg up to 9 cm., Directed sideways. Narrows to the soil. The collection is made from mid-summer to mid-autumn.
The false weight is larger, its leg is brown. It accumulates a large amount of heavy metals.
There are false varieties of this.
Difference from spruce
Difference from spruce in pulp. It is more elastic, white, smells like flour, the taste is unleavened. The plates of the false fungus are white, then become yellow or blue.
The leg at ryadovki reaches a height of 10 cm, width - 2 cm. It is smooth, white. Rowing is edible, used to prepare many dishes.
It grows in coniferous forests from late summer until the first cold. Groups are small. Rarely going. The size of the top reaches 10 cm. Sticky, gray color. In the center is darker than at the edges.
Difference from whitefish
Volnushki moths grow in the Center, in the North, West, also in the Urals. Harvesting begins from the first days of August to mid-autumn. One of the differences - the appearance of the top. A whitefish has a cap up to 6 cm in diameter, velvety, white with red spots.
The main difference in the pulp, in this mushroom, it is always white. At volushushka it is pink. The size of the top of the moth is smaller, has lowered bare edges. Only salted, previously carefully prepared.
Difference from the crab
Mlechnik like white gruzd. This is a poisonous variety, its use leads to death. The cap is up to 12 cm. It is fleshy, convex and funnel-shaped.
The edges are first folded and lowered with age. Old milky red or pink. The leg is 8 cm long, 4 cm wide. It occurs from the middle of summer to the beginning of autumn.
Each species of fungus has features in place of growth, soil, light and humidity. Mushroom grows:
- in the middle-aged forest. In the young they still do not have time to appear, and in the old they are overgrown,
- grass near trees should be low, high yields are less common,
- collected after the rain in the morning with dew,
- there is a mushroom smell in the places of growth.
- black is collected in the middle of summer and until the beginning of autumn,
- going bluish throughout August
- oak and aspen is collected from the last days of July until the beginning of autumn,
- yellow and pepper are collected from July until the end of summer.
All terms are conditional. Climate and soil when harvesting should be wet.
Surprisingly, mycologists call these mushrooms inedible not because of the content of any poisons in them, as in the case of the pale toadstool, but solely because of unsuitable taste qualities! Painfully bitter they taste, and this bitterness is not destroyed by urination - salting and other cooking wisdom.
Look at photo 1.
Here it is in front of you, very similar to milk mushrooms, golden yellow crab. He is capable of confusing an inexperienced mushroom picker from June to October. Almost odorless, but the taste is extremely unpleasant: bitter. If you cut such mushrooms, the milky juice will quickly change color from white to golden yellow. It is impossible to take their bast basket, mushrooms are false.
These mushrooms are very similar to mushrooms. Look at photo 2, deceivers in front of you. Eating such mushrooms is not worth it - tasteless. Experts consider them unsuitable for food, but in some sources they are considered conditionally edible mushrooms of the second category. If health is dear to you, do not apply the notion of conditionally edible in practice. After all, even conditional poisoning is still possible.
It is definitely not possible to distinguish clearly defined “false” (that is, completely inedible or poisonous), but when collecting and cooking it is especially careful to refer to the pepper campus (Lactarius piperatus), the violin (Lactarius vellereus) and the camphor (Lactarius church) . The pepper weights and the violin look very similar to the dry weights (white podruzhdok) - they have creamy-white, dry funnel-shaped caps without a folded edge at the edge, but they are distinguished by higher legs and a rich milky juice that is colored by pepper pepper, bluish or olive. -green, and the violin after drying - in a red-brown shade. A characteristic burning pepper taste, which disappears only after a thorough soaking, is characteristic of pepper pepper, and mushroom pickers easily determine the creaking by the creaking that occurs when the edge of its cap is held with a wet knife or tooth. It is very similar to peppermint and is found in mixed woods (parchment) (Lactarius pergamenus), but its flesh is not so sharp, the cap turns yellow and has a slightly wrinkled surface, and the milky sap does not change color. Theoretically, these milk mushrooms are conditionally edible, but many mushroom pickers and authors are recognized as inedible because of too unpleasant taste and more rigid (compared to other weights) pulp in salty form. Although some lovers, by the way, pepper fungus is successfully dried, they make up seasoning powder and use it instead of regular pepper.
The camphor (papillary, lactic camphor) mily was given this name due to its characteristic odor, the intensity of which weakens in adulthood and is replaced by the aroma of mature coconut. The danger of this fungus is that it accumulates too much muscarinic substances, which, even after processing, can persist and cause poisoning if they enter the esophagus. Externally, this fungus should be identified by a brown (from light shade to dark with a purple tint) cap and a yellow-cream plate. The shape of the cap at the camphor is often flat with a depressed center, and on the cut of the stem in the center the flesh is clearly visible in red, from which the characteristic odor emanates. The flesh of the cap after the break quickly becomes dark, but the milky juice does not change the color in the air. One of the surest ways to determine camphor mushroom is to press a finger on the surface of the cap, after which a brown with a rich golden brown shade usually appears. Despite the fact that camphor mushroom is also considered conditionally edible, it is difficult to determine at home the level of its toxicity (depending on the mass of the fungus and its age), therefore it is better to refrain from collecting it at all. Note: unlike the more “tasty” varieties (real, black, yellow), the milk mushrooms are camphor, pepper and squeaky much less often (only in the most lean years) are wormy, which can also be taken into account to determine their “edibility” during “quiet” hunting.
Milk mushrooms are ideal for mushroom pickers with aging: you need to look carefully for these mushrooms, looking under the leaves of last year, pine needles and moss, soak them thoroughly and salt for a long time. According to those who know “mushroom eaters,” any cooking of milk mushrooms without prior salting is only a “product transfer”, so those who want to appreciate the taste sung in the literature will still have to learn to savor the anticipation and wait for the time needed for fermentation (40 - 60 days). Proper processing usually eliminates the need to look for “false signs” in these mushrooms during a “quiet hunt”, but if you are confused by something in them (smell, color on the break, complete absence of pests even on neighboring specimens, age of the fungus, etc. .), better not take chances and refuse them in time.
Judging by the photo 3, this mlechnik is not very similar to the mushroom gruzd. Not only does it seem inconspicuous, but the smell is repulsive - bright. False mushrooms smell like lovable, only in very high concentration. The description of the smell in other sources is compared with chicory or camphor. And the bitterness is notable, like all inedible mushrooms. Do not take, be careful.
Very unsightly, the milky juice has pink. Looking at photo 4, you understand that you don’t want to take such a mushroom in the basket. And rightly so, it is inedible.
- Remember! Inedible mushrooms never reach the size of edible.
- They have a cap diameter up to 11-14 cm, and a real mushroom can grow into a small plate, which you will not put in a basket.
We met our enemies, now let's talk about friends, who can be safely called native Russian food that adorns any meal.
Edible representatives are also different. And in color, and in size. Look at the photo, that's how many of them, edible mushrooms! So I want to wander through the woods, but to collect a full basket. We will not describe the types of edible mushrooms in detail; we suggest that you carefully look at them and remember well. And in the season - to collect, salt, treat friends.
The real, safe
On 1 picture - real grub. The same classic that the kings respected. They say that in the old days other mushrooms were not collected at all, only these ones recognized. The real weight can reach 20 cm in diameter in the size of the cap, although this is not the limit among other edible weights.
It looks like real milk, white mushroom or raw, as it is called. Snow-white handsome, grows sporadically. If you find it, you won't leave without a glorious harvest. Akin to the present and white fungus - yellow and dry milk mushrooms. View them in the pictures.
Especially it is necessary to note the pepper pepper. Surprisingly caustic, so many consider it inedible. However, the people of pepper pepper learned to use differently - they collect pepper pepper, dried, and then use it as a spicy spice. Crushed pepper will easily replace black pepper for cooking. We do not think that you knew about it. Salt gruzd pepper can, but very "an amateur." Hurt spicy food is obtained. The description of mycologists considers pepper mushroom to be conditionally edible mushrooms.
Black milk mushrooms are not much inferior to white brethren. Despite the greenish-black color, they look attractive and smell wonderful. Collect them boldly, and eat with pleasure.
How to collect and distinguish the mushrooms, we found out. Now we learn how to salt them.
You came out of the woods
And went home with an enviable harvest. Now the main thing - to properly process and pickle mushrooms. Begin any cooking only after the mushrooms have been sorted out. Remove all wormy, old and badly broken mushrooms. Clean the caps from the needles and sticky foliage. Be especially careful of the feet - there should be no land on them. It is the small particles of the earth that may contain Clostridium botulism. You can simply cut
legs and do not use them for food.
The second stage of preparation for salting is maceration. Take for this a large container, where you can put the entire harvest. Lay the mushrooms carefully and cover with cold water. In order for the milk mushrooms to be soaked, slightly press them with the yoke. If you have picked black mushrooms, add a little vinegar to the water for soaking. After soaking in your hands will be smooth mushrooms dark cherry color.
Original Russian recipes say that you need to soak the mushrooms for at least 3 days. Argue and we will not. There are several rules that tell how to soak the milk mushrooms properly:
Water in mushrooms must be changed at least 3 times a day.
It is very important to know how to pickle mushrooms. There are two ways - cold and hot.
If you decide to make cold pickling, accept the fact that the fragrant treat will appear on the table only after 2 months. Anything eaten before causes poisoning.
For salting, use an oak barrel, glass jars, special packages for salting.
Norm salt: 40 grams per kilogram of mushrooms.
Spices, cherry and oak leaves, garlic can be put between the layers, but you can not use it. Strong odors of additives interrupt the mushroom flavor. Spread the mushrooms in layers of 3-5 cm and sprinkle them evenly with salt. Last should be a layer of salt. Description of the various options for additives and spices to salted mushrooms, you can easily find in any cookbook.
Next, you should come up with an oppression for your mushrooms. It is not necessary to do the beating too heavy, it is enough to have a 3-liter can with water placed on a wooden circle. You can use a small stone instead of a can. Instead of a wooden circle, you can use a large plate. Under the yoke must necessarily lie a clean cloth napkin. If this was not found in the house, you can use gauze.
The principle of salting is the same, but it has its advantages. There are hot-salted mushrooms in two weeks!
Distinguished hot salting method of pre-boiling. After you have washed the soaked mushrooms, boil them in salted water for 20 minutes. Cool it down. Then you will do everything the same way as in the first method.
Attention ! Store ready-salted mushrooms for more than 3 months is impossible! Eating such foods causes poisoning.
If poisoning has occurred
Poisoning with pickled mushrooms has symptoms of acute enteritis or enterocolitis. Typical symptoms are severe nausea and vomiting, and loose stools. Adverse symptoms - hyperthermia, general weakness, dizziness.
If the patient is not helped, the symptoms of poisoning increase, a pattern of dehydration develops.
What to do at home to alleviate the condition of the patient?
First of all, wash the stomach. This can be done with the traditional “restaurant” method until clean wash water is obtained. Add some salt to the drinking water - washing will be more efficient. When symptoms of vomiting and nausea subside, give the patient any laxative. If this is not in the house, use regular vegetable oil.
Symptoms of intoxication - chills, weakness are eliminated gradually. The patient needs bed rest and hunger in the first 6-7 hours after poisoning. Drink should be plentiful.
Too hope for your strength is not worth it. Even if you have provided assistance correctly, you still need to contact the doctors. And do it immediately, as the patient felt unwell.
And only then wash the stomach, water laxatives, etc. Only a doctor is able to assess the severity of the patient's condition, and decide the issue of outpatient or inpatient treatment.
In conclusion, let us recall the mistakes that I can bring you to the hospital bed:
- Collect mushrooms that are unknown to you.
- Bad cleaning of mushrooms.
- Incorrect salting.
- Storage over 3 months.
As you can see, we do not offer you anything that is impossible. Therefore, collect, salt, and eat mushrooms with pleasure! And do not forget about accuracy.
How to distinguish white mushrooms from bitter and false: video, photo and the main differences of edible mushrooms
For the seasoned mushroom picker, the question of how the mug differs from a crepane will not be the cause of prolonged reflection.He is well aware of all the differences that allow to eliminate the risk of falling into the basket of inedible and dangerous in terms of poisoning instances.
We offer you to learn how to distinguish between white and gorchaka, creaks, waves, and other mushrooms that have an external similarity. The page contains comparative characteristics and complete descriptions of similar species of fungi.
Be sure to look at how to distinguish white milk mushrooms from false ones in the photo, where all the typical signs are illustrated. This will help you feel more confident during a “quiet hunt” in the forest. Collect mushrooms very carefully.
Recently, cases of poisoning by eating seemingly familiar types of mushrooms have become frequent. In fact, there is an active mimicry and poisonous mushrooms become very similar to edible in appearance.
The cap is round, usually concave inward, funnel-shaped, white or yellowish in color, with large rust stains, moist, slightly fluffy, with a large fringe around the edges. The plates are white, yellowish.
The flesh is white, dense, juicy, thick, produces a bitter milky juice, especially when it is broken. Leg short, white, hollow inside. They are referred to as “lamellar” mushrooms, in which the lower part of the caps consists of delicate plates.
Next, we consider the main differences from the number of mushrooms from a number of similar in appearance mushrooms.
It grows in birch and mixed forests with an admixture of birch. It is quite rare, but sometimes in large groups, from July to October.
The cap is large, up to 20 cm in diameter, in young mushrooms white, rounded convex, then funnel-shaped, with a shaggy edge tucked down, white or slightly yellowish, often with slightly noticeable watery concentric stripes.
In wet weather, it is mucous, for which this mushroom is called "raw weight". The flesh is white, dense, fragile, with a spicy smell.
The milky juice is white, pungent, bitter in taste, becomes sulfur-yellow in the air.
The plates are descending on the leg, white or cream, with a yellowish edge, wide, rare. Leg short, thick, naked, white, sometimes with yellowish spots, in mature mushrooms inside is hollow. Conditionally edible, first category. Used for pickling, less often for marinating. Salty mushrooms have a bluish tint.
What is the difference between white and black?
Grows in coniferous and deciduous forests. It occurs singly and in groups from July to October, and sometimes in November. The cap is up to 20 cm in diameter, almost flat, with a depression in the middle and a wrapped edge.
Later, the cap becomes funnel-shaped with straightened edges. The surface is slightly sticky, olive-brown, lighter to the edge. The first thing that distinguishes white from black is the color of the exterior.
The plates are dirty-whitish, later with brownish spots. When pressed darken.
Leg short, thick, solid at first, then hollow. The flesh is dense, white or greyish-white, with abundant white caustic milky juice, darkens on a break. Black mushrooms are good for pickling.
Thoroughly washed and soaked, they lose their bitterness, their flesh becomes crispy, dense. In salting the cap acquires a beautiful dark purple-cherry color. Milk black in salting for years do not lose strength and taste.
Conditionally edible, third category.
The difference between white podgazdka and loading
Hat podgruzdy more concave than the present load, less fluffy. For young people, the edges of the cap are also wrapped inside, but not completely lowered. Hat and rare white plates. The flesh is white, with a fracture stands out a bitter milky juice. Dry surface and white color are the distinctive features of this mushroom.
Grows from late July to late autumn. The main difference between podgruzdka white from lingering in that it is found in coniferous, deciduous and mixed forests of the northern part of the forest zone. It grows from July to October.
A white undercoat head - with a diameter of up to 20 cm - is first flat-convex with a curved edge and a depression in the middle, then funnel-shaped with a straightening edge, pure white, sometimes with brownish-yellow spots (burns). Leg up to 5 cm long, flat, solid at first, then hollow, white.
The flesh is white, does not change at the fracture, the flesh is moist in the cap tissue, and in the plates - acrid. The plates are descending, narrow, clean, to the outer edge, sometimes forked, forked, white.
Usually this mushroom is salted. Salty podgruzdok becomes slightly brownish color. In many places, white podgruzdki called the "dry masks" in contrast to the real mundane, whose cap is usually a little mucous. White podgruzdki differ from the pile of these and other signs.
The edges of the cap are not scalded, the flesh does not contain milky juice. Conditionally edible, the second category, used salted and pickled. In the northern half of the forest zone, there is another type of loading - the loading is black.
Hat up to 15 cm in diameter, flat-convex with a depression in the middle and with a wrapped edge, later funnel-shaped, bare, slightly sticky, from dirty gray to dark brown color.
The flesh is white or grayish-white, without a milky juice.
The plates are frequent grayish-dirty color, with pressure blacken. For the dark color of the cap, the mushroom is sometimes called the “grain”, and for the fragile flesh - the “raw material of the black”. These mushrooms are often wormy.
His plates are very caustic. For salting it must be boiled. In salted and boiled form - dark brown color. Conditionally edible, the third category, is used only for salk. Salty mushrooms turn black.
Look at the difference between milk mushrooms and loads in the photo, where the main differences are shown.
What is the difference between milk mushrooms and wind
It grows from the end of August to the first frosts, mostly alone in birch forests and mixed forests, mainly in the northern part of the forest zone.
A hat with a diameter of up to 12 cm, at first flat with a hole in the center and with a curled edge, later funnel-shaped, fibrous, furry along the edge, woolly.
Let's see what is the difference between the milk mushrooms and the windmills and how to differentiate them in the field.
In wet weather, the bonnet in the center is sticky, pink or yellowish-pink, with pronounced dark concentric zones. The plates are adherent or descending, thin, white or slightly pinkish. Leg up to 6 cm, diameter up to 2 cm, cylindrical, hollow, one-color with a cap.
The flesh is friable, fragile, white or pinkish, with white burning-caustic milky juice. Volnushka is used for salting. It is salted only after thorough soaking and boiling, otherwise the mushrooms can cause severe irritation of the gastric mucosa. It is best to pick up young fungi, up to 3-4 cm.
Their hat is strong, with a edge wrapped deep inside. Such small waves are called “curl”. When salted, it has a pale brown color with an admixture of pink and retains pronounced dark zones.
In the northwestern and central regions of the country and in the Urals, usually on the edges of young birch forests from early August to October, one can find a white (white) cloud. It is in many ways similar to the pink rose, but smaller than it.
The cap with a diameter of up to 6 cm is fluffy-silky, first convex, later funnel-shaped, white with yellowish-reddish, as if blurred spots, with a folded hairy edge. White milky juice is spicy, sometimes bitter. The plates are pale fawn, slightly pinkish, adherent or descending, frequent, narrow. Leg dense, fragile, short, smooth.
The flesh is white or slightly pinkish. Whitefish is sometimes confused with white. But the last cap is much larger, and on the edge of the naked or slightly pubescent. It goes only to salting after pre-soaking in water or scalding with boiling water. The white butterfly is valued for its tender flesh and pleasant taste.
Salty light brownish. Mushroom conditionally edible, the second category.
Differences of the violin and loading
It is quite often found in coniferous and deciduous forests of the middle belt, in large groups, from mid-June to mid-September. Cap with a diameter of 20 cm, at first flat-convex, indented in the middle, with a curled edge. The difference between a crepand and a burrow is that the hat later becomes funnel-shaped with a wavy, often cracked edge.
The surface is dry, slightly pubescent, pure white, and later slightly ocher. The plates are rare, whitish or yellowish. Leg up to 6 cm, thick, somewhat narrowed at the base, solid, white. The flesh is coarse, dense, white, later yellowish, with abundant white burning-caustic milky juice. Collected mushrooms in a basket rub against each other and emit a characteristic creak.
For this they were called “violinists”, “creaks”. Mushroom pickers do not always take these mushrooms, although they are used for salting, becoming strong and acquire a mildew scent. The mushroom turns white with a bluish tinge and squeaks on the teeth. Mushroom conditionally edible, the fourth category. Used for sour and pickling.
Previously it needs to be soaked and boiled to remove bitterness.
How to distinguish between white and gorchaka
You need to know how to distinguish between white and mountain bitches, because it is found everywhere, but mainly in the northern half of the forest zone. Prefers a few wet forests. It grows usually in large groups.
The cap is up to 8 cm in diameter, initially flat-convex, then funnel-shaped, usually with a tubercle in the middle, dry, silky, red-brown. The plates are descending or adherent, frequent, pale reddish-yellowish, usually with a white bloom from spores.
Leg up to 8 cm long, flat, cylindrical, first solid, then hollow, light reddish-brown, with white felt at the base. The flesh is thick, first white, then slightly red-brown, without any special smell. The milky juice is white and very pungent; it is not for nothing that the mushroom was called bitter.
Because of the very bitter, pungent taste, mushrooms are only salted, boiled beforehand and only then salted. Salty mushrooms are dark brown in color, with a noticeable sharp tubercle on the cap. Mushroom conditionally edible, the fourth category.
Differences between black and swine
Swine, genus of agaric mushrooms. The difference between a pig and a grunt is that it has a cap up to 20 cm in diameter, initially convex, then flat, funnel-shaped, with a wrap-in edge, velvety, yellow-brown, sometimes with an olive tinge.
The flesh is light brown, darkening on the cut. The plates are nibbered, connected at the bottom by transverse veins, easily separated from the cap. Leg length up to 9 cm, central or shifted to the side, narrowed downwards, of the same color with the cap.
Mushroom grows in forests of various types, in large groups, from July to October, can form mycorrhiza.
It is imperative to know the difference between black and swine, because in recent years the pig is referred to as poisonous fungi (can cause poisoning, even with death). It found substances that lead to a decrease in red blood cells.
Moreover, the manifestation of poisoning depends on the individual characteristics of the human body and can occur both a few hours later, and a few years after eating these mushrooms. The fat pig differs in larger sizes, dark brown velvety leg. Forms mycorrhiza or settles on wood.
Conditionally edible. Svishki have the ability to accumulate harmful compounds of heavy metals.
What is the difference between boarder and spruce?
It grows on sandy soil in coniferous, mostly pine forests from August to autumn frosts, singly and in small groups. It is distributed everywhere, but it is quite rare.
The cap is up to 10 cm in diameter, fibrous, mucous-sticky, flat-convex at first, then half-spread, from light gray to dark gray, often with a yellowish or purple tinge, darker in the center than on the edge, with radial dark stripes .
The most important thing that differs from the fir tree is that its flesh is not fragile, white, does not turn yellow in the air, with a faint smell of flour, it has a fresh taste.
The plates are white, then light yellow or bluish-grayish, rare, wide. Leg up to 10 cm in length and up to 2 cm in thickness, flat, white, then yellowish or grayish, fibrous, sits deep in the soil.
Mushroom edible, fourth category. Used boiled, fried, salted and marinated.
Differences between loading white and winding white
In the northwestern and central regions of the country and in the Urals, usually on the edges of young birch forests from early August to October, one can find a white (white) cloud. It is in many ways similar to the pink rose, but smaller than it.
The difference between white and white flowers is as follows: a cap with a diameter of up to 6 cm is fluffy-silky, at first convex, later funnel-shaped, white with yellowish-reddish, as if blurred spots, with a folded hairy edge.
White milky juice is spicy, sometimes bitter. The plates are pale fawn, slightly pinkish, adherent or descending, frequent, narrow. Leg dense, fragile, short, smooth. The difference between gruzdey and volnushki is that their flesh is always white, and not slightly pinkish.
Whitefish is sometimes confused with white. But the last cap is much larger, and on the edge of the naked or slightly pubescent. It goes only to salting after pre-soaking in water or scalding with boiling water. The white butterfly is valued for its tender flesh and pleasant taste.
Salty light brownish.
What is the difference between a false weight and a real one?
The first thing that distinguishes a false milk from a real one is a hat with a diameter of 4-12 cm, densely tuberous, convex or flat-spreading to funnel-shaped, sometimes with a tubercle, first with a bent, and later with a lowered edge, dry, silky-fibrous, finely flaked, with age almost naked, ocher-meat-reddish, ocher-dirty-pinkish-gray or pinkish-brownish, when dried up with vague spots. The plates are descending, narrow, thin, whitish, later pinkish-cream and orange-ocher. Leg 4–8 × 0.8–3.5 cm, cylindrical, dense, hollow over time, felt, hairy-felt, at the base, of a cap, lighter and powdery in the upper part. The flesh is yellowish with a reddish tinge, in the lower part of the leg is reddish-brownish, sweet, without a special smell (in a dried form with coumarin smell), the milky juice is watery, sweet or bitter, does not change color in the air. It grows in moist coniferous and deciduous forests. Fruit body forms in July - October. Poisonous mushroom.
See how to distinguish white from false in the video, where all the features are shown.
Mildew poisoning: symptoms, first aid, treatment, prevention
Among the huge number of mushrooms in Russia, milk mushrooms have always occupied a special place. Their special taste attracted a huge number of fans.
But most people do not even think about the fact that these mushrooms are conditionally poisonous. Therefore, let us analyze in this article whether it is possible to be poisoned by milkberries.
Among the false masses emit:
The first two species have creamy-colored dry sunken caps. You should pay attention to the fact that these types of fungi secrete a significant amount of milky juice.
Peppermint - its name speaks for itself, it has a burning pepper smell.
Violin can be distinguished by a characteristic creak when holding a sharp object on the mushroom cap.
Sodo camphor most often causes poisoning.This results from the fact that in it the huge amount of muscarinic substances collects. Initially, the camphor mud has a characteristic odor, which with the age of the fungus changes to coconut. If you press on the surface of the cap of such a mushroom, a dark golden-brown stain will appear.
Clinical picture of mildew poisoning
Mildew poisoning can manifest itself with various symptoms over time.
Regardless of the type of poisoning by these mushrooms, the main symptom is gastroenterocolitis. The difference will be only in the timing of the latent period:
- with a short latent period, it takes from 30 minutes to 2 hours from the time of eating mushrooms to the development of the clinical picture of poisoning,
- during a long latency period from two to 48–72 hours from the time the mushrooms are consumed.
There are cramps and abdominal pain, nausea, vomiting, intestinal colic and diarrhea. Everything is accompanied by the loss of water and salts and the development of a dehydration clinic and electrolyte disturbances.
Treatment with mildew poisoning
With a timely start, the treatment is not particularly difficult.
General principles of treatment for poisoning with these mushrooms:
- cessation of poison in the body,
- removal of poison from the body (washing the stomach and intestines, enterosorbents),
- symptomatic therapy (most often - antiemetics),
- forced diuresis method (infusion therapy and diuretic administration).
When the above symptoms appear, you must call the ambulance team. But before the arrival of a paramedic, you must:
- wash the stomach, after drinking more than 5 cups of saline solution (one tablespoon of salt for one liter of water), induce vomiting, pressing the tip of the spoon on the tongue root,
- if possible, drink a laxative (vaseline or linseed oil),
- go to bed, take cover with a warm blanket, warm the limbs,
- Constantly drink salt solutions or warm water.
It should be remembered that in any food poisoning it is strictly forbidden to eat food and alcohol. It is also not allowed to receive antipyretic and analgesic drugs. Since such measures can erase the clinical picture of poisoning and mislead the doctor.
It is best if an adult is with the injured person who can describe the cause of this condition and describe the manipulations carried out at the pre-medical stage.
After collecting anamnesis (survey) in the hospital poisoned wash the stomach. Depending on the level of consciousness, this manipulation can be carried out both independently and through a nasogastric tube. Gastric lavage is best done in the first two hours after the onset of clinical signs of poisoning. The dose of fluid for washing the stomach should be 8-10 liters (for an adult).
In addition to washing the stomach in the hospital, the intestines must be cleaned with an enema. It also needs to be done in the first two hours after the onset of signs of poisoning.
After such unpleasant manipulations, the doctor will prescribe drugs for the enterosorption to the patient:
- Activated carbon,
Laxative drugs are prescribed immediately after gastric lavage at a dosage of one gram per kilogram of oral weight. If vomiting occurs, the drug should be repeated after 30–40 minutes.
The next stage of treatment is - forced diuresis with diuretic drugs (Furosemide).
Ringer's solution or an isotonic solution of sodium chloride is injected intravenously in order to eliminate dehydration and prevent collapse (acute vascular insufficiency, accompanied by a drop in arterial and venous pressure). Also use drugs to increase blood pressure (Mezaton, Noradrenaline).
It should be remembered that only specialized medical care can prevent possible serious complications. And the lost time can be fatal for the patient.
Measures for the prevention of poisoning with milk sunshine
Not all people know that even true milk mushrooms under adverse environmental conditions can cause acute poisoning. When collecting mushrooms, you should pay attention to the presence of any industrial enterprises, highways, factories near.
Thus, in the collection and preparation of mushrooms should follow some simple rules:
- collect in the forest only when you are sure that you have a grunt in front of you (and be able to distinguish the real from the false),
- avoid places with a high concentration of toxic substances for collecting mushrooms (routes, industrial production),
- macerate for three days at least, changing the water every four hours,
- after soaking, milk need to boil and then salt.
Thus, under certain conditions, it is quite safe to enjoy the results of the mushroom harvest.
Is it possible to get poisoned with salty milk mushrooms? - No, if the mushrooms are properly collected and soaked before the ambassador. Enjoy your meal!
Is it possible to be poisoned by eating milk mushrooms
Milk mushrooms were the favorite mushroom of the inhabitants of Russia. They were collected in large quantities to pickle for the winter. However, in Europe, milk mushrooms are not so popular, they were called inedible.
Modern experts call these mushrooms conditionally edible, because in their raw state poisoning by these mushrooms is possible.
There are a lot of types of breasts, more than 20 types, but they are all inedible, if they are not soaked and processed.
White gruzd or gruzd present
But in our country they are very popular. If only because it is easy to collect a basket of gruzdy, they always grow in groups. The word gruzd is derived from Church Slavonic gruzie, which means a bunch. And the mushrooms themselves are not small, their caps grow to 20 cm.
Milk is also valued because there is a lot of protein in them, even more than in meat or chicken. And this protein is well absorbed. This is the only non-animal product that contains vitamin D. There are many other vitamins in them.
Milk mushrooms must be on the table of vegetarians or those who observe fasting. They are beneficial to the nervous system. If you regularly eat milk mushrooms, it is easier to tolerate stress, the likelihood of depression is reduced.
Where and when to collect
A bountiful harvest of these mushrooms is harvested from late July to September. They appear after the rain. They grow in deciduous and mixed forests. They are many in the birch grove, in the linden undergrowth, found in the oak, in the shade of trees. To see them is not just because they are hiding under foliage, so you should look for mounds of old leaves. These mushrooms grow only in groups.
Black mistress is recognized by the dark hat of black, olive color
Types of inedible gruzdey
There are no “false” mushrooms, after the use of which there will be signs of poisoning, and urgent medical help is required. If they are carefully processed, they are suitable for food, there will be no poisoning, no matter how much you eat (mushrooms are heavy food, you should not get carried away). Some species of salmon are advised to avoid, because they are tasteless, but there are also toxic.
- Pepper bum. It is creamy white. When the incision produces a thick milky juice, which under the influence of air changes color: it becomes olive green. It does not belong to edible mushrooms because of unpleasant taste. In addition, the pulp of this fungus, even after salting, is tough. Different from other mushrooms burning taste. But some mushroom pickers specially collect these milk mushrooms, dry and make seasoning powder, which is used instead of pepper.
Creamy white peppermint
Skripitsa. The fungus is white, but the cap may become yellowish or reddish-brown.Its flesh is white, has a sharp taste and a pleasant smell. Later becomes greenish-yellow. The white milky sap dries out and takes on a reddish tint. It got its name because of the characteristic squeak, which is heard after a wet knife touches its cap.
Skinitsa - white mushroom has a sharp taste and a pleasant smell.
A lot of camphor. This is the most dangerous mushroom from this family. Differs a special smell of camphor, which changes with time on the other, coconut. It is dangerous in that it contains muscarinic substances that do not disappear even after its processing. After how many hours do signs of poisoning appear? It is impossible to name the exact number, since the level of toxicity of the fungus is different, depending on the age and place of growth.
Sodo camphor - the most dangerous mushroom from this family
Theoretically, it can be eaten if properly exposed to high temperatures, but there is no guarantee that you will not go wrong. He has a brown cap, cream colored plates with a yellow tint.
When cut, the flesh is red, located in the center of the leg, which then darkens. To understand that this is a false mushroom is not difficult: put a finger on the cap. If a brown, brown stain appears, it is a camphor lactus.
It is better not to collect. Otherwise, you will need the help of a doctor.
Signs of poisoning
After how many hours do signs of gastroenteritis appear? If the latent period is short, then after half an hour or 2 hours, the symptoms of this disease are felt.
But it also happens that for their appearance takes time - from 48 to 72 hours. The symptoms of the disease are as follows: nausea, vomiting, stomach ache, diarrhea.
The danger is that dehydration can develop, so the help of a doctor is needed.
Nausea is one of the symptoms of breast milk poisoning.
Dehydration is indicated by pale, dry skin, a small amount of urine, low blood pressure. If a person is not helped, he may experience a severe stage of acute gastroenteritis: he is sore and dizzy, his consciousness becomes confused, he faints.
Mildew poisoning: signs, treatment, prevention
These mushrooms have always occupied a special place among the variety of species of mushrooms. Due to the unique taste they have gained a lot of fans. But it should be understood that these mushrooms are poisonous only conditionally, so everyone needs to know the varieties of mushrooms.
It is almost impossible to refuse culinary delights from these magnificent mushrooms, they are spicy, with a pronounced mushroom flavor and a crispy crust. But is it possible to be poisoned with milkberries? This possibility exists, and the disease is quite difficult - with weakness, abundant vomiting, fever, even mental disorders are possible.
Sesame - one of the most popular edible mushrooms
Everyone needs to know the benefits and harms of these magnificent mushrooms (which should be consumed, and which should be refrained from), as well as familiarize themselves with preventive and curative measures.
Causes and signs of poisoning
Poisoning occurs mainly due to improper collection and heat treatment. Be aware that not all types of mushrooms can be used for cooking. Before you start collecting mushrooms, you should learn to recognize them.
The following varieties are suitable for cooking:
- Mushrooms with a small leg and a cap of considerable diameter in the shape of a funnel are completely harmless. These mushrooms are also called “wet”, “white”, as well as “raw milk”. They are characterized by a sweetish taste and pleasant forest aroma.
- The taste is not inferior to the mushrooms of a greenish-black color, they are also called “black” milk mushrooms. They are very tasty and fragrant, despite the extraordinary appearance. For some gourmets, these mushrooms are delicacies.
- There are also false milk mushrooms: camphor, peppermint, an inedible mushroom-violin comes across.If the blade of the knife to put pressure on the mushroom, it makes a special sound, and the spring pepper has the aroma of hot pepper.
The first signs of poisoning are diarrhea, vomiting, nausea.
Mildew poisoning with mushrooms will not be fatal, but acute gastroenteritis may occur if the food is processed poorly before meals. In any case, you should contact your doctor for advice and assistance. The first signs can be seen within an hour or two. There are cases of symptoms in the period of two or three days.
The first signs include: diarrhea, stomach pain, vomiting and nausea. The help of the doctor is necessary, as there is dehydration, manifested in pallor of the skin, low pressure and a small volume of urine. With the onset of acute gastroenteritis, severe pain and dizziness, disturbances of consciousness and fainting occur.
Secrets of popularity
Black molds bear fruit very abundantly, which makes it possible to collect them almost in industrial quantities. At one time, the peasants could fill out carts with them and pickle whole barrels. In addition, on condition of proper preparation, milk mushrooms have remarkable taste qualities: they are spicy, crispy and slightly pointed.
Another rather pleasant feature of the black load is that it is never wormy: insect larvae do not like its caustic, sharp-smelling juice.
Where does this name come from?
Black milk mushrooms are the fungi of the genus Mlechnik belonging to the Syroezhkov family. In Russia, this mushroom is also called Chernysh, black nest box, chernushka and even pigtails. It is difficult to say for what reasons the fungus received the last of the nicknames listed, but all the others that somehow play up its color are quite understandable: over time, the cap of the mushroom becomes almost black.
Due to the characteristic appearance and properties, it is almost impossible to confuse this type of milk mushrooms with any other inedible or poisonous mushrooms, therefore even beginning mushroom pickers can collect them.
Mushrooms, similar to milk mushrooms, are piglets, differing from them in that they do not produce milky sap in the cut.
Like all the other grudge, black hat has a funnel-shaped form. In young black muzzles, the cap is brownish-olive in color, but as the fungus grows, it darkens until it turns black. On the bonnet one can distinguish concentric circles characteristic of all woods.
False class is one of the varieties of this family. It looks like a white fellow, but it has some characteristic differences: when pressing on the cap, droplets of milk juice are emitted from it, and white liquid appears when the leg of the fungus breaks.
False gruzd better not eat. It will not lead to death, but will cause severe diarrhea, vomiting and nausea.
Black Grudge: description of the mushroom
The surface of the cap is slippery. The feeling of a slightly damp bonnet is one of the distinguishing features of wetlands, which allows them to be distinguished from some other types of mushrooms, including inedible ones. The edges of the caps are slightly hammered downwards, they feel velvety to the touch and are always slightly lighter than the rest of the surface. The maximum diameter of the cap is 20 centimeters.
The plates, located below the cap, are white in young mushrooms, but eventually turn yellow. When you click on them on the surface formed brownish spots. The black leg is thick and becomes hollow as it grows. Its color is greenish-brown.
As for the pulp, it is white, slightly darkens at the break. The black mushroom mushroom produces a juice that tastes bitter and has a slightly resinous odor. It is the sharpness and bitterness of this juice that caused that in almost all countries except Russia, milk mushrooms are considered inedible or even poisonous mushrooms.
Where do black milk mushrooms grow? They form mycorrhiza, that is, a symbiosis, with the root system of birch trees, so you can find them in old birch forests or in mixed forests.Black mushrooms are not found in shady places, as they need quite a lot of sunlight and heat to grow.
It is not very easy to find black milk mushrooms: because of the color of the cap, their coloring becomes indistinguishable against the background of fallen brown leaves.
Mushrooms grow in large colonies. It is this peculiarity that determines the Russian name of the mushroom: the word “grudge” comes from the Old Slavic word “gordia”, that is, “pile” or “pile”. Under certain conditions (wet weather, frequent rain), the milk mushrooms can form bulky clusters.
Most often, black milk mushrooms are harvested at the end of summer and early autumn, although sometimes they can be found even in mid-July.
Edible or not?
Black mushrooms are called conditionally edible because of their bitter caustic milky juice. In order to get rid of it, milk mushrooms before salting must be soaked in water for two to three days. Black molds can also be frozen: this will increase their shelf life to one year, of course, subject to the temperature conditions.
Procurement for the future
Black mushrooms are stored for a very long time, even if they are not subjected to any kind of processing. Mushrooms do not lose their properties, do not dry out and do not become soft.
The only change that will occur during long-term storage is the change in color of the cap. It acquires a purple or reddish hue.
You should not be afraid of this: the changes in the food properties of the black skin have no effect.
The best way to store is salting
Mud is considered one of the main pickled mushrooms. Salt black milk mushrooms is quite simple, while the taste of the finished dish is simply excellent. All other methods of cooking black salads include the use of already salted mushrooms.
Very rarely, black milk mushrooms are used fresh. Examples include gruzdyanka - a special roast of milk mushrooms. Fresh mushrooms, added during frying to other edible mushrooms, will give the dish a sharp and savory, bright taste.
Black and white milk mushrooms used to salt in a large barrel, and the peculiar aroma of these wonderful mushrooms was mixed with the subtle smell of oak wood.
Salted milk mushrooms are one of the visiting cards of the national Russian cuisine. One has only to recall the famous pies with milk fruits, which were baked in Orthodox families during the days of fasting.
One of the advantages of using salvage in salting is that they do not require preliminary heat treatment, which greatly simplifies and speeds up the process.
The peculiarity of black walrus is that when salting they acquire a very pleasant dark cherry color. The mushroom begins to redden about the second day. Black mushrooms reach the highest palatability in two or three years after salting.
Unlike other types of blueberries, black after salting does not have the characteristic bitter-tart taste. Therefore, salted black milk mushrooms resemble other types of mushrooms in taste, differing only in their characteristic crunch.
How to look for black milk mushrooms and is there any risk of mixing them with poisonous mushrooms?
It is very difficult to confuse a black gruel with any other type of mushrooms. This is connected with the characteristic appearance, and with the characteristics of the growth of black wetlands.
Only beginning mushroom pickers can confuse a black weight with a row, but there is one significant difference between these two types of mushrooms.
Ryadovka forms a funnel on its cap only at a very solid age, while black milk mushrooms immediately appear with a cap of a regular funnel shape.
Sometimes it is possible to confuse a black boarder with a pig.
Eating a svushki is very dangerous, since it, while not being poisonous by itself, has the ability to accumulate toxic substances, including heavy metal salts.
How to distinguish black from svushki? To do this, break down the mushroom: the brownish-brown flesh of the svushka will quickly darken, and the black weight has white flesh, which will slightly turn yellow on the cut.
The only problem that may arise when searching for black wetlands is their low visibility among the grass and fallen leaves. It is convenient to use a stick when collecting black salads to slightly push apart the layers of leaves and grass. Complicated searches that require care and sometimes a lot of time make black milk mushrooms unpopular with mushroom pickers.
Sometimes you can find a black weight just by stepping on it. But in the event that under the foot there was a characteristic crunch, you should stop and look around: you can certainly find other black milk mushrooms around, because, as mentioned above, this mushroom grows in rather large groups.
It is best to take young mushrooms with less acrid smell and firm, dense flesh.
Black milk mushrooms are unloved by many mushroom pickers: they are difficult to find, and they do not have a characteristic “heavy” taste.
But for beginners lovers of quiet hunting, it is better not to think of anything: the search for black wetlands hiding in the foliage can be a very exciting job, and it is absolutely safe to gather these mushrooms.
After all, they do not have inedible and even more poisonous twins, and it is very difficult to make a mistake with the definition of black weights.
Dark brown hat, characteristic funnel shape and acrid tarry smell - it is simply impossible to confuse the black weight with anything else. Well, having put some efforts and having salted the forest catch, it will be possible to enjoy the amazing taste of salty crunchy poppy seeds throughout the winter.